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stitution adopted in 1851, but when yet the vigor of his perfected manhood remained, engaged in practice, and after a prolonged effort in the defense of one charged with crime, was suddenly stricken, and quickly sank away.

Chew and McCullough each met death on the way and were conquered, but after the passing years had reminded them again and again of the uncertainty of life.

Oh, the passing years! How they have dealt with the men I knew in my youth, my young manhood! All these judges are of the number whose names have been carved in the passing years on the tomb. The passing years! The passing years!

The gentlemen enrolled as practitioners, resident of Richland county at the date above referred to, were Isaac J. Allen, Mordecai Bartley, Thomas W. Bartley, Jacob Brinkerhoff, Barnabas Burns, Charles H. Bryan, Wm. B. Bowman, Harvey Baldwin, Jno. W. Beekman, George F. Carpenter, William Cantwell, Henry P. Davis, Thomas H. Ford, George W. Geddes, Isaac Gass, Jacob Hornbeck, Patrick P. Hull, Joseph Hildreth, William Johnston, Samuel J. Kirkwood, Wm. Laughridge, Jno. M. May, Wm. McLaughlin, M. May, Jacob Parker, James Purdy, Wm. J. Richart, Charles T. Sherman, Jno. Sherman, Wm. Stevens, Robert C. Smith, Downing H. Young.

On this roll are two governors and one lieutenant governor of Ohio, and one governor of Iowa, two United States senators, two cabinet officers, two chief justices of Ohio, one justice of the supreme court of California, six members of the House of Representatives in the Congress of the United States, and one who, later in life, as editor of the leading newspaper in the capitol city of Ohio, acquired distinction, and thereafter represented the United States in the Orient, and one who for years sat on the federal bench in the northern district of Ohio.

At the time of which we write the senior members of the bar, senior in age, were Mordecai Bartley, Jacob Parker, Jno. M. May and James Purdy. Bartley hardly had distinction in the profession, and not at any time a large practice. He was in his day a merchant and a farmer, and as he advanced in age, he was to a moderate extent engaged in the practice of the profession of the law. He was born in Pennsylvania, served as a soldier in the war of 1812, and moved at an early day into Ohio. He was a dignified man in appearance, mild mannered in both action and speech, a gentleman of the old school and possessed in a marked degree, and deservedly so, the confidence, respect and love of his fellowmen.

Mordecai Bartley was even tempered, of good presence and fine form, of rugged integrity; not brilliant, but a patient worker for his fellow

men, and a devout lover of his country and its institutions. Possibly, in the early years, he was in advance of his immediate fellow-citizens in general information, and so was looked to as a helpful man, and as one who ought to be given official position and place; and in the 14th, 15th and 16th general assemblies of Ohio he was a State senator, representing Richland, Licking and Knox counties, in 1816, 1817 and 1818. He was elected to the House of Representatives in the Congress of the United States, and served in the 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st Congresses, eight years, from 1823 to 1831, in all. In these years giants represented Ohio at Washington. Let us look and name some of them: Joseph Vance, Duncan McArthur, Samuel F. Vinton, John C. Wright, Elisha Whittlesey, Humphrey H. Leavitt, Philemon Beecher, John Sloan. These and others like them from Ohio were the colleagues of Mordecai Bartley in the Congress of the United States.

In 1844 he was chosen by the people of Ohio to the exalted official position of governor of Ohio, and his service was in the years when the war with Mexico was waged; and the enlarged duties devolving on him by reason thereof were ably performed. This service as governor of the State closed his public career, but not his interest in public questions or in matters that concerned the prosperity of the State, or the good of the community in which he dwelt. He was in no sense an orator and could hardly be considered an advocate, but in him were elements of power.

What estimate may we make of this man, who for so many years was the most prominent and pronounced figure in the early history of the county? I may sum it up in a few words. He filled fully the description of Ulysses as given by Mentor to Telemachus: "He was gentle of speech, beneficent of mind, the most patient of men. He was the friend of truth. He says nothing that is false, but when it is necessary, he concedes what is true. His wisdom is a seal upon his lips, which is never broken save for an important purpose.” He was of average ability, larger acquirements than men generally in his day, absolute integrity and patient industry, striving ever and always to serve his day and generation, and this he did faithfully, ably and well. His life was pure, and his memory is cherished in the homes of the sons and daughters of the pioneers of Ohio, though years ago the stately old man passed away.

"Not stirring words, not gallant deeds alone.

Plain, patient work fulfilled that length of life;
Duty, not glory; service, not a throne.

Inspired his effort, set for him the strife.”

Jacob Parker was a good lawyer and a great judge. He served on the common pleas bench under the old constitution, when his circuit included the counties of Knox, Richland, Holmes, Medina and Wayne.

Neither Ashland nor Morrow were then known to the map, and practically he administered the law in that large circuit on a salary of $1,200 a year. Now the number of common pleas judges in the same territory are increased six or eight fold, and in these rural counties of Ohio population has not kept pace with the increased judicial provision made by the State. You will pardon the observation that the judiciary system of Ohio was not, in fact, improved by the constitution of 1851. Parker was born in New England and was the brother-in-law of Judge Charles R. Sherman, who was a justice of the supreme court of Ohio and died while on that bench, and three of whose sons are famous in the annals of Ohio, the judge, the general, and the senator.

Parker was an omnivorous reader of text-books and reports, and he read and digested them. He was very methodical, analytical, logical, using his knowledge with skill and ability. He knew the law. His intellect was keen; his apprehension and comprehension quick and perfect, and his industry and application marvelous.

All his life Parker was embarrassed with a hesitancy in speech, stammering over the s's and the hard c's and the harder k's and the busy b's, and this hesitancy sometimes delayed, but never defeated, the certainty or perspicuity of his judgments.

He was a genial, generous man, and especially was the generosity of his nature always manifested toward the younger and less equipped members of the bar, and he was ever a welcome visitor in the offices of his juniors. He loved the law and the investigation of questions for the sake of the intellectual acumen which came from the effort, but he was not averse to earning and obtaining good fees; and though he did much professional work for his brethren, not exacting fee or reward, he lacked not in desire or ability to use his earnings for his own enjoyment; and so he was a good liver and knew how to tickle his palate and gratify his stomach.

His residence in Mansfield, for all the years I knew him, was a stately mansion, well built, one of the very best in the town, and therein he maintained both his office and his home. But, full of years and of honors, he passed away, and his mansion in the later years has given way to a statelier piece of stone, a splendidly constructed church building, that of the First Lutheran Church of Mansfield, and if Parker were alive he would not be averse to the use of the site of his old home.

John M. May was the pioneer of his profession, the first of all to locate in and make Mansfield his home. Of New England birth, he wended his way, a young man, first to that mecca of first settlers, Marietta, Ohio, and later on to that early center of counsellors, Lancaster, Ohio, and thence to the then new county seat in the heavily timbered but fertile soil of Richland. Here he married and established

his home. All my life from childhood I knew him, but Mr. May was past his prime when it was given me to take such note of him, as any young student at law might naturally make of the "father of the bar.” He was of average stature, slender in build, and in his matured manhood straight and erect, stooping only when the weight of years bore him down. A student and close reader of books, and in his early professional life of more eloquent tongue than later, when ambition was less. It is difficult for me to analyze the mental traits of John M. May. If I am not mistaken hope was ever his companion. He seldom saw the dark side, but always lived in the light. He was not demonstrative, nor was he specially ambitious. Even tempered, content to walk rather than essay to run. His pastime was chess, of which he was very fond— a noble game, requiring brains, not bats; thoughts, not things; study, not strength of body. Politically he was of the Whig school, and possibly that fact accounts for another. He did not indicate any ambition or desire to attain official place, for in all the years of his activity the Whig party was locally in the minority-but he was a Henry Clay, a Wm. Henry Harrison, a Thomas Ewing, a Thomas Corwin Whig, He believed in the distinctive doctrines of the old Whig party and gloried in its victories, and was sad when its flag was furled.

James Purdy, who survived longer than any of his early associates and lived more years on the earth, measuring time by the sun, was a personage and factor in the history of Richland not to be overlooked. Of Scotch-Irish parentage, though born in Pennsylvania, but near the borders of Maryland. His inclination, dispositon, determination, was to do, not simply to be, to exist, then pass away. When a young man in his native hills, near the banks of the Susquehanna, he acquired the trade of a cooper, and in his old age, in a conversation, he assured me, and with seeming delight in the statement, that he was an excellent cooper, but he looked forward to a life of greater general activity and more accomplishment, and he removed to the State of New York and became a student at law in the office of a brilliant man, and master of the law in the Empire State. Purdy was a faithful student, and ever prided himself on the special knowledge acquired while a student in New York State; but with the course of the sun, started westward to Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, and though greatly pleased with the promise in the latter State, his innate sense of justice quickly moved him beyond the borders of a State where some men were masters and others were slaves. and backward were his steps; and hearing that there was some opening for a young lawyer in Norwalk, he temporarily sojourned there; but shortly thereafter came to Mansfield, and at Mansfield lived for sixty years. He became a newspaper publisher in the early years, but his main occupation was the practice of his profession. In time he became

a banker, promoter of railroads in the west; but what estimate have we of him as a lawyer? Possibly if he had made the law his sole occupation, he would have become eminent. The law is, however, a jealous mistress, and demands undivided affection and attention, and such devotion and attention James Purdy never gave. He was well grounded in the elementary principles, especially of equity, jurisprudence and practice, and while an interesting talker, he had nothing of the eloquent tongue. A strong, reverent religious vein ran all through him; Presbyterian in his faith and doctrine. He acquired a more than modest fortune, and devoted something of it to the upbuilding of Wooster University and kindred educational interests. A certain degree of ambition and pride possessed him, pardonable it was. He survived long, dying after reaching his ninetieth year. The story of his life, an epitome of it, is, by his own order, engraved on his monument. The granite may crumble, the base and shaft may disappear, the very lines cut in the stone may fade away, but the little gift to Wooster University goes on in its beneficent work, forever on. It may be, aye, it is, his best living monument.

I will not, in this paper, enlarge further on the bar of Richland, but at some other time tell you and your readers something more of the men, and, in detail, of the able bar, which, at the half-way point of the century, made the county famous.

HENRY C. HEDGES.

Our Criminals.

That there are operative causes external to the individual which, beyond a reasonable doubt, are instrumental in the creation of those mental states which, put into action, constitute crime, few, if any, who have given the subject attention will for a moment dispute. The cities are known to be the great crime centers; different branches of the race furnish different relative per cents of our criminal classes; times of business depression are found to raise the percent. These, with various other inductions, have lead to a modification of opinion as to the extent and limitations of individual responsibility, for can a man choose the land of his birth or by his will determine amongst what manner of formative influence he shall begin life?

The meanest investigator knows the inevitable power of heredity in determining the physical traits of the offspring, but it is just as truly demonstrable that mental conditions and moral tendencies are fixed by the same law. Does not the mastiff inherit courage just as truly as strength of limb? That heredity and early environment are two mighty factors in fixing the destiny of mind and bodv is no longer

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