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Signed at Paris, December 9, 1919.

The United States of America, the British Empire, France, Italy and Japan, the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, on the one hand;

And Roumania, on the other hand;

Whereas under the Treaties to which the Principal Allied and Associated Powers are parties large accessions of territory are being and will be made to the Kingdom of Roumania, and

Whereas Roumania desires of her own free will to give full guarantees of liberty and justice to all inhabitants both of the old Kingdom of Roumania and of the territory added thereto, to whatever race, language or religion they may belong, and

Have, after examining the question together, agreed to conclude the present Treaty, and for this purpose have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, the following, reserving the right of substituting others to sign the Treaty:

The President of the United States of America:

The Honourable Frank Lyon Polk, Under-Secretary of State;
The Honourable Henry White, formerly Ambassador Extraor-
dinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States at Rome
and Paris;

General Tasker H. Bliss, Military Representative of the United
States on the Supreme War Council;

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions Beyond the Seas, Emperor of India:

Sir Eyre Crowe, K. C. B., K. C. M. G., Minister Plenipotentiary, Assistant Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs;

1 British Treaty Series, 1920, No. 6.


for the Dominion of Canada:

The Honourable Sir George Halsey Perley, K. C. M. G., High
Commissioner for Canada in the United Kingdom;

for the Commonwealth of Australia:

The Right Honourable Andrew Fisher, High Commissioner for Australia in the United Kingdom;

for the Dominion of New Zealand:

The Honourable Sir Thomas Mackenzie, K. C. M. G., High
Commissioner for New Zealand in the United Kingdom;

for the Union of South Africa:

Mr. Reginald Andrew Blankenberg, O. B. E., Acting High
Commissioner for the Union of South Africa in the United

for India:

Sir Eyre Crowe, K. C. B., K. C. M. G.;

The President of the French Republic:

Mr. Georges Clemenceau, President of the Council, Minister of War;

Mr. Stephen Pichon, Minister for Foreign Affairs;

Mr. Louis-Lucien Klotz, Minister of Finance;

Mr. André Tardieu, Minister for the liberated regions;

Mr. Jules Cambon, Ambassador of France;

His Majesty the King of Italy:

Sir Giacomo de Martino, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister

His Majesty the Emperor of Japan:

Mr. K. Matsui, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of H. M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris;

His Majesty the King of Roumania:

General Constantin Coanda, Corps Commander, A. D. C. to the King, formerly President of the Council of Ministers;

who have agreed as follows:



Roumania undertakes that the stipulations contained in Articles 2 to 8 of this Chapter shall be recognised as fundamental laws, and that no law, regulation or official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation or official action prevail over them.


Roumania undertakes to assure full and complete protection of life and liberty to all inhabitants of Roumania without distinction of birth, nationality, language, race or religion.

All inhabitants of Roumania shall be entitled to the free exercise, whether public or private, of any creed, religion or belief, whose practices are not inconsistent with public order and public morals.


Subject to the special provisions of the Treaties mentioned below, Roumania admits and declares to be Roumanian nationals ipso facto and without the requirement of any formality all persons habitually resident at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty within the whole territory of Roumania, including the extensions made by the Treaties of Peace with Austria and Hungary, or any other extensions which may hereafter be made, if such persons are not at that date nationals of a foreign state other than Austria or Hungary.

Nevertheless, Austrian and Hungarian nationals who are over eighteen years of age will be entitled under the conditions contained in the said Treaties to opt for any other nationality which may be open to them. Option by a husband will cover his wife and option by parents will cover their children under eighteen years of age.

Persons who have exercised the above right to opt must within the succeeding twelve months transfer their place of residence to the State for which they have opted. They will be entitled to retain their immovable property in Roumanian territory. They may carry with them their movable property of every description. No export

duties may be imposed upon them in connection with the removal of such property.


Roumania admits and declares to be Roumanian nationals ipso facto and without the requirement of any formality persons of Austrian Hungarian nationality who were born in the territory transferred to Roumania by the Treaties of Peace with Austria and Hungary, or subsequently transferred to her, of parents habitually resident there, even if at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty they are not themselves habitually resident there.

Nevertheless, within two years after the coming into force of the present Treaty, these persons may make a declaration before the competent Roumanian authorities in the country in which they are resident, stating that they abandon Roumanian nationality, and they will then cease to be considered as Roumanian nationals. In this connection a declaration by a husband will cover his wife, and a declaration by parents will cover their children under eighteen years of age.


Roumania undertakes to put no hindrance in the way of the exercise of the right which the persons concerned have, under the Treaties concluded or to be concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers with Austria or Hungary, to choose whether or not they will acquire Roumanian nationality.


All persons born in Roumanian territory who are not born nationals of another State shall ipso facto become Roumanian nationals.


Roumania undertakes to recognise as Roumanian nationals ipso facto and without the requirement of any formality Jews inhabiting any Roumanian territory, who do not possess another nationality.

*The word "or" is evidently omitted here.


All Roumanian nationals shall be equal before the law and shall enjoy the same civil and political rights without distinction as to race, language or religion.

Differences of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudice any Roumanian national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil or political rights, as for instance admission to public employments, functions and honours, or the exercise of professions and industries.

No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any Roumanian national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in religion, in the press or in publications of any kind, or at public meetings.

Notwithstanding any establishment by the Roumanian Government of an official language, adequate facilities shall be given to Roumanian nationals of non-Roumanian speech for the use of their language, either orally or in writing, before the courts.


Roumanian nationals who belong to racial, religious or linguistic minorities shall enjoy the same treatment and security in law and in fact as the other Roumanian nationals. In particular they shall have an equal right to establish, manage and control at their own expense charitable, religious and social institutions, schools and other educational establishments, with the right to use their own language and to exercise their religion freely therein.


Roumania will provide in the public educational system in towns and districts in which a considerable proportion of Roumanian nationals of other than Roumanian speech are resident adequate facilities for ensuring that in the primary schools the instruction shall be given to the children of such Roumanian nationals through the medium of their own language. This provision shall not prevent the Roumanian Government from making the teaching of the Roumanian language obligatory in the said schools.

In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion of

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