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The only other matter to which the reader's attention is directed in this place is the reading of the word hands instead of hand in the rubric before the words, "Defend, O Lord," etc., in the Confirmation service. On this point we simply state the facts. The word is in the singular in the Gelasian Sacramentary1 from which our rubric probably came. is in the singular in the first and second Prayer Book of Edward VI., 1549, and 1552; so also in Queen Elizabeth's Book, 1559, and in the Latin Prayer Book of 1560; so in King James's Book, 1603; and in the Prayer Book of the Savoy, 1662. It is in the singular in the Proposed Book, the American Prayer Book of 1790, in the edition of 1791, and in Bishop Claggett's edition of 1815, and in every Prayer Book of the Church of England to-day. The plural, hands, first appeared in the Standard of 1793, a book which, from the Journal it is evident, was issued merely to correct misprints and not to make any changes whatever, as Bishop White also expressly tells us. As a matter of fact it is a very faulty edition with many original printer's errors, some of which have been corrected from time to time as such, but this misprint has been continued in Prayer Books generally, except in the edition of Bishop Claggett, where as has been already noted it is corrected to hand.


Over one hundred years have gone by since the first American Prayer Book was set forth by the Convention of 1789. Its history, which we have rapidly reviewed, if it teaches anything, demonstrates the strong hold conservatism has within the Church. And nothing has brought out more clearly this characteristic spirit than the revision just completed. In the Convention of 1883 the Joint Committee on the Prayer Book proposed no less than two hundred and fourteen distinct alterations. Two hundred and twelve alterations were adopted by that Convention and proposed to the dioceses. But when after three years of consideration it came time to take final action on these proposed changes, only ninety-eight were adopted. In 1886 the small number of eighteen alterations were proposed, and adopted in 1889. Forty-nine alterations were proposed by the Convention of 1889, forty-five of which were adopted in 1892. When we come to estimate the results of the work of revision, extending as it did over twelve years, we find the following. Besides the many merely verbal changes, most of them made in accordance with the reading of the English Book, or for the sake of rubrical relaxation, there have been added to the Prayer Book (1) Diverse passages of Scripture in the shape of Sentences, Epistles, Gospels, and one Lesson; (2) Part of the section entitled "Concerning the Service of the Church; (3) New Tables for finding Easter; (4) The feast of the Transfiguration; (5) The words, "Let us humbly confess our sins to Almighty God;" (7) The Evangelical canticles; (8) Four versicles with their responses in Evening Prayer; (9) An additional suffrage in the Litany; (10) Ten new Prayers; (11) A Penitential


1 "Ad consignandum [Episcopus] imponit eis manum in his verbis," (Maratori, Liturgia Romana Vetus, T. I.)

2 Memoirs, p 190.

3 Strictly only nine, as the thanksgiving For a Child's Recovery from Sickness is only a modification of The Thanksgiving of Women after Child-birth.

Office; (12) Three new Collects; (13) The Kyrie, in its ancient form in the Communion Office; (14) The printing of the formula for Baptism sub conditione in the Office of Adult Baptism; (15) The words," Reverend Father in God, I present," etc., in the office of Confirmation; (16) The words, "Hear the words of the Evangelist," etc., in the same office; (17) And an addition to the exhortation in the office of Matrimony; (18) Proper Psalms for ten Holy Days, heretofore not so distinguished; (19) And ten new selections of Psalms.

But the greater part of these additions are restorations from the present English Book or from the books of 1549 and 1637. The only entirely new features, hitherto unknown to the Book of Common Prayer which this revision has now made part of the Church's liturgy are:(1) Some new Sentences of Scripture in the Daily Offices, and one in the Communion Office, and a Lesson of Scripture in the Confirmation Service; (2) Proper Psalms for ten of the Holy Days; (3) Ten new selections of Psalms; (3) the words, "Let us humbly confess," etc.; (4) A new suffrage in the Litany; (5) five prayers, viz., one For Missions, two For Fruitful Seasons, and the first two Additional Prayers in the Burial Office; (6) the words, "Reverend Father," etc., in the office of Confirmation, (7) one Collect, that is, of the Transfiguration; (8) and the response to one versicle, (with which words we may well close this whole history of the American Prayer Book) viz., "For it is thou, Lord, only, that makest us dwell in safety."

1 A somewhat similar modification of the Commination Office is found in Deacon's Compleat Collection of Devotions, where it is entitled "The Penitential Office." Vide Hall's Fragmenta Liturgica, Vol. VI.

2 The other new Offertory Sentences are found in the Scotch Book of 1637.




The American Book of Common Prayer is a revised edition of the English Book of 1662, with many verbal changes, some omissions, and a few additions, but, in all other respects, the American is an exact reproduction of the English Book. If one has any doubts on this subject, it will only be necessary to examine the two Books, to see that they are the same, save in the comparatively few changes that have been made in the later revision. The Preface to our Book openly and officially acknowledges that the American Book is a revision of the English. It affirms that "the attention of this Church was in the first place drawn to those alterations in the Liturgy [of the Church of England] which became necessary in the prayers of our Civil Rulers, in consequence of the Revolution," and then it states that "the different alterations and amendments will appear, aud, it is to be hoped, the reasons of them also, upon a comparison of this with the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England."

The General Convention also, in 1841, recommended the Printing Committee for the correction of typographical errors in the Prayer Book to consult not only "the former standard editions of the Prayer Book, set forth under the authority of this Church," but also "the edition of the English Prayer Book printed at the University Press, Oxford, by Samuel Collingwood & Co., 1840." This Committee would scarcely have been directed to consult the English Book, if the Convention had not considered that as the source of our own Book. And at this day, the Sealed Books of 1662, and particularly the MS. Book, formerly attached to the Act of Uniformity in 1662, are usually reckoned as the Standard by which language common to both Books should be corrected.

Proposed Edition of the American Prayer Book.

The short-lived "Proposed Book" was printed in Philadelphia, Hall & Sellers, MDCCLXXXVI., 8vo, and 4,000 copies of it were ordered to be published. A few of these were handsomely bound in red. morocco with gilt ornamentation. It was reprinted in London, England, M,DCC,LXXXIX., 8vo, and from a manuscript note in Bishop Stevens' copy, as mentioned in The Historical Magazine, vol. i., p. 221, we learn that there were only fifty copies of this English Reprint pub. lished, and these were probably for the use of the English Bishops, who were then considering the request of the American Church for the "Succession."

The Standard Books.

The General Convention directs, from time to time, by Canon, which particular edition of the Prayer Book shall be the Standard Book, by which all editions shall be corrected, and to which all are to conform. There have been, thus far, seven different "Standard" editions, so named by Canon, and these were published respectively in the years of our Lord, 1793, 1822, 1832, 1838, 1845, 1871, and the last in 1892. To these seven Standard editions, so entitled by Canonical authority, must necessarily be added our editio princeps, in 1790, and thus there have been eight editions, each one of which was for a time the standard book. There are, besides, Standard copies of various Offices, usually bound up, and of equal authority, with the Prayer Book, to wit: The Standard of "The Ordination Offices," a royal quarto volume, New York, Hugh Gaine, 1793, containing only thirty-five printed pages; the Standard of "Articles of Religion," a small octavo pamphlet, New York, T. & J. Swords, 1802; and the Standard of " An Office of Institution," an octavo pamphlet, New York, Swords, 1808. The Standard of "The Prayer for Convention," adopted in 1799, would seem to be the copy printed, by order of the Convention, at the end of the original "Journal of the General Convention of 1799," or it may have been printed after the "Form of Consecration of a Church or Chapel," adopted also in 1799, a Standard edition of which was probably set forth at that time, though there is no order for such in the Journal of that year. It is desirable, also, for reference, to possess copies of the stereotyped editions of the Prayer Book, which were altered into Standards, where there have been such. As a complete collection of these Standards and Pre-Standards (if a word may be coined for use in a special sense), is a great rarity, and the writer, after many years' search, partly through purchase and partly through gift, has fortunately been able to acquire all of them, it is purposed for the information of those less fortunate, to give a short account of them, with some of their peculiarities, and the more important corrections or changes in them.

The First Book, the Editio Princeps of 1790.

Our first American Prayer Book, as set forth by the General Convention in October, 1789, is a small duodecimo volume, published in Philadelphia, in August, 1790, by Hall & Sellers. This firm was the successor of Franklin & Hall, and "The Newest Printing Office" on the board over their door, which remained in that position until 1814, was placed there originally by Benjamin Franklin. The Proposed Book had also been published by Hall & Sellers. This editio princeps of 1790 is a carefully printed book, on good paper, with two columns to a page, and with a line between the columns, and has very few typographical errors in it. As in English Prayer Books of that time, the pages of it are not numbered, except in the Psalms in Metre, where a separate title-page is given, and the pages are marked by Arabic numbers, in all 221 (iii) pages. The Committee appointed by the Convention of 1789 to superintend the printing of this Book, consisted of Bishop White, Rev. Doctors Smith, Magaw, and Blackwell, and Messrs. Hopkinson and Coxe. They were instructed, "besides a full and complete edition of the said book, printed in folio or octavo or in both, to have an edition published, to contain only the parts in general use and the Collects of the day, with references to the Epistles and Gospels." But

notwithstanding this instruction, complete editions of this Book in folio or octavo were not published, so far as I can learn.


The chief peculiarities in our First Prayer Book are as follows: reading under A Table of Fasts, "The Season of Lent," instead of "The Forty Days of Lent;" in printing "He descended into Hell," of the Apostles' Creed-in the Morning and the Evening Prayer, in the Catechism, and in The Visitation of the Sick-in brackets and in italics; and in putting in small capitals the entire phrase "WHICH WE NOW OFFER UNTO THEE," in the Oblation of the Prayer of Consecration. The printing of this last phrase in capital letters was in a direct following of the later Scotch Book since 1755, and of Bishop Seabury's Communion-Office of 1786. In both of these Books, the entire sacred phrases, "THIS IS MY BODY," "THIS IS MY BLOOD," and the important word "DO" in "Do this," were printed in capitals; and in our Book of 1790, though the capitals throughout were omitted, yet each of these phrases began with a capital letter This capital "T" in "This" and "D" in "Do," of our first and second editions and in the First Standard, were never changed by authority, but a small "t" and "d" have crept into our later Standards from stereotyped editions, in which these letters were changed by a printer's mistake, and which afterwards became Standards, with or without other corrections, the small "t" being thus tacitly introduced in the Standard of 1822 from an edition of 1818, and the small "d" into the Standard of 1832 from an edition of 1831. The capital 'D' in "Do this" has been restored in our last Standard of 1892. "This is my Body-Blood," had also been printed in capital letters in a folio English Prayer Book, London, Norton & Bill, 1627. In like manner, from the Scotch Books we have inherited the position of the reference-letter to the marginal Rubric (e) in the Prayer of Consecration, it being placed before, and not after, the word "This." In the Churching of Women, the Doxology to the Lord's Prayer, which had been added in the English Book in 1661, was omitted in the American. On the other hand, at the beginning of the Office of the Holy Communion, the Doxology was added in our Book. In the Standard of 1892 this Doxology has again been omitted.

In the first Edition of 1790, sundry changes that had been adopted in the Proposed Book, seem unconsciously to have been reproduced. Thus, before the Prayer of Absolution, wherever it occurred, the word Priest, in accordance with the English Book, was carefully preserved, yet this retention was overlooked in the Offices at Sea, and in The Visitation of Prisoners, in both of which, as taken from the Proposed Book, the word Minister was continued in that position, evidently by an oversight, since this was afterwards corrected by authority, in the Standards of 1822 and 1838. The Gloria Patri was omitted after the Easter Canticle, "Christ our Passover," as in the Proposed Book, but has been restored to our Book in 1892.

The word "again" was dropped in the Apostles' Creed after the word "rose," but has been restored in 1892. In the Visitation of the Sick, the ancient Interrogative Creed of the English Church was omitted, and the ordinary Declarative Creed, in an interrogative form, was put in its stead, but this was carefully corrected in the Standard of 1793. The Ordinal, and Articles of Religion, were not at first admitted into our Book, and the prose part of it ended with the Psalter. In the

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