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schools. They have no fund whatever, but oblige every district to raise, for the purposes of education, a sum proportioned to the number of its inhabitants or its property. If a town or district neglects to do this it is liable to a fine.
The following tabular view is taken from the Traveller and Monthly Gazetteer,' published at Philadelphia, June 1828. Newspapers published in the United States in the year 1775; ditto, in 1810; and newspapers and periodicals in 1828:
The great majority of these are weekly papers; some, however, are published twice and thrice a week; and in the large towns of Boston, New York, Albany, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and some other places, there are daily papers, one or more. New York has twelve daily papers, and Boston four.
In the city of New York there is one French paper, and one Spanish paper, published weekly.
In the state of Pennsylvania there are twenty-two weekly newspapers in the German language, and also several German news
papers in the state of Maryland. There are two German papers in Ohio. One daily French paper is published at New Orleans, Louisiana, besides one or two more in that language.
The Cherokee Indians (state of Georgia) have a newspaper printed in their own language, and also partly in a newly invented character.
The following extract, which we do not recommend as a model of style, contains something which is of much higher value than fine words—the results of certain experiments in education, which deserve the attention of all parents and teachers.
The New York Evangelist furnishes a report of the Manual Labour Academy of German Town, from which we extract the following passages:
The institution is in a prosperous condition. It now contains twenty-three pupils, and an accession of ten is expected at the opening of the new term. The main building has been altered so as to accommodate thirty-seven pupils, and a new workshop has been erected. The farm, also, during the last six months, has been under improvement. All the fences have been cleared of weeds and brambles; fifty loads of soil taken out from a principal drain ; about one acre of wild swamp land, flooded from an accumulation of soil on the margin of a brook, which runs through it, has been drained by several ditches, so as to afford a crop of buck wheat; four acres, at the north extremity of the farm, neglected for some years, have been fallowed, cleared, and sowed with wheat; and a half acre, contiguous to the barn, has been enclosed by thirty pannels of post and rail fence, and converted into a very productive culinary garden. The institution has three officers, a principal, an assistant teacher, and a farmer. The pupils who are now in the academy differ from each other in almost every particular; their ages vary from fifteen to twenty-eight years. One is from Massachusetts, two from New York, two from New Jersey, thirteen from this state, of whom nine are from the city. Seven of the pupils are beneficiaries, nine are supported by parents or guardians, and three are dependant on their own resources. With the exception of six of them, their constitutions are good. Three have been afflicted with intermittent fevers. But the complaints common to students— the effects of the studio-sedentary habit-do not exist among them. On the contrary, one, who entered sickly, has now health and strength; another, who was so indisposed as to be unfit for labour or study, is now capable of both; and a third, who had dyspeptic attacks from study, now prosecutes it with manual labour, and enjoys good health. Fifteen of the twenty-three have the ministry professedly in view. The studies of these pupils are the same as in other academies or seminaries; but the hours of recreation are not the hours of waste and idleness, and, as it is too often, of immorality. Four hours daily, at the least, have been employed in useful bodily labour by every student. And by the profits of this labour, they have not only more or less defrayed their own expenses of
education, but have established their health and increased their strength both of body and mind, and made them rejoice in both. Their skill has been called into exercise. They are becoming dexterous, as well as intelligent and moral. The head, the heart, and the hands, are all educated, and the pupils thereby fitted for the vicissitudes of life; particularly so, if any of them be destined for our new settlements as christian missionaries, and more particularly so, since now no parent, by patrimony or influence, can secure the destiny of his son amid the turnings and overturnings of nations, and families, and individuals. A complete education is the only sure rock.
Eighteen months ago, the plan of uniting academic studies with useful and systematic bodily labour, appeared to us as an impracticable scheme, unsanctioned by the example of old institutions of learning, and incompatible with a student's life. And now there are already ten manual labour institutions in operation throughout this country, and others about to be established. The facts which they afford demonstrate that this manual labour system-the same, indeed, which Franklin and such men personally adopted, and which was no novelty to the Persians, the Greeks, and to the Jewish people-which Paul at Corinth experienced the benefit of—is one which will also enable an entire community, and the world, to educate themselves. The health-preserving and life-saving labour of the hands, defrays the expenses of education. Youth of genius and piety, born in poverty, need far less the arm of charity to conduct them to public usefulness. Time and effort are almost all they require. Parents have less of the overreaching anxiety to accumulate means for the education of their sons: the muscles deposited in broad and numerous layers on their bones is a patrimony to each one of them for this object. And the day-labourers may be informed, that the same power which he expends in toil, is, in his boys, a receipted school-bill.'
From the American Annals of Education,' January 1831, we learn that similar establishments are forming in various parts of the United States; ten schools or academies of this class are in actual operation. Particular instances are mentioned in which the profits of the student's labour go far towards defraying their expenses, while their health is also improved, and their proficiency in their studies consequently accelerated.
In a climate like our own, so favourable to bodily exertion, such a plan as this modified according to circumstances would contribute most materially to the physical and moral improvement of all classes, and particularly of the wealthier, if they could be brought to adopt it.
JAMAICA ITINERATING LIBRARIES.-At the request of Mr. Samuel Brown, we publish the following extract from a letter of his on the subject of itinerating libraries :- In the " Journal of Education," No. II., the writer of a notice on the Itinerating Libraries, appears,
as well as some other friends, to have greatly mistaken the class of persons for whose use these libraries are principally sent,-viz., the white and free-coloured population of the island, who alone can be expected to pay for the use of the books. The disposition to read has been so much excited in one part of the island, that the gentleman to whose care one of the divisions has been sent, anticipates about forty annual subscribers of one and a half dollar. This would enable me to send a new division of fifty volumes next year, as the whole subscriptions and donations, after defraying the local expenses, will be employed for this purpose.'
DORPAT. There are at present 580 individuals engaged in study at this university; 437 being natives of the adjoining provinces of Livonia, Esthonia, and Courland, and the remainder, 143, being from other parts of Russia. They class as follows:-55 are students of divinity, 64 of jurisprudence, 252 of medicine, and 209 of the various branches of philosophy.-7th May.
GEORGIA. On this country becoming a Russian province in 1802, the government established a school at Tiflis, which, in 1804, was changed into a foundation for the education of the nobles, from which eight pupils were to be sent yearly to the University of Moscow, to complete their studies. In 1807 it was changed into a gymnasium of four classes, and the plan of instruction was modified by General Yermoloff in 1819, so as to comprise, instead of instruction in Latin and German, the Tartaric language, which is the prevailing tongue there. He also added some branches of military instruction. The establishment contained about 300 pupils during each year, but was still only a place of education for the Georgian nobility. But in May, 1830, the government established in the province, instead of this school, one gymnasium at Tiflis, and twenty district schools. To the gymnasium, which, at its opening, received 298 pupils, there are attached exhibitions or allowances from the state, to maintain 40 pupils, children of the nobles, officers, and functionaries.-Jahrbüch. Seebode.
THE UNIVERSITIES-Oxford.-In a Convocation holden on March 26, the following Public Examiners for the ensuing year were unanimously approved of:--In Literis Humanioribus-Rev. the Principal of New Inn Hall; Rev. R. D. Hampden, M.A., late Fellow of Oriel College; Rev. J. Carr, M.A., Fellow of Baliol College. In Disciplinis Mathematicis et Physicis-Rev. the Savilian Professor of Geometry; Rev. A. P. Saunders, M.A., Student of Christ Church; Rev. R. Walker, M.A., Tutor of Wadham College. April 13.-A Convocation was held for the admission of Proctors
for the ensuing year; viz. the Rev. D. Veysie, M.A., Student and Senior Censor of Christ Church, as Senior Proctor; and the Rev. R. M. White, M.A., Fellow of Magdalen College, as Junior Proctor. Mr. Veysie was presented by the Very Rev. the Dean of Christ Church, and nominated for his Pro-Proctors the Rev. J. Williams and Rev. A. Short, Masters of Arts of Christ Church. Mr. White was presented by Doctor Daubeny, Vice-President of Magdalen, and nominated as his Pro-Proctors the Rev. J. Linton and F. J. Parsons, Masters of Arts of Magdalen.
May 25.-This being the first day of Act Term, the Rev. H.D. Harington, M.A., Fellow of Exeter College, the Rev. R. Biscoe, M.A., Student of Christ Church, and the Rev. E. Higgins, M.A. of Brasennose College, were nominated Masters of the Schools for the year ensuing.
June 2.-The Chancellor's and Sir Roger Newdigate s prizes were adjudged as follows. Latin Verse― Numantia;' R. Palmer, Scholar of Trinity. English Essay- On the Use and Abuse of Theory;' C. P. Eden, B.A. of Öriel. Latin Essay-' Quænam fuerit Oratorum Atticorum apud Populum Auctoritas;' C. Wordsworth, B.A., Student of Christ Church. Sir Roger Newdigate's
prize for English Verse- The Suttees;' P. M. Ashworth, Commoner of Wadham.
June 9.-The judges of the Theological Prize having awarded it to B. Harrison, B.A., Student of Christ Church, the Essay was read before the University in the Divinity School.
The following subjects are proposed for the Chancellor's Prizes for the ensuing year:- For Latin Verse-' Attila.' For an English Essay The Study of different Languages, as it relates to the Philosophy of the Human Mind.' For a Latin Essay-' De Stoicorum Disciplina.' Sir Roger Newdigate's Prize English Verse -Staffa.'
Theological Prize.-On 'The fulness of Time' at which Christ appeared on Earth.
The names of those Candidates who are admitted by the Public Examiners into the four Classes of Discipline Mathematicæ et Physica, according to the alphabetical arrangement in each Class prescribed by the statute, stand as follow:-First Class-T. D. Ackland, Christ Church; C. Balston, Corpus Christi College; W. Boyd, University College; R. Browne, St. John's College; A. Perkins, Oriel College; T. Simcox, Wadham College. Second Class-G. Kempe, Exeter College; H. Randall, Queen's College; R. Wilson, Oriel College. Third Class-H. Moncrieff, New College; J. Richards, Corpus Christi College. Fourth Class-E. Goslen, Magdalen Hall; A. F. M'Geachy, Baliol College. Examiners-B. Powell, R. Walker, A. P. Saunders.
Cambridge, March 10.-The Chancellor's gold medals for the two best proficients in classical learning among the Commencing Bachelors of Arts were adjudged to J. Williams Blakesley, of Trinity College; and W. H. Hoare, of St. John's College.
At a congregation on March 9, a grace to the following effect unanimously passed the Senate:-