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Table showing the number of the Inhabitants of the States and Territories at each Census from 1790 to 1860, inclusive, and the decennial terms and for the whole period. number of Whites, Free Colored, and Slaves, respectively, together with the rate of increase of each class during the several

Aggregate population. 1790. 1800.







Total population...

Total slave population.

Total col'd population.

3,929,827 5,305,925 85.02 7,239,814 36.45 9,638,131 33.18 12,866,020 38.49 17,069,458 32.67 23,191,876 35.87 81,443,322 85.59 700.16 Total white population 3,172,464 4,304,489 35.68 5,862,004 36.18 7,861,987 34.11 10,587,878 34.03 14,195,695 84.72 Total free colored pop. 59,466 108,395 $2.28 186,446 72.00 283,524 25.28 319,599 36.87 886,808 20.87 Total free population.. 8,231,930 4,412,884 36.54 6,048,450 87.06 8,095,431 33.84 10,856,977 34.11 14,581,998 34.31 697,897 893,041 27.97 1,191,864 33.40 1,588,038 28.79 2,009,048 30.61 2,487,455 23.81 757,363 1,001,436 32.23 1,877,810 87.58 1,771,562 28.5 2,828,642 81.45 2,878,758 13.41

19,558,114 87.74 27,978,848 87.97 750.80

484,449 12.46 487,970 12,88 720.65 19,987,563 37.07 26,461,818 87.40 747.66 8,204,813 28.82 8,958,760 23.89 466.53 8,638,762 26,62 4,441,730 22.07 486,48

Total population in 1860, including Indian tribes.

Total population of the States and Territories.
White population of Indian Territory west of Arkansas..
Free colored population of Indian Territory west of Arkansas.
Slave population of Indian Territory west of Arkansas........
Population of Indian tribes (according to table on page 186).

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Preliminary report on the eighth census. Page 124.


How are Vacancies filled?

Upon what does the executive act?

How are vacancies created?

62, 151.

Power of choosing of

[+] When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

25. The executive of a State may receive the resignation of a member, and issue writs for a new election, without waiting to be informed by the house that a vacancy exists. Mercer's Case, Cl. & Hall, 44; Edwards's Case, Id. 92; Newton's Case, February, 1-47. Colonel Yell had not resigned; but had become a colonel of vol- unteers in the army in the war against Mexico, in 1846. The gov ernor assumed that the two offices were incompatible: and, after a resolution by the Arkansas legislature to that effect, he issued a proclamation for an election to fill the vacancy. Thomas C. Newton was returned, and the house refused to consider the question of vacancy.

Vacancies, therefore, may be created by death, resignation, removal, or accepting incompatible offices. See Paschal's Annotated Digest, note 200; Powell v. Wilson, 16 Tex. 60; The People v. Carrique, 2 Hill 93; Biencourt v. Parker, 27 Tex. 562.

The acceptance of an incompatible office is an absolute determination of the original office. (Rex v. Trelawney, 3 Burr. 1616; Millwood v. Thatcher, 2 Tr. Rep. 87; Wilcock on Municipal Corporation, 240, 617; Angel & Ames on Corporations, 255;) Biencourt v. Parker, 27 Tex. 562.

[5.] The House of Representatives shall choose their ficers, and Speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

of impeachment.

What is the

26. The SPEAKER is the presiding officer of the House of Repre sentatives, who is elected at the meeting of the first session of each Congress, and before there can be any organization. At the opening of the 34th and the 36th Congresses, there being three political parties represented, there were very great delays, as will be seen in the table. The Speaker has the appointment of all standing committees; and he becomes President of the United States in the absence of the Vice-President, and of the presiding officer of the Senate.

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The names of Speakers, pro tem., who served temporarily, for one or more days, have been omitted. The delays of elections in the 34th and 36th Congresses were caused by political contests.

27. IMPEACHMENT.-We must look to the common law for the What is im

definition of impeachment. William Wirt, Peck's Trial, 499; peachment ? James Buchanan, Peck's Trial, 437, 438. And see 1 Chase's

Trial, 47, 48; 2 Id. 9--18; 4 Elliot's Debates, 262. It is designed as a method of national inquest into the conduct of

public men. Story on the Const. § 689. To exhibit articles of 89, 191-194. accusation against a public officer before a competent tribunal. Burrill's Law Dic. IMPEACHMENT. It is a presentment by

the House of Commons, the most solemn grand inquest of the whole kingdom, to the House of Lords, the most high and supreme court of criminal jurisdiction of the kingdom. (2 Hale's Pl. of Cr. 150; 4 Blacks. Com. 259; 2 Wilson's Law. Lect. 165, 166; 2 Woodeson's Lect. 40, p. 596.) Story's Const. § 688. The objects, openness, and diguity of the proceeding. (Rawle, Const. 69, 137, 225, 236; 2 Elliott's Debates, 43-46.) Story's Const. §§ 688-9. Pickering's Judge Pickering was impeached, tried, convicted, and removed in his absence, and without counsel. His offense was, that he was deprived of reason. Farrar, 169. The judgment was removal from office. Story's Const. § 803, note 1. For an enumeration of the impeachable crimes at common law, see 2 Woodeson's Lect. 40, p. 202; Com. Dig. L. 28-42; Story's Const. § 799–803.

Case ?

193, 194.


How and by

whom are senators chosen?


What are

SEC. III.-[1.] The senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each senator shall have one vote.

28. Consider the nature of the representation; the mode of apthe objects? pointment; the number of senators; their term of service; and their qualifications. 1 Story's Const. § 691. It makes the States Why two for equal in the senate. This result was obtained as a compromise, each state? without which the Convention must have been dissolved. Curtis's Hist. of the Const. 41, 48, 100, 105, 106; 1 Story's Const. § 690700; 2 Pitkin's Hist. 233, 245, 247, 248; 4 Elliot's Debates, 7492; Id. 99-101; Id. 107, 108, 112-127; 2 Id. 233, 245; Luther Martin's Letter in 4 Elliot's debates, 1-45. The election by the Why elected legislature was mainly to secure the coöperation of the State with by the Legis- the federal government. (The Federalist, Nos. 27, 62; 1 Kent's Com. Lect. 11, p. 211.) Story's Const. § 704.


How elected?


It was not fully settled whether the elections should be by joint or concurrent vote, until the act of Congress in these notes. (1 Rawle's Const. 37; 1 Kent's Com. Lect. 11 p. 211, 212.) The numbers considered. 1 Story's Const. § 706-708; 2 Curtis's Hist. of Corst. passim. There was Hamilton's opinion in favor of tenure during good behavior. Curtis's Hist. of the Const. 100, 105; Hamilton's Story's Const. § 709, note 2 in 3d Ed. The advantages of the opinion? present system and the classification fully discussed; Id. § 709-727. Effect of two Practically, the fact that each senator has one vote often divides the State upon questions of party interest.

What was


What has been the practice?


29. Where the election is by a joint convention of the two houses of the legislature, it is not necessary that there should be a concurrent majority of each house in favor of the candidate deCameron's clared to be elected. Cameron's Case, United States Senate, 13th March, 1857. The election, however, must be substantially by both houses, as distinct bodies. The mere fact that a majority of the joint body, or even of each body, is present, does not constitute the aggregate body a legislature, unless the two bodies, acting separately, have voted to meet, and have actually met accordingly.

28, 30

Harlan's Case, United States Senate, 12th January, 1857; 10 Law Harlan's Rep. 1-6.


In the case of John P. Stockton, of New Jersey, in 1866, it was Stockton's held that where the two bodies met in convention to elect a senator, case? and no one having, after numerous ballots, received a majority of the votes cast, and the convention then resolved to elect by plurality, and did so elect, it was not an election by the legislature, and Mr. Stockton was refused his seat. Senate Journal, 4th Dec., 1865; 8th Jan., 30th Jan., and 26th March, 1866.


For the reasons which led to an equal representation in the sen- Why two ate, and for a longer term of service, see 2 Curtis's History of the senators? Constitution, p. 138-141, 165, 166, 186, 217. This is one of the sections under which it has been urged that the right of the seceded States to representation in the senate is optional, absolute, and unqualified. While the precedent is that the reestablishment of the representation depends upon the reestablished loyalty of the State, and the ability of the senators elected to take the test oath.

30. The mode of election has now been settled by the following act:

242. 275, 279.

CHAP. CCXLV.-An Act to regulate the Times and Manner of hold- July 25.1866, ing Elections for Senators in Congress.

14 St, 243.

States and


Be it enacted, &c., 1. That the legislature of each State which What legis shall be chosen next preceding the expiration of the time for which latures of any senator was elected to represent such State in Congress, shall, when to on the second Tuesday after the meeting and organization thereof, elect senaproceed to elect a senator in Congress, in the place of such senator tors? so going out of office, in the following manner: Each house shall What is the openly, by a viva voce vote of each member present, name one person mode of elec for senator in Congress from said State, and the name of the person' so voted for, who shall have a majority of the whole number of votes cast in each house shall be entered on the journal of each house by the clerk or secretary thereof; but if either house shall fail to give such majority to any person on said day, that fact shall be entered on the journal. At 12 o'clock, meridian, of the day following that on which proceedings are required to take place, as aforesaid, the members of the two houses shall convene in joint assembly and the journal of each house shall then be read, and if the same person shall have received a majority of all the votes in each house, such person shall be declared duly elected senator to represent said State in the Congress of the United States; but if the same person shall not have received a majority of the votes in each house, or if either house shall have failed to take proceedings as required by this act, the joint assembly shall then proceed to choose by a viva voce vote of each member present, a person for the purpose aforesaid, and the person having a majority of all the votes of the said joint assembly, a majority of all the members elected to both houses being present and voting, shall be declared duly elected; and if no person shall receive such majority on the first day, the joint assembly shall meet at twelve o'clock, meridian,

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