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knows how to look, will usually find both sides of almost any subject in articles written by the most eminent students of that subject, and in a language intelligible to all.

This mine of information is opened to the reader in small libraries by the use of Poole's Index of magazines, abridged, indexing to the close of 1900, and by the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature (Wilson, Minneapolis, $6 a year) indexing to date. By means of these indexes a Library has the equipment for tracing almost any magazine article wanted. The new index to St. Nicholas, published by H. W. Wilson, Minneapolis, for $4, would be simply invaluable to teachers and children in any Library so fortunate as to own even a partial set of the 27 bound volumes which compose that treasure house of childhood and it would often be of service to others seeking a familiar and untechnical treatment of many topics.

To attract children it would be wise to have a few good juvenile magazines-say St. Nicholas and The Youth's Companion and as for the standard and popular monthlies and quarterlies, there should be no question as to taking them—they are a necessity. Whether the Library has a reading room or not, these should be taken as freely as the Library funds admit.

Post a list of the periodicals regularly received by the Library in the Reading Room, and also a list of those taken which are indexed in "Poole," or in the "Reader's Guide," or in the St. Nicholas Index if you possess the indexes. (See p. 46.) These three lists might be neatly type written on one page, if the list is a small one, or on two or more fastened together, if larger.

It would be well to send a copy of these lists to your local papers three or four times a year, and to ask their readers to cut out and keep the slips. Post these lists, and those recording additions of new books, or reading lists on some subject of local or of passing interest, in the schools, the post office, in R. R. stations, in the hotels,

the shop windows, grange meetings, or, wherever else they may call attention to the fact that the Library is trying to serve its community.

The custom of circulating the unbound back numbers of current magazines is growing in favor in American libraries, though the readers are generally not allowed to keep them more than three days or a week, and without the privilege of renewal. If this is done, the magazines should be put in binders made to fit the magazine, and marked both with its and the Library's name, in order to identify it as the Library's property and to keep the magazine clean and smooth. Strong manila paper covers will be found fairly satisfactory for this purpose, though a cheap temporary binding is better.

A careful record should be kept of each magazine ordered, of whom ordered, of the cost of subscription, and of the dates when ordered, when the subscription begins and expires, and of the agency's receipted bill. The Commission recommends the system of record described in "Hints to Small Libraries." It will be found compact, economical and accurate. (See index.)

It is best and most economical both of time and money to order periodicals through an agency, and to arrange that subscriptions shall coincide with the calendar year, disregarding the volume arrangements of the publishers. From 5 to 20 per cent. can often be saved on the cost of periodicals by ordering them in this way through a reliable subscription agency.

Love of reading enables a man to exchange the weary hours which come to every one, for hours of delight.—MONTESQUIEU.

PERIODICAL INDEXES.

Poole's Index to Periodical Literature. edition. Houghton. $12.

Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature.

Abridged

H. W. Wil

son, Minneapolis, Minn. $6. Each month's issue cumulates the entries of the previous numbers of 62 magazines, covering the period from Jan. 1st to date.

Index to St. Nicholas. H. W. Wilson, Minneapolis, Minn. $4.

There are three classes of readers; some enjoy without judgment; others judge without enjoyment; and some there are who judge while they enjoy, and enjoy while they judge.-GOETHE.

LIBRARY MANAGEMENT.

Libraries started with an assured income, however small, with a right spirit, a good Librarian and even a few entertaining books, can hardly fail of success. Many problems will arise as the Library grows, but much help in solving them may always be obtained from the experience of others. Therefore it is most necessary for those engaged in organizing libraries to get thoroughly into touch with their co-workers elsewhere in order that they may be able to take advantage of the store of accumulated experience thus to be obtained.

It is much better not to begin by projecting great plans at the outset, but it is wisdom to make a beginning, however small, and to "cross your bridges as you come to them" is a very good general rule for the village library. Whatever it succeeds in doing becomes a fulcrum for further efforts, and will aid and illustrate the arguments for interesting people in the work.

In newspaper and other notices of the Library, it will often be found wiser to refrain from figures and to give

only general statements as to what it has accomplished and what it hopes to do.

As regards the details of management, no District Library Commission can do better than to adopt in general the advice contained in Miss Mary W. Plummer's "Hints to Small Libraries" of which a copy will be presented by the State Library Commission, to any Free Public Library or District Library Commission of Delaware, which will apply for it. The plans laid down in this very admirable little work are capable of expansion to meet the needs of rapidly growing Libraries and the means and methods Miss Plummer describes are at once economical, practical and liberal. All readers are referred to her book for explanation of the technical terms in the series of recommendations that follow, but those whose little libraries must begin at the very beginning, whose income must long remain but a few dollars a year, whose Librarian's salary must be so small that it can scarcely be seen without the aid of a miscroscope—these readers are especially asked to turn also to "Suggestions to very Small Libraries' on p. 25, whose recommendations may be found more immediately useful to them.

Classification. The Commission recommends that the Dewey Decimal system of classifying books be adopted in all Libraries possessing as many as 1000 volumes, as being more widely used than any other, as being "less expensive; more easily understood, remembered and used; practical rather than theoretical; brief and familiar in its nomenclature; best for arranging pamphlets, sale duplicates and notes, and for indexing; susceptible of partial and gradual adoption without confusion; more convenient in keeping statistics, and checks for books off the shelves; the most satisfactory adaptation of the card catalogue principle to the shelves. It requires less space to shelve the books; uses simpler symbols and fewer of them; can be expanded without limit and without confusion or

waste of labor, in both catalogues and on shelves, or in catalogues alone; checks more thoroughly and conveniently against mistakes; admits more readily numerous cross references; is unchangeable in its call numbers, and so gives them in all places where needed; in its index affords an answer to the greatest objection to class catalogues, and is the first satisfactory union of the advantages of the class and dictionary systems"-it is, on the whole, as elastic and satisfactory as any known system of classification and is to be had already worked out and printed in a convenient and intelligible and inexpensive form.

The "Abridged Decimal Classification and Relativ Index" will be found the most satisfactory for libraries of not more than five thousand volumes, and its use allows of easy expansion into the unabridged form should the change prove necessary. (Library Bureau. $1.)

Plummer's "Hints to Small Libraries" contains a few of its main divisions, and with the aid of her clear explanation no Librarian will find the system troublesome to use even for the very smallest collection of books.

Author Book Numbers. The Commission recommends the use of the "Cutter Book Numbers," ($1.) with full explanations of how to use them. A little attention will make the system easy to apply. Somewhat simplified explanations will be sent on request by the State Library Commission with Miss Plummer's "Hints to Small Libraries." The use of these tables in assigning distinguishing book numbers greatly facilitates the arrangement of all the books in a given group or class in the alphabetical order of their authors' names, both on the shelves and in the catalogue, and they are a great convenience to the librarian, and, if free access to the shelves is allowed, as the Commission strongly recommends, to the public also.

Catalogue. The Commission strongly recommends that all libraries should keep their catalogues on cards.

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