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not commend itself to the modern taste. Its concomitants are cheese and beer. Leland says, "Whete is not veri communely sowid in thes Partes." Camden says the land between the Ribble and Lune will not bear barley, but oats are more plentifully grown. He does not name wheat. A curious fact is worth adding. Sowing is very nearly gone out altogether in some of "thes partes." During the present century the tithes, or a tenth of the grain, chiefly oats, grown in the township of Goosnargh alone, realized £1,000 in one year. Last spring, I walked half-a-day in the township and only saw one field under the plough. I will trespass with just one other statistical point. The area of Goosnargh is about 9,000 acres. In 1801, it had a population of 1,558; in 1821 these had increased by 294 persons; between the years 1831 and 1841 the population fell by 223; and the decrease has gone on each succeeding decade, the last census showing a decrease of 300 since the present century came in, and since 1821 a falling off of 594 persons. Don't think we are like the Tasmanians and other aboriginal stocks dying out. The local registrar told me last year that there are within a shade of three births in the township for two deaths. A few days ago one of our Lancashire poets, who uses the dialect as a vehicle of his muse, showed me a new unpublished poem, in which he uses the word "jannock." I found he fully understood the meaning of the word, but he was unaware of its derivation from a kind of bread. I have secured a small piece for the inspection of those members of the club who may not have seen a piece of real jannock. The person who got it for me said it was now only used by very old people, who soften it in broth.

THE PROPOSED UNIVERSAL CATALOGUE.

MONDAY, APRIL 1, 1878.-Mr. Wм. E. A. Axon read a short communication on the proposed Universal Catalogue. Sir Henry Cole, he said, had induced the Society of Arts to issue a proposal for a printed catalogue of all books issued from the invention of typography to the year 1600. Sir Henry Cole suggested an international convention; each country preparing its own list on a uniform plan, and issuing it at stated periods. Mr. Axon thought an international commission would probably do the work most quickly. A complete account of the progress of printing by its works would be valuable alike for what it would teach and for what it would suggest.

The PRESIDENT (Mr. Nodal) said it was a matter for congratulation that the Society of Arts was directing its attention to bibliography, which was a pursuit that met with too little encouragement. Bibliography was every year becoming of greater importance, in

consequence of the multiplication of the products of the printing press. It was one of the perplexities of the age- Anow how to ascertain and register the extent of those repositories of knowledge-books. This could only be done by the indefatigable efforts of the bibliographer. The project which Mr. Dilke, and more recently Sir Henry Cole, had brought forward seemed to resolve itself into a question of the best method of attempting the work which it was proposed to undertake, and the plan of limiting the list to works published before 1600 commended itself to the judgment, partly because useful experience would be gained by this partial effort, and partly on account of the comparative fewness of the books printed up to that date. He presumed the notion of the Society of Arts was that this work should be undertaken by the Government, and therefore it was important that all libraries, societies, and institutions which take an interest in these matters should endeavour to create a public opinion in favour of it, and so operate upon Parliament. The subject ought also to be brought under the consideration of the International Literary Congress in Paris June next.

Mr. C. W. Sutton and Mr. John Plant having spoken of the value of such a work to librarians,

Sir HENRY COLE said he would assume that they all agreed with Mr. Plant, who very sensibly said, "Let us have anything," for at present they had, comparatively speaking, nothing in the way of a catalogue such as they wished to see. Nobody could put his finger on any record that would show them what English books were printed before 1600; what information there was on the subject was very fragmentary, and a man might spend a lifetime in trying to pick it up in the various libraries. He was emphatically of opinion that if any corporation or any individuals were to find a few hundred pounds for the purpose, a collection of titles would be a matter of no difficulty, and that within a very few years a sufficiently largely percentage for all practical purposes of the titles of books printed up to 1600 might be collected. The Society of Arts started an inquiry on this subject, not upon the expediency of preparing such a catalogue, but as to what the work was likely to cost, and how to do it. The Prince of Wales, before going to India, was induced to appoint a commission to consider the expediency of such an undertaking, and they obtained some very important evidence. First of all, Mr. Bullen, of the British Museum, who had most liberal views on the subject, stated that the trustees of that institution had really before them a project for doing something. This "something was that they should print the titles of all English books in that collection issued up to 1660. But what was wanted was something that would tell them not only what they had got in the museum, but also what they ought to have. It was quite clear to Mr. Bullen's mind that the

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British Museum should print a catalogue of its own collection at once, and he (Sir Henry) believed that could be done in three months. He thought the outcome of the inquiry was a strong feeling that an effort in that direction should be made, and the first step towards obtaining a universal catalogue was to persuade, and spur, and squeeze the Treasury into the belief that this country could afford to print it and include it amongst the parliamentary "papers. It was a matter of growing interest, now that free libraries were extending all over the country, that something like a national pressure should be put upon the government to produce a catalogue of the British Museum Library. Of course there were a hundred reasons why it should not be done, but they need not discuss them now. Let the Government do for the national library in the British Museum what Manchester had done for its free library. He would suggest, as they were not afraid of a little agitation in Manchester, that they should send up a memorial to the trustees of the British Museum, intimating that, having heard it is their intention to print a catalogue of all the books in that collection issued up to 1660, they desired to suggest that the list be extended so as to include all books either in the museum or such as were known to exist elsewhere. Coming now to Mr. Plant's question of who was to pay for the works, he did not think the country would be ruined if it had to pay for it, nor would any of them be the worse for it. But assuming that the Government would not pay for it, he did not think the Society of Arts would have much difficulty in finding out a mode of payment. For instance, they might say to the managers of large libraries: "For a subscription of so much per annum you shall have so many copies." Or they might increase the number of honorary members of the society and include a copy in their subscription. In conclusion, he would recommend them to help the trustees of the British Museum to a more correct opinion on the subject in the first instance. If the movement were fairly started in this country, Italy, Germany, and France would take it up instantly.

The PRESIDENT said the Literary Club knew something about memorializing the British Museum trustees from experience, and it was not encouraging. In fact, it was extremely discouraging.

Sir HENRY COLE said in that case they should try what they could do by the influence of their parliamentary representatives.

As a result of the above discussion the Council resolved to forward to the Trustees of the British Museum the following Memorial:

That your Memorialists are convinced that the usefulness of the Library of the British Museum would be greatly enhanced, and the services it renders to literature and investigation would be greatly increased, by the provision of a printed catalogue. There is a large number of students, especially in the

provinces, who can seldom avail themselves of the Library, and to whom a record of its contents would be a boon of the greatest importance. Such an inventory would not only help them to an acquaintance with the bibliography of the subject to which they had devoted themselves, but would show whether the collection in the British Museum Library was of a character to justify the trouble and expense of a special journey for its examination, Your Memorialists are convinced that the printing of the catalogue is a task which, however arduous, could be accomplished within a moderate time, and would amply repay the expenditure it would involve by making the influence of the collection national in the broad and just sense of the word. Your Memorialists, having heard that it has been suggested, or is in contemplation, to print the titles of English books up to the year 1660 now in the British Museum, would urge the desirability of a more comprehensive scheme dealing with the entire Library. In the event of the more restricted plan being adopted, they would suggest that it would be an advantage to include all titles of books known to be in existence, although not actually in the British Museum. They would point to the precisely analagous practice pursued in the compilation of the scientific catalogues published of the British Museum. They are convinced, however, that the claims of literature cannot be adequately met except by a complete printed list of the books in the British Museum Library. Signed on behalf of the Council of the Manchester Literary Club, JOHN H. NODAL,

May, 1878.

President.

THE YOUNG IRELAND POETS.

MARCH 18, 1878.-Mr. M. J. LYONS read a paper on the Poets and Poetry of Young Ireland. At the outset he disclaimed any political purpose in introducing a subject which he proposed to treat upon its literary side alone, and he next entered a protest against the travesties of the Irish and their poetry which were perpetrated by Cockney Irishmen, and were often to be found on the stage and elsewhere. The Young Ireland party arose some forty years ago. O'Connell, their predecessor as an agitator, wanted to see his country no longer a province, but an independent nation. He wanted Ireland to be under an Irish king and an Irish parliament, governed by Irish laws, and with an Irish army and navy. He sought to effect this by moral force and he aimed at repealing an Act of Parliament by another Act of Parliament. The Young Ireland party were in favour of more active measures, and were ready to appeal to physical force and the sword. They started The Nation newspaper in 1842. At the head of the group of able young men who led this movement was Thomas Davis, and with him were associated Charles Gavan Duffy, Thomas Darcy M'Gee, Meagher, Martin, Mitchell, Dillon, Ronayne, O'Gorman, O'Doherty, Williams, O'Hagan, Ferguson, M'Carthy, Ingram, M'Nevin, Pigott, Barry, and Mangan. Mr. Lyons read pieces illustrative of the poetry of Davis, including his ballad of Fontenoy, the Lament for Owen Roe O'Neill, the Geraldines, and the Lost Path, as well as an example from the works of Samuel Fer

guson, and afterwards traced the subsequent career of the Young Ireland leaders. Davis died at the early age of thirty. Gavan Duffy and M'Gee had risen high in the government of Australia and Canada, and Meagher had distinguished himself as a soldier in the American Civil War,

CLAYTON HALL: A RELIC OF THE CHETHAM FAMILY,

MARCH 18, 1878.-Mr. EDWARD WILLIAMS exhibited a number of drawings and photographs of Clayton Hall, in its past and present state, and read a communication upon its history. The hall is situated between Manchester and Droylsden, and is interesting as having been at one time the residence of Humphrey Chetham. It was bought by the brothers, Humphrey Chetham of Turton, and George Chetham, grocer, of London, according to one authority, in 1628, and to another, the one most credible, in February, 1620. The amount of the purchase money was £4,700. The purchase included the demesne land and all that park or enclosed land called Clayton Park, as well as lands in Failsworth, Ashton Woodhouses, Droylsden, and Manchester. The date of the erection of the hall is unknown; but it had at the time of its transfer to the Chetham family been the property of the Byron family of Rochdale, Lancashire, and of Newstead Abbey, Nottinghamshire, the direct line of the ancestors of the poet, Lord Byron. The Byrons acquired the manor and estates of Clayton by the marriage of Sir Roger de Byron with Cecilia, daughter and heiress of Sir Richard Clayton, of Clayton Hall, in the year 1199. The only previous mention of this family of Claytons is in the list of jurors and landowners in the survey list of Henry the Third, in which the name of Robert de Clayton appears. The Byron family, however, is conspicuous in the annals of our county, and their names are on record as among the first witnesses to the charter granted to the burgesses of Manchester. Sir John received the honour of knighthood from Edward the Third, at the siege of Calais, 1346; and a later Sir John fought in the battle of Bosworth, and was knighted on the field by Henry the Seventh. The family lived at Clayton Hall until the dissolution of the monasteries, at which time Sir John Byron, who was then steward of the manors of Manchester and Rochdale, received a grant of the Priory of Newstead on the 28th of May, 1540. He at once took up his residence at Newstead, which became the family seat, and Clayton Hall and estates were sold by Sir John Byron and his lady to George and Humphrey Chetham. This same Sir John was appointed by Charles the first Lieutenant of the Tower of London in 1642.

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