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history, amongst them volumes by Barrit, Greswell, and Kuerden, who had taken the precaution to record the result of his arduous researches in a caligraphy that defied interpretation. A beautiful specimen of fine writing was the volume of Divine Music for Devotions, by Lady Daniel Dukinfield. Of wider interest were the bibliographical collections of the late Mr. S. L. Sotheby, and the autograph catalogue of the Rev. Thomas Corser's library. The gem of the collection was the MS. of the Flores Historiarum of Matthew Paris, transcribed under the eye of that fine old English chronicler at the abbey of St. Albans, and continued after his death. The printed books included several of the first editions printed of the classics, amongst them Plutarch and Homer. The copy of Higden's Polychronicon, printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1485, with its curious rhyming address to the reader, was perhaps the most notable from that press, but there was also a Virgil (1500), Capgrave's Nova Legenda Anglie (1506), and the Martyrloge after Salysbury Use, compiled by that early popular theologian "the olde wretched brother of Syon Richard Whytford," one of whose works is devoted to comparing the "life of perfection" to wine kept in a pipe or tun. The Margarita Philosophica of Reisch (1503) was an early encyclopedic work, covering logic, arithmetic, algorism, alchemy, astronomy, and astrology. There was an Aldine Eschylus, and that marvel of typographical beauty the Theurdank, printed at Nuremberg in 1517. Borde's Book of Knowledge (1543) was full of curious matter. The author was not vain of his personal appearance, if we might judge by the portrait of himself which he had allowed to appear. Monardes' Joyful News of the New-found World (1596) contained an early notice of the "Indian weed” and also an account of a tree by which one might know "whether he should live or die." Amongst books possessing local interest of some kind were those by Bradford, Dee, Cogan, Herle, Angier, Ellesmere, Mosley, Ormerod, Charles Simms, and others. There were books which formerly belonged to Henry VIII., Dee, Bradford, Sir Kenelm Digby, and other famous personages. Some of these works, it might be said, were mere curiosities. The library, however, possessed many costly works of great importance to the student. Amongst these were the great collection of the historians of Germany edited by Pertz, and similar collections for most of the other European countries. There were also books descriptive of the Dresden and other famous art galleries; Perret's great work on the Catacombs (presented with other volumes by the late Emperor Napoleon III.); and the unsurpassable books on natural history of Audubon and Gould. Swedenborg's Autographa, executed in facsimile by the followers of the Swedish seer, was an object of interest. Lastly, he would call their attention to the remarkable collection of broadsides

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presented by Mr. Halliwell-Phillips. of them, and they threw sometimes a most curious light upon past history. One of them related to a grant of indulgence to the benefactors of the church of St. George-the-Martyr, in Southwark. This was printed as a handbill by Wynkyn de Worde. Passing to the books which had been selected from the Byrom library, he said they reflected in a very complete manner the character and tastes of their collector. John Byrom, F.R.S., was a man of wide culture, the inventor of a philosophic theory of shorthand and a man of deep, even mystical piety. The MSS. included a very interesting Life of Christ, dating from the fifteenth century, and a magnificent vellum copy of Aulus Gellius. Amongst the printed books were several early editions of Imitatio Christi in various languages, and works by Ridley, Cranmer, Turner, and others of the English reformers. There were several books of importance bearing upon the universal language and projects for the reformation of spelling. Of these might be named the books by Beck, Gil, Jones, and Rudd. A Welsh version of The Pilgrim's Progress, as early as 1688, was an interesting testimony as to the early appreciation of the book by the people at large. Manni's work on the eternal prison contained some of the most grotesquely horrible pictures that had ever been inspired by theological zeal. Much more might be said respecting the books before them, for each had an individual interest of some kind.

Mr. J. EGLINGTON BAILEY, F.S.A., moved that the best thanks of the Club be presented to the Feoffees of the Chetham Library, for permitting them to inspect the more remarkable and valuable manuscripts and other books; to Mr. Hanby, the governor, and to Mr. Axon for arranging the same, and for other services. He said that one of the highest compliments ever paid by a man of learning to a library was that of the antiquary Leland to the monastic library at Glastonbury. Having obtained permission to enter it— a boon not accorded to everybody-he relates that he had scarcely entered the doorway when the view alone of the ancient books threw a religious awe over his mind, or raised up a wild astonishment in it. "I therefore," says he, "stopt short awhile. Then, after a salutation to the genius of the room, for some days I ransacked the shelves with great curiosity." Some such sentiment of awe or thankfulness was perforce exacted from every lover of books who entered a building of that kind, consecrated to beneficence as well as learning. The spirit and the character of the founder were impressed as well upon the literature of the shelves as upon the arrangements of the hospital; and there was ground for thankfulness that the successive bodies of feoffees had administered both the charity and the library in the spirit of the founder. To them, therefore, as much as to Chetham himself, was the present generation indebted for this well-nigh sole relic of old Manchester. It


would be difficult to find a spot in any other of our present commercial cities where the contrast between the old and the new is so immediate and striking. From the noise of the railway and the busy streets, they were suddenly in a haven of quiet. They viewed a building whose architecture took them three centuries backward, and whose internal arrangements advanced them one century, and then left them to their reflections. Those who run might read there from the character of the literature, the period of its collection-an era which possessed an undying attraction for students, as that which produced the best poetry, the best histories, the best biographies, and the best (not to say the most) divinity. It was "the golden prime" of literature. The influence of such books in such a building tended to arouse or foster that studiousness and seriousness of spirit which was the characteristic of that age, and to nourish in their literary undertakings the thoroughness and disregard of toil which were manifested in many of those folios. Chetham's library was formed by scholars, had been presided over by scholars, and had at all times been the centre of scholars whose reputation it had helped to create. Mr. Bailey then sketched the history of the college and library founded by Humphrey Chetham. After describing the college buildings as they were in the sixteenth century and the use to which they were put before being acquired under Chetham's will, for the purpose of a hospital for poor boys, and a public library, he said Humphrey Chetham died on the 12th of October, 1653, and by his will, made three years previously, he directed his trustees to try and acquire "the great house with the buildings, outhouses, courts, gardens, and appurtenances, called the college or the college house." Bequeathing £7,500 for the hospital, he set apart £1,000 for the purchase of books, to be deposited in the college if possible, for the use of the scholars and others well affected, the same books there to remain as a public library for ever. To this he added a further sum of £1,000 for the purchase of a place for the library, the residue of his goods being bequeathed to increase the stock of books. There were twenty trustees, and their first care was to acquire the property. It was noticeable as an indication of the distrust with which the (then) recent rapid transfer of estates was regarded, that in accordance with a shrewd direction in the will, they gave special heed to the title deeds. They therefore agreed at their first meeting that it should be bought "if it may be compassed uppon reasonable rate, and that a sure and fyrme estate may be made and confyrmed to the feoffees for the use of the hospitall and library for ever, and the executors at the tyme were desired to endeavour the accomplishment thereof with all speed." At the next meeting on the 3rd of July, 1653, it was agreed that £350 should "be offered for the college house to Mr. Wiggan and Mr. Ellison, or to whom they should apoynt, on

their behalfe." Three weeks later there was a treaty between the executors and feoffees on the one part and Mr. Holbrooke and Mr. Gathorne on the other part, in which £400 were offered for the college and its appurtenances, but the offer was refused. It was therefore determined at a general meeting of the feoffees, on the 27th March, 1654, to seek for other property, and to obtain it within the next three months. This determination was effective, and the buildings came into the possession of the trustees, who entered into negotiations for the purchase and alteration of the surrounding property comprising "the great barne, Rostherne's house, the workhouse, and the house of correction." After that, preparations were made for the purchase of the books, the choice of which by will was entrusted to the Rev. Richard Johnson, the Rev. John Tildsley, and the Rev. Richard Hollingworth. The books having been purchased in London, and the building made ready for the reception of them and the boys, a solemn dedication. of the hospital took place on the 5th August, 1656. The list of the Chetham librarians given by Mr. Edward Edwards included the names of Banne, Hooper, Thyer, Radcliffe (the compiler of the first printed catalogue), Hindley, and Jones. The Rev. Richard Johnson was placed first on the list, in 1653, but his actual appointment was later. The first library keeper was a Mr. Browne, as to whom there were the following minutes, July 31, 1656-"That Mr. Browne bee library keeper, and have his dyet, chamber, and five pounds till Easter next, in consideration whereof he is to attend and kepe the library ffrom Michaelmas till Easter from 8 till 11 in the aforenoone, and from 1 till 4 in the afternoon, and to requyre nothing of any man.” The appointment proved unsatisfactory, for on the 12th of April, 1659, Mr. Browne was told "to provyde for himself against the 12th of Julie next, and to take this for a warning, and that the treasurer (Mr. . Lightbourne) pay him only soe long." A Mr. Edward Lees was subsequently chosen to fill the office, and at the Easter meeting in 1659, as well as the following meetings, he preached the sermon, for which he was annually voted 20s. In 1661 he was voted 40s. "for his good sermon preached before the feoffees this day in Manchester Church." They might almost imagine what the text was. In conclusion, Mr. Bailey cited some of the prices of the books purchased by the trustees, amongst which were Baxter's Saints' Rest, 6s. 6d.; Raleigh's History, 225.; Heilen's Geography, 16s.; Hooker's Works, vol. 2, 125.; Clark's Martyrologie, 15s. He said that though the mention of some of these books would confirm the popular opinion that Chetham's Library was merely a theological library, the display of that evening would help to disprove this idea. Theology was there, it was true, and it was of the best kind; but there was superadded many a volume which, though of forbidding exterior, would introduce the reader to the most inviting fields of thought.

The Rev. H. W. PERRIS, of Warrington, in seconding the motion, said he felt sure that those of them who like himself had that night for the first time been made aware of the literary treasures there were in that place, would not fail to avail themselves of a visit as often as they could.

The motion having been passed,

Mr. Axon briefly replied. He said they would all regret the absence of their venerable friend and member, Mr. James Crossley, who was more closely connected with the fortunes and interests of that library than anyone present. As Mr. Bailey had said, that library was not alone a collection of theology, for the man of science, the naturalist, and the artist would also find much by which he could profit in that fine old endowment left by one who not only saw and had pity upon the hunger and thirst of unfriended orphanhood, but also upon the hunger and thirst of those who felt the keener hunger and thirst after knowledge. It was not a mere place of pleasant leisure; they might from the treasures around. draw fresh inspiration for the busy life that throbbed outside that charmed scholar's paradise.

A pamphlet, specially prepared for the occasion, and containing a list of the manuscripts and books, under the title of Notabilia Bibliotheca Chethamensis,* was placed in the hands of each member as a guide to the volumes on the tables. The meeting lasted from half-past six to ten o'clock.


MONDAY, NOVEMBER 5, 1877.-Mr. JOHN PLANT called attention to the proposals issued by Mr. T. C. Horsfall, of Altrincham, for the establishment of an art gallery in Manchester, and criticised adversely some of the details. Especially he censured the way in which Mr. Horsfall ignored every effort in artistic and other directions which had been. previously made in Manchester and Salford. In Peel Park alone, during the last twenty years or thereabouts, the Corporation had held free exhibitions, and had shown pictures the aggregate money value of which was £2,000,000, and these had been visited and seen by the enormous number of twenty-seven million people. Every kind of picture which Mr. Horsfall professed to desire to place in a people's art gallery had been comprehended in the various collections at Peel Park. Mr. Plant objected indignantly to such epithets as "sootbegrimed" being applied to the public parks, and to the contemp

*A copy of this list was inserted in the Appendix to Volumẹ iii, of the Club Papers, pp. 245-260,

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