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He reckoned Dr. Johnson as a mighty man in politics and morals. scholarship was drawn more from our English than from ancient classics, and except in short quotations of what may be called maxims, of which he was particularly fond, he dealt rather in broad, general principles derived from 'what he had read, than in minutiæ of thought.

As a Principal of St. Bees College he was just and liberal in his treatment to all the pupils, knowing the diversities of thought in those who came there to prepare for holy orders from many previous occupations, often, too, of an age of advanced personal experience. He took charge of only one course of lectures, the same from Term to Term, "The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion." In that course he was, in the opinion of all his pupils, faithful to the text, as a reasonable standard of doctrine. His plan seems to have been to require from the pupils the mastery of the wording of the Articles themselves, both in the Latin and English, and also of the particular text-book appointed on the subject. He made it his special business to bring out the nature of the controversies, Roman Catholic, Puritan, and Sceptical, which are more or less touched by the Articles. He preferred to be asked questions by any member of his class to offering direct comments of his own. Such questions never failed to elicit from him a large amount of material for future thoughts. In theology, as in general literature, he rather revelled in the enumeration of broad principles than in evolving minute criticism. He held the English Church to be as near an approach to the ideal of a Church based on Holy Scripture and on continuous tradition as even he could look for, and was never heard to question her creeds, her constitution, or her ritual, as then ordinarily interpreted, rather taking the cathedrals as guides therein. He seemed ever to regard it as his duty and his joy to accept and propagate the Church, as he found her, unimpaired. His love for her has continued, it is believed, in the five hundred pupils, or more, who passed through the College of St. Bees during his presidency, all of whom, with rare exceptions, were ultimately ordained to serve in the parishes of England and her colonies.*

To this appreciative notice we need only add that in 1849 he almost rebuilt the parsonage house, and that in 1855 he partly rebuilt the old conventual abbey, and also one of the college lecture rooms at St. Bees. From Dr. Ainger we learn that "he wrote very little, and seemed to find sufficient occupation in the lectures on the Articles, which were his chief work in the college, and his visits to Manchester to preach in his turn at the cathedral." The "business correspondence" about the college affairs supplied sufficient occupation for his pen, and he left the "parochial visitation," for which he was responsible in the large parish of St. Bees (which is attached to the principalship of the college) in order to give it a locus standi, to his three assistant lecturers. He was a great favourite with the students generally, and his addresses to

* Canon Woodhouse.

them at the opening and conclusion of the college terms were looked forward to with interest; but his work there was general rather than minute, and his disposition was more fitted for a popular speaker on general subjects than an instructor in minute points of doctrine, grammar, or history.

The name of Canon Parkinson is connected by another link to the literature of our county and city. He was one of the founders of the Chetham Society, and a vice-president from its formation in 1843 until his death in 1858. He edited the Life of Adam Martindale (1844-5, vol. iv.); the Autobiography of Henry Newcome, M.A. (1851-2, vols. xxvi. and xxvii.); and the Private Journal and Literary Remains of John Byrom (1853-4-5, vols. xxxii., xxxiv., and xl.) The last work is one of the most delightful issued by the Chetham Society, both on account of the interest attaching to the genial and pious Byrom, and for the light his journals throw upon the literary and social life of the eighteenth century. It is only fair, however, to those who did the greater part of the real work to say that so far as Byrom's Journal was concerned his editorial duties were not much more than nominal. Certainly the bulk of the work was done by Canon Raines and Mr. James Crossley. It may be doubted, however, whether the book would ever have seen the light but for his influence with Miss Atherton, who, in addition to a natural reverence for the character of her great ancestor, had an almost morbid fear lest, as no man is a hero to his valet, the details, sometimes trifling, of his daily life should detract from that dignity of character with which she wished the name of Byrom to be associated. For this reason alone it would not be altogether wrong to regard the canon as the "editor"-the setter-forth of the book-although the details were to a large extent contributed by other hands. Among his many virtues we can scarcely credit him with steadfast closeness of application to work. He had certain humorous maxims which must be taken, however, as evidencing his love of fun, rather than as inculcating any dereliction from the path of duty. Thus, he would laughingly recommend the course of never replying to letters, as people in time forgot all about them. In the same vein was his advice never to do anything yourself which you could get other people to do for you.

In Manchester, where the brightest and best part of his life was

passed, he received an intimation that his end was fast approaching. Whilst preaching in the Cathedral on Sunday, 1st March, 1857, he was struck down by paralysis. It was at first feared that this would end fatally, but he regained some of his old elasticity, and after a 'long sojourn at Malvern appeared to be restored to health. He resumed his duties as principal, but never really recovered from the shock, and passed quietly away at the priory of St. Bees, on the twenty-eighth of January, 1858.

He was a fine type of the sturdy yeomanry of Bleasdale Fells, from whom he sprang. He was a sound, orthodox, and consistent churchman. He united the best characteristics of a consistent Christian and of a man of the world. This brief sketch may fittingly conclude with a masterly portraiture for which I am indebted to Mr. James Crossley :

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"His knowledge of the world and mankind was larger than is generally possessed by those of his order; and while that had not rendered him, had added much to the practical scholar and divine, and certainly made him a striking contrast to those members of his profession who come to instruct and reform mankind, with as little acquaintance with the world into which they have entered, or the species to which they belong, as if they had been sent as missionaries from another planet. As a clear, lucid, and impressive preacher, and as an able and effective public speaker, he had few equals in his own profession. . Of all the accomplishments and qualities which enable an individual to delight others in conversation, and which make up the ideal of a charming companion, he was a consummate master. Who, indeed, that had ever been much in his company could forget him? Recalling, as I do, the happy and delightful hours which I have spent in his society, during an intimate friendship of more than twenty years, I cannot but feel that death has left a chair vacant in the social circle, which no one can pretend to fill, and which can only again be tenanted when the great restorer, Memory, calls up that well-known face with all its radiant cheerfulness and kindly and sparkling intelligence."

NOTE.-The writer has to gratefully acknowledge the kindness of those who have aided him with material for this sketch. Amongst them he would especially name the Rev. Dr. Ainger, late principal of St. Bees, and now rector

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