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nesting grounds, the coveted feathers are stripped from their backs, the carcasses are left to rot, while the young in the nest above are starving."

"This slaughter of the innocents is by no means confined to the Southern states. During four months 70,000 bird skins were supplied to the New York trade by one Long Island village. 'On the coast line of Long Island,' wrote

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Mr. William Dutcher, not long ago, 'the slaughter has been carried on to such a degree that, where, a few years since, thousands and thousands of terns (Fig. 76) were gracefully sailing over the surf-beaten shore and the wind-rippled bays, now one is rarely to be seen.' Land birds of all sorts have also suffered in a similar way, both on Long Island and in adjacent localities in New Jersey. Nor have the interior regions of the United States escaped the visits of the milli

ner's agent. An Indianapolis taxidermist is on record with the statement that in 1895 there were shipped from that city 5000 bird skins collected in the Ohio Valley. He adds that 'no county in the state is free from the ornithological murderer,' and prophesies that birds will soon become very scarce in the state.

"These isolated examples can only suggest the enormous number of birds that are sacrificed on the altar of fashion. The universal use of birds for millinery purposes bears sufficient testimony to the fact. Yet it is probable that most women who follow the fashion seldom appreciate the suffering and the economic losses that it involves."- WEED and DEARBORN, "Birds in their Relations to Man."

78. Effects of bird destruction. While the æsthetic loss to mankind resulting from the destruction of our wild birds cannot, as we have said, be computed, yet even in the cities this loss is beginning to be realized as we see the song birds in the parks steadily diminishing in number. Everyone, however, is affected by the increasing cost of our food supply, and we have but to review the facts stated in the preceding sections to show that the destruction of our wild birds has a very important bearing on the present situation.

Every farmer knows that it is impossible to raise the crops of a single year without battling with insect pests. The time and expense involved in applying insect-destroying preparations would be difficult to compute, and even after the year's contest is ended, the insects are often victorious. In ruthlessly destroying the wild birds man has interfered with the "balance of nature" and so has helped the ravaging hordes of insects and gnawing animals to multiply without adequate check. All this means that we, the consumers of

the fruits, the vegetables, and the grains, must pay higher prices for the food we eat and the clothes we wear.

79. Conservation of birds. But it is not yet too late to save the remnant of the birds still left to us, and even to increase the bird life of our country. It is evidently necessary, however, in the first place, that laws similar to the following should be passed in every state.

"The Bird Law of the American Ornithologists' Union. — An Act for the Protection of Birds and their Nests and Eggs. "Section 1.- No person shall within the State of - kill or catch or have in his or her possession, living or dead, any wild bird other than a game bird, nor shall purchase, offer, or expose for sale any such wild bird after it has been killed or caught. No part of the plumage, skin, or body of any bird protected by this section shall be sold or had in possession for sale.

"Section 2. No person shall within the State of take or needlessly destroy the nest or the eggs of any wild bird nor shall have such nest or the eggs in his or her possession.

"Section 3. Any person who violates any of the provisions of this act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be liable to a fine of five dollars for each offense, and an additional fine of five dollars for each bird, living or dead, or part of bird, or nest and eggs possessed in violation of this act, or to imprisonment for ten days, or both, at the discretion of the court.

"Section 4. Sections 1, 2, and 3 of this act shall not apply to any person holding a certificate giving the right to take birds and their nests and eggs for scientific purposes, as provided for in Section 5 of this Act.


"Section 7.-The English or European house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is not included among the birds protected by this act.”

"In addition to the above, every state that has not already done so, should at once enact laws to prohibit the sale of all wild game at all seasons, and to stop all shooting


of game in late winter and spring. About one half the states have done this, and the other half should act without delay. The sale of game has almost destroyed our once magnificent supply of game birds. We have no right to hand down posterity a gameless continent. The wild life of to-day is not wholly ours to dispose of as we please. It has been given to us in trust. We must account for it to those who come after us and audit our records."1- Dr. W. T. HORNADAY.

But laws, however stringent, are of little avail unless there is a healthy public sentiment to bring about their enforcement. Thus, for instance, it is evident that laws merely designed to prevent the killing of birds for millinery purposes will be ineffective, so long as women are permitted to wear birds. One thing will completely stop the cruelty of bird millinery the disapprobation of fashion. "It is our women who hold the great power. Let our women say the word, and hundreds of bird lives will be preserved every year. And until woman does use her influence it is vain to hope that this nameless sacrifice will cease until it has worked out its own end and the birds are gone." WEED and DEARBORN, "Birds in their Relations to Man."


80. What boys and girls can do to protect birds. that adequate statutes are either enacted or may reasonably be expected very soon, it remains to scatter information about birds everywhere, so that laws may be respected. . . and it is in this line that those interested in their conservation should work. There must be lectures, short articles of a popular nature in newspapers and magazines, distribution of government and other publications relating to birds,

1 The authors are indebted to Dr. W. T. Hornaday, of the New York Zoological Park, for many suggestions relating to conservation of birds and for a careful reading of the chapters on birds and fishes.

posting bird laws in conspicuous places, and most important of all, systematic bird work in public schools. The importance of engaging the interest of our youth in birds cannot be overestimated. It results in a double benefit, for the birds will be held in higher esteem and the children will become possessed of a source of lasting pleasure. The nestrobbing, bird-shooting boy and the feather-wearing girl may be made the friends and allies of the birds." - WEED and DEARBORN, "Birds


in their Relations to Man."

But not only should the boy cease to destroy nests and shoot birds; not only should the girl cease to wear any part of a wild bird; but boys and girls alike should do all they can to induce

others to do likewise. FIG. 77.-Bird house made by a twelveMuch may also be done,

year-old boy.

likewise, even in the vicinity of large towns, to attract birds and induce them to nest. In the first place, the nests and eggs of the English sparrow should be destroyed whenever found. Stray cats should be kept from harming birds. Pieces of meat, bones, and suet, when hung in the trees in winter time, and crumbs and grains scattered about, will serve to attract the winter visitants and, when thus attracted, these birds devour great numbers of the eggs and insects in the hibernating stages that during the following season would attack the fruit and shade trees. And finally, any ingenious boy can construct and put in the trees bird houses that in the springtime would become the

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