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cessor for the situation to which he has been called. On this head they are satisfied that your place is amply supplied. Being thus satisfied, you will not be able to shake their well-grounded confidence in their President by such tales as you have yet told, or which your inventive faculty may hereafter compose. Edifying and amusing they undoubtedly will be to that faction who delight in the disgrace of their government and country-but they will excite in the breasts of honest and impartial men no other emotions but those of contempt and indignation.
Letter from Mr. JEFFERSON, late President
forom the dry land of our's, and said; "here at least be there peace." I hope that peace and amity with all nations will long be the charter of our land, and that its prosperity, under this charter, will re-act on the mind of Europe, and profit her by the example. My hope of preserving peace for our country is not founded on the Quaker principle, of nonresistance under every wrong: but in the belief that a just and friendly conduct on our part will procure justice and friendship from others, and that in the existing contest each of the combatants will find an interest in our friendship.-I cannot say we shall be unconcerned spectators of the and we wish the good of all. We shall combat. We feel for human sufferings
which these dispositions and the events of look on therefore with the sensations the war will produce.-I feel a pride in the justice which your lordship's sentiments render to the character of my illustrious countryman, Washington. The moderation of his desires, and the strength of his judgment enabled him to calculate correctly, that the road to that glory which never dies, is to use power for the support of the laws and liberties of our country, not for its destruction, and his will accordingly survive the wreck of every thing now living.
To the Earl of Buchan.
ENGLAND AND AMERICA.-Order in Council, published in the Gazette of 7 Sept. 1811, relative to the American Commerce with the West Indies.
Washington, July 10, 1803. My Lord-I received through the hands of Mr. Lenox, on his return to the United States, the valuable volume you were so good as to send me on the life and writings of Fletcher of Salton. The political principles of that patriot were worthy of the purest periods of the British constitution. They are those which were in vigor at the epoch of the American emigration; our ancestors brought them here, and they needed little strengthening to make us what we are.— But in the weakened condition of English Whiggism, at this day, it requires more firmness to publish and advocate them than it did then to act upon them. This merit is peculiarly your lordship's, and no one honors it more than myself; freely admitting at the same time, the right of a nation to change its political principles and constitution at will; and the impropriety" of any but its own citizens censuring that change. I expect your lordship has been disappointed, as I acknowledge I have been, in the issue of the convulsions on the other side of the channel, (in France.) This has certainly lessened the interest which the philanthrophist warmly felt in those struggles. Without befriending human liberty, a gigantic force has risen up which seems to threaten the world-but it hangs on the thread of opinion, which may break from one day to another.-1 feel a real anxiety on the conflict in which your nation is again engaged, and bless the Almighty Being, who in gathering together the waters under the heavens into one place, divided the dry lands of your hemisphere
'It contains an order grounded on an Act of the 46th of his majesty, intituled An Act for authorising his majesty in council to allow, during the present war, and six weeks after the ratification of a definitive treaty of peace, the importation and exportation of certain goods and commodities in neutral ships, into and from his majesty's territories in the West Indies and Continent of South America." By virtue of this Act, Orders in Council have been made at different periods, permitting the importation into the territories abovementioned of certain articles, goods, and commodities specified, for the most part the products of the United States, or of the fisheries of the same; but by this new Order, it is directed, that after the 1st of December, no importation of the undermentioned articles shall take place into
For every quintal of dried or
Wheat Flour per barrel, not
THE following work is, in my opinion, well calculated to be useful to any proprietor of sheep, and particularly to any one who is desirous of raising a flock of Merinos. It is, besides, full of curious matter, and the reading of it produces the pleasing effect of bringing us, as it were, 0 6 8 into a country, which we have only heard of before. But, that which most strongly recommended it to me, and which induced me to re-publish it, was, that it completely settled the very important question, name4ly, whether the American States could dis
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On Flour or Meal made from
pense with European Wool and Woollens; a question of very great interest to the world in general, and to England in particular. Having never seen, in any part of America, an assemblage of sheep wor4thy of the name of flock; and, having, from habit, always looked upon Grass Fields, and Downs and Turnip Fields as being indispensably necessary to the rearing and keeping of sheep in any considerable number, I gave it as my opinion,
and ninety-six pounds......... 0 3 4 about three years ago (when writing about On Peas, Beans, Rye, Indian
Corn, Callivancies, or other
Grain, per bushel............... 0
On Rice, for
pounds net weight
For every twelve hundred (com-
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ESSAY ON SHEEP, Intended chiefly to promote the introduction and propagation of Merinos
the then dispute with America), that the
rope, &c. &c." I found that my notion of the absolute necessity of grass or turnip fields, in winter, was quite erroneous; and, that the very finest flock of sheep in all Europe, were kept. at house during five, and sometimes six, months in the year. I found, that in Saxony, in Silesia, in Denmark, in Sweden; I found, that in all these countries, it was the invariable practice to keep the sheep at house and yard, like oxen or other cattle, all the winter;
and, I also found, that, under this treat- | now, if it should become necessary, she ment, the Merino race of sheep as well as could do very well without importing any others had succeeded perfectly well. I wool or woollens from any part of the now find, too, that the very finest wool world. This is a great event. It is a known to the English manufacturer comes great change in the affairs of nations. from Saxony; into which country the The Americans, who, until now, have breed of Spanish sheep has been introduced been obliged to look to England chiefly only forty-six years at the longest; that is for coats, made of wool that came from to say, a little more than twice the length Spain; ten millions of people who got the of time that the present war has been principal articles of their wearing apparel going on. When I learnt, that flocks of in this round-about way, will now grow sheep could be kept for whole winters, those articles upon their own lands, and year after year, in houses and yards, fed will keep at home, for the feeding of upon straw, haulm, dried leaves, horse- cloth-makers, those articles of food, which chesnuts, hay, and potatoes; and, when I they used to raise in order to pay England perceived, that these flocks not only lived and Spain for manufacturing and for wool. but increased most wonderfully, and that The intelligent reader will be at no loss they sent to England even finer wool than to perceive how great must be the advanany that ever was, or that could now be, tage of this change to the American States; obtained from Spain; when I perceived a change which that country owes to the this, I could entertain no doubt of the folly and tyranny of other governments. practicability of multiplying sheep to any But, this change, favourable as I hope it extent in the American States, where ani- may prove, to the interests of mankind in mals of every kind are uncommonly pro- general, could not have been so rapidly lific, and where all the above-mentioned produced, had it not been for the actual means of wintering are found in super-invasion of Spain by the Emperor Napoabundance. Before, therefore, I saw Mr.leon, who, without intending it, perhaps, Livingston's Essay, I was fully convinced, has by this invasion, scattered the inestithat, if the Americans did not speedily mable flocks of Spain over the face of the become independant of all other countries earth. Not the Spanish monarchy only, for wool and woollens, it must be entirely but the Spanish nation, has he broken up, their own fault. It appears that they do dispersing its goods and chattels to all not mean to incur this blame; for, the who were in a condition to take them whole country seems to be animated with away. Its pictures and its plate and its the desire of rearing sheep chiefly for the jewels, all its valuable moveables are, long sake of the wool, as will clearly appear ago, divided amongst its invaders; its from the facts stated by Mr. Livingston. flocks have been driven out, shipped off, Indeed, the circumstance of this Essay or devoured; its houses, after having been having been published by Order of the Legis- pillaged, have, in no small proportion, been luture of New York, and at the public ex-levelled with the ground: and, the ground pence, professedly, (as will be seen from itself is all that seems to have any security the subjoined Resolutions. of the two of remaining. Yet, amidst all this ruin, Houses,) upon the ground of public utility; amidst this general wreck of society, it is this circumstance alone is quite conclusive much to be questioned, whether the great as to the fact, that the increase of sheep mass of the people in Spain are not as and of the manufacture of wool are be well, and even better off, than they forcome objects of great public interest in merly were; for, what interest had they America; objects in the accomplishment in the flocks which composed the riches of which they will have been powerfully of their country? What knew they of assisted by the measures adopted against those flocks but in as much as they were a their commerce by the Governments of scourge to themselves? The exclusive England and France, who, very likely, property of the privileged order, not only were wholly unconscious, that they were, was it impossible for the cultivator of the in this case, acting under the guidance of land to obtain any share in the benefit aristhe genius of freedom.-It is, I think ma-ing from these flocks, but he was compelled nifest, from the following pages, that, in three or four years, at the most, America will be able to supply herself with wool, and also with woollen cloth; and that, even
to assist, without payment, in their support, by throwing open his fields and his garden to be devoured by them in their periodical journeys from one part of the
might be employed in making her the articles she now gets from us? This is the true view of it. Men may load the subject as much as they please with fine sounding terms and epithets; but, at last, to this it comes, that we employ clothiers to make coats for the American farmers, and America employs farmers to raise food for our clothiers; and that this is going on, while we have land whence to raise more food than sufficient for all our people, and while America has ample means of raising wool and of making coats for all her people. If, indeed, it was impossible to make cloth in America and also impossible to raise food enough in England for our people, I should be ready to acknowledge the exchange to be advantageous, though carried on at a dis
country to the other!* With this fact before him, what man, who is not either a tyrant or willing slave, can regret that these flocks have been dispersed? And, I think, it must be peculiarly gratifying to the American farmer, to see raised in his own fields and fashioned under his own happy roof, that coat, by his former mode of obtaining which he used to enrich and abet the owner of those flocks whose ravages insured hunger as well as nakedness to the miserable peasant of Spain. I am aware, that there are many persons, who will learn with sorrow, that America is becoming, if not actually become, in dependent of England. Such is not the feeling, with which I have learnt the fact, being of opinion, that what has generally been called commercial greatness may be fairly numbered amongst the most griev-tance of three thousand miles, with all the ous of our country's calamities. And, indeed, it does appear to me to require a pretty complete perversion of intellect, to make men regard such a traffic as that which has existed between America and England, as conducive to the happiness of their people. Is there not, upon the face of it, something offensive to reason in the proposition, that the mutual happiness of two nations is promoted by the clothing of the one being made by the other in return for food supplied to the latter by the former; and that this interchange takes place across a sea of three thousand miles broad, while, at the same time, each nation has the means of making the whole of its own clothing and raising the whole of its own food within its own territory? What we receive from America, in payment of our cloth, is the produce of her lands. We sell our wool and the labour of our manufacturers for the produce of American lands. Now, why not employ this labour upon our own lands, and produce thereby (as we can as far as her commodities are useful to us) those articles we now receive from the American lands? And why should not she keep her food at home for the use of those persons who
* I have heard of but one species of oppression to exceed this; and that is the instance which the Rev. MR. BUCHANNAN gives us of the poor people in the Western Islands of Scotland being compelled to rear and feed the children of the rich; and also to give part of their goods to their landlord's bride at the time of her marriage!
expences and uncertainties of maritime
When we reflect on the vices and misery, on the degradation of the human character, generally attendant on a seafaring life, it is impossible not to feel plea
sure at the prospect of a diminution of maritime commerce. It may be said, that men enter voluntarily on board of merchant ships. So they do into the stews and the gaming-houses, and into every thing that tends to a corruption of morals and to the producing of unhappiness and dishonour. It certainly is the business of individuals to resist temptation; but, it is the business of governments, and, indeed, their duty, to lessen, as much as possible, the number and the strength of temptations to vice. The first duty of a government is to see that the people who live under it are happy; and, of course, it is its duty to prevent, or, at least, to discourage, by all the means in its power, the establishment, or growth, of those professions, or callings, which, from experience, have been found to produce vice and misery. It may so happen, that, without employing a considerable number of the citizens of a State upon the waters, the independence of the State itself would be endangered. In such a case the government has no choice; but, this is not the situation of America, who stands in need of little maritime force for her defence, and who, after a diminution of her foreign commerce, would require still less, because she would have less shipping to protect, and her sea-ports would become an object of less importance. The large towns also, those numerous assemblages of people, which are formed by maritime commerce, constitute an evil the extent of which is hardly to be calculated. No one will deny, that vice and wretchedness choose populous cities as their favourite abode; that there no small part of the causes of all the miseries of mankind are engendered; and that, of all descriptions of population, that of a sea port is the worst. Let any man, who has a mind formed for serious reflection, only walk through the streets and alleys in the neighbourhood of shipping. The whole of a sea-port town presents a picture sufficiently disgusting; but, as we approach the water's edge; as we draw near the bales, the casks, the boxes, the wharfs, the lighters and the ships, the aspect of every thing animate or inanimate, grows more and more loathsome, every sound grows more and more hideous; all is a scene of wrangling, rapacity, violence, insolence, deceit, bribery, perjury, filth and disease. It is impossible, therefore, for a man of a right mind, not to see with pleasure, any change in the affairs of the world, the natural tendency of which
change is to render so large and increasing a country as America independent of others, and, of course, to prevent the corruption of her people by collecting them together in sea-port towns: and, as to us, I am thoroughly convinced, that, the same cause will operate equally to our advantage; and that, in the end, all that France is now doing, as to commerce, will be found to have contributed to the permanent safety and happiness of England.Be it, however, matter of joy or of regret, the fact is, that the dependence of America upon Europe, is now at an end; and, indeed, political circumstances seem to threaten an end even to the intercourse. This I should regret; because, an intercourse between nations is the source of an increase of knowledge, which has always been as favourable to the freedom and happiness of mankind, as a great, monopolizing, combining, speculating, taxing, loan-jobbing commerce has been hostile to every thing that is patriotic, liberal, and just. This sort of commerce, so different from that which opened and kept up the enlightening intercourse between nations, is always, and always will be, the fast ally of despotism, wherever to be found, in whatever shape, under whatever sham names or outward appearances the accursed thing may exist. This sort of commerce is not only a fast ally of despotism, but, is, perhaps, its most powerful ally; and, I cannot disguise, that it gives me very great pleasure to see, and to have the proof before me, that, at any rate, this allcorrupting commerce, which was fast growing up in America, has now received a deadly blow; and, of that blow, it ap pears that no small part of the merit is due to the Author of this work.
FRANCE.-Address to the Emperor from La Lippe and from the Ionian Isles, together with his Imperial Majesty's Answers-Paris, 19th Aug. 1811.
(Concluded from page 320.)
Penetrated with respect for the eminent virtues of your Majesty, and full of confidence in that powerful genius which regulates the destines of Europe, and secures the happiness of all his subjects, we present as pledges of our fidelity and entire devotedness, the benefits which our department is