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GUARANTY. The United States shall guaranty to every State in
this Union a republican form of government...

Guaranty defined, n. 263. (See Government.) Every
State extends also to inchoate States, n. 233.

GWINNETT, BUTTON, of Georgia. Signed the Dec. of Ind. p. 7.

HABEAS CORPUS. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it..

Privilege defined, n. 140. When the President may suspend it, or disobey the writ, notes 140, 162. Habeas corpus defined, n. 141. Congress alone may suspend the writ, n. 141. Denied, n. 140. When it may be issued by the federal courts, n. 141, p. 141. When the State courts cannot release under it, n. 141, p. 142. Not when committed by the federal government, n. 141, p. 143. The act of 1863, suspending the writ, Id. His proclamation suspending the writ, Id. The courts judicially noticed the end of the rebellion, n. 141, p. 144. The writ in favor of the assassins disobeyed, Id. The writ the remedy for false imprisonment, Id. When for contempts, Id. The laws of Pennsylvania about, n. 141, p. 145. The demarcations between the federal and State governments defined, n. 141, pp. 148, 149. The distinction between process and imprisonment, Id. The rights of the citizen to claim the benefit of the writ of habeas corpus is an immunity, n. 221, p. 226.

HALL, LYMAN, of Georgia. Signed Dec. of Ind. p. 8.

HAMILTON, ALEXANDEB, of N. Y. Signed the Constitution, p. 42.
HAMLIN, HANNIBAL. Vice-President of United States, n. 37.
HANCOCK, JOHN, of Massachusetts. Signed Dec. of Ind. p. 7.
and Articles of Confederation, p. 21.

HANSON, JOHN, of Maryland. Signed Articles of Confederation,
p. 21.

HAPPEN. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

The governors may act without waiting for the house or
waiting for a resignation of the vacancy really exist, n. 45.
HAPPEN. When vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise,
during the recess of the legislature of any State, the exec-
utive thereof may make temporary appointments, &c.
The vacancy, how it happens, n. 32. The executive can-
not appoint before the vacancy actually happens, n. 33.
HAPPEN. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies
that may happen during the recess of the Senate, &c.....
Vacancies, happen, &c., defined and discussed, n. 185.
The power limited by the tenure of office bill, n. 184, p. 180,
§ 3.

HARNETT, CORNS., of N. C. Signed Articles of Confederation, p. 21.
HARRISON, THOMAS, of Virginia. Signed Dec. of Ind. p. 7.
HARRISON, WILLIAM H. President, n. 166, p. 163.

HART, JOHN, of New Jersey. Signed Dec. of Ind. p. 7; and Arti
cles of Confederation, p. 21.

HARVIE, JOHN, of Virginia. Signed Articles of Confederation, p. 21 HEADS of Departments. The President may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices..

What are these cabinet departments, n. 176. The practice as to the opinions, Id.

HEADS of Departments. The Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments..

Who are such inferior officers, n. 183.

HEWES, JOSEPH, of North Carolina. Signed Dec. of Ind. p. 8.
HEYWARD, Jr., THOMAS, of South Carolina. Signed Dec. of Ind.

p. 8; and Articles of Confederation, p. 21.

Art. sec. cl.

pp.

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HIGH crimes and misdemeanors. The President, Vice-President,
and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed
from otice on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason,
bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors..

Confined strictly to civil officers, n. 191. Senators are
not civil officers, Id. Treason and bribery defined, Id.
High crimes defined, n. 193. Misdemeanors defined and
distinguished, n. 194. The whole question and prece-
dents considered, n. 194.

HOLTON, SAMUEL, of Mass. Signed Articles of Confederation, p. 21.
HONOR. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend
further than to removal from office, and disqualification to
hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit, under
the United States.

Judgment defined, n. 40. Whether it shall be less,
Id. Punishment touches neither person nor property,
n. 40. (See notes 39, 191, 192, 193 194.) The President
cannot release the judgment by pardon. Art. II. See. 2,
Cl. 1, n. 177.

HOOPER, WILLIAM, of North Carolina.

Signed Dec. of Ind. p. 8.
HOPKINS, STEPHEN, of Rhode Island. Signed Dec. of Ind. p. 8.
HOPKINSON, FRANCIS, of New Jersey. Signed Dec. of Ind. p. 7.
HOSMER, TITUS, of Conn. Signed Articles of Confederation, p. 21.
HOUSE. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any

house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war,
but in a manner to be prescribed by law. Amendments
His house is his castle, n. 25. The occupant is the owner
for this purpose, Id. Soldier and quarter defined, Id.
HOUSE of Representatives. Congress shall consist of a Senate
and House of Representatives...

Only one house under the Articles of Confederation, Art.
V. p. 10. (See Congress.) Congress defined, n. 15. Wisdom
of the division, n. 15.

HOUSE of Representatives. Members of the House of Represen-
tatives chosen every second year by the people.....
House defined, n. 16. The people defined, n. 16. Com-
pared with electors, citizens, &c. notes 16, 17, 18, 21, 93,
220, 274. Interpolations by the Confederate Constitution,
n. 16, p. 59. (See Citizens, notes 220, 274.) How chosen
under the articles of Confederation, Art. V. p. 10.
HOUSE of Representatives, members of the. (See Representa-
tives.)

HOUSE of Representatives. Qualifications of electors of members
of the House of Representatives, the same as for electors
of the most numerous branch of the State legislature...
Qualifications defined, n. 16, pp. 59, 60. The qualifica-
tions in each State, alphabetically arranged, n. 17, pp.
60-64. No uniformity of qualifications but in sex and age,
n. 17, p. 65. Citizenship does not give, nor the want of
it take away, the right to vote, n. 18.

HOUSE of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other
officers.

Speaker defined, his eligibility to the Presidency, n. 26.
List of Speakers, n. 26, p. 73.

HOUSE of Representatives shall have sole power of impeachment..
We must look to the common law for the definition of
impeachment, n. 27. Impeachment defined and discussed,
notes 27, 39, 191, 192, 193.

HOUSE Each, shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and
qualifications of its own members, and a majority shall
constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number
may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to
compel the attendance of absent members in such manner
and under such penalties as that house may provide.

Elections defined, n. 44. The returns prima facie
evidence, n. 45. Qualifications defined and discussed, and
the issues between the President and Congress stated,
n. 46, pp. 84, 85, 86.

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HOUSE. Each, may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish
its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the con-
currence of two-thirds, expel a member...

The rules, where found, n. 47. The right to punish for
contempts, n. 48. For what a member may be expelled;
and who have been expelled, notes 49, 50.

HOUSE. Each, shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from
time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as
may, in their judgment, require secrecy; and the yeas and
nays of the members of either house, on any question,
shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered
on the journal

The object of this, n. 51.

HOUSE. Neither, during the session of Congress, shall without the
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days,
nor to any other place than that in which the two houses
shall be sitting

This was to secure independence of the President, n. 52.
HOUSE of Representatives. All bills for raising revenue shall
originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate
may propose, or concur with, amendments, as on other
bills..

Copied from the English law, n. 64. Revenue defined,
n. 65.
HOUSE of Representatives and Senate. Every bill which shall
have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate
shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President
of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if
not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house
in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the ob-
jections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider
it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house
shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with
the objections, to the other house, by which it shall like-
wise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that
house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the
votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays;
and the names of the persons voting for and against the
bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respect-
ively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President
within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have
been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like
manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their
adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not
be a law...

When bills take effect, n. 66. The returning, negative
or veto defined, n. 67. History of the veto, n. 67, pp. 92, 93.
HOUSE of Representatives and Senate. Every order, resolution, or
vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of
Representatives may be necessary (except on a question
of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the
United States, and, before the same shall take effect, shall
be approved by him; or, being disapproved by him, shall
he repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Rep-
resentatives, according to the rules and limitations pre-
scribed in the case of a bill..

Resolutions

When a joint resolution is a law, n. 70.
proposing amendments to the Constitution need not be
submitted to the President, notes 236, 275, 284.
HOUSE of Representatives. If no person have a majority (of the
electoral votes as President of the United States), then,
from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceed-
ing three, on the list of those voted for as President, the
House of Representatives shall choose, immediately, by
ballot, the President. But, in choosing the President, the
votes shall be taken by States, the representatives from
each State having one vote: a quorum for this purpose
shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of

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the States, and a majority of all the States shall be neces-
sary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives
shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice
shall devolve upon them, before the 4th day of March next
following, then the Vice-President shall act as President,
as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability
of the President. Amendments.

The old Constitution, n. 168. The contingency of four
candidates and a tie vote met, n. 168, p. 166.

HOUSES. The right of the people to be secure in their houses
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be
violated. Amendments

The people defined, n. 251. Searches and seizures, when
unreasonable, n. 251. Warrants defined, n. 252.

HOUSES of Congress. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both
houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments
to this Constitution..

What is the Congress, n. 275. All the amendments have
been proposed to the legislatures, n. 236. The history of
the first twelve, n. 244. Of the thirteenth, n. 274. Of the
fourteenth, notes 275-285.

HOUSES of Congress. The President may, on extraordinary occa-
sions, convene both houses of Congress, or either of them.
The exercise of this power, n. 188.

HUNTINGTON, SAMUEL, of Connecticut. Signed Dec. of Ind. p. 7.
Signed Articles of Confederation, p. 21.

HUTSON, RICHARD, of S. C. Signed Articles of Confederation, p. 21.
HYDROMETERS to be procured, n. 102, p. 117.

ILLINOIS. Qualifications for suffrage in, n. 17, p. 60. Fourteen
representatives in 1860, n. 24. Population during the dif
ferent decades, n. 24, pp. 69, 70. Assigned to the seventh
judicial circuit, n. 197, p. 192. Admitted into the Union,
n. 230. Ratified the 13th amendment, n. 274; and the 14th,
n. 275.
IMMIGRANTS from Europe, with six years' residence, allowed to
vote in South Carolina, n. 17, p. 64. And in Wisconsin, Id.
IMMIGRATION. The proper term in, Art. I. Sec. 9, cl. 1, n. 139.
IMMUNITIES. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all
privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States.
Citizens defined, and their classification. (See Citizens,
notes 220, 274.) Privileges and immunities defined, n. 221.
Immunities are rights of exemption only, n. 221.
IMPEACHMENT. The House of Representatives shall have the sole
power of impeachment..

We look to the common law for the definition of im-
peachment, n. 27. Defined, notes 27, 191. Discussed as
to what are high crimes and misdemeanors, n. 194. How
tried, and trials where found, n. 39. Oath of senators on
trial, n. 39, p. 82. Questions to senators, Id. Judgment
in cases of, n. 40. History of, n. 194.

IMPEACHMENT. The Senate of the United States shall have the

sole power to try all impeachments
For the doctrine and precedents, n. 39.

IMPEACHMENT. When sitting to try an impeachment, the Senate
shall be on oath or affirmation..

The oath of the senators, and the question propounded
to them, n. 39.

IMPEACHMENT. When the President is tried, the Chief-Justice
shall preside..

History and failure of the effort to impeach President
Johnson n. 194. Charges against, and law arguments, n. 194.
IMPEACHMENT. No person shall be convicted without the con-

currence of two-thirds of the members present
IMPEACHMENT. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not
extend further than removal from office, and disqualifica-
tion to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit,
under the United States...

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Judgment defined, n. 40. Whether it can be less than
removal and disqualification, n. 40. It can be no more, Id.
IMPEACHMENT. But the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be
liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and pun-
ishment, according to law.

IMPEACHMENT. The President shall have power to grant reprieves
and pardons for offenses against the United States, except
in cases of impeachment..

The power to pardon is unlimited, with this exception,
n. 176, p. 173.
IMPEACHMENT. All civil officers of the United States shall be
removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction
of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misde-

meanors...

None but civil officers, n. 191. Impeachment defined,
notes 27, 191. For treason and bribery, n. 192. High
crimes defined, n. 193. Misdemeanors defined and distin-
guished from felony, n. 194. No case yet tried rests upon
statutable misdemeanors, n. 194, p. 187. Charges against
President Johnson. Argument of the minority that they
are not crimes or misdemeanors, n. 194, p. 188. Chase's
trial, notes 27, 194. Blount's trial, n. 194. The charges,
"Good beha-
Id. Peck and Humphries, n. 194, p. 188.
vior cannot apply to the President.

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IMPEACHMENT. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeach-
ment, shall be by jury

Trial and crimes defined, n. 212.

IMPORTATION. No amendment made prior to 1808 shall affect the
1st and 4th clauses of the 9th section...

IMPORTATION of persons. (Slaves.) The migration or importation of
such persons as any of the States now existing shall think
proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by Congress prior
to the year eighteen hundred and eight, but a tax or duty
may be imposed on such importation not exceeding ten
dollars for each person..

Migration or importation defined and discussed. Migra-
tion is voluntary; importation involuntary, n. 139. Im-
migration the proper word, Id.

IMPOSTS. Congress shall have power to lay imposts...

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Imposts defined, notes 76, 144.

IMPOSTS.

All duties, imposts, and excises, shall be uniform
throughout the United States

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Taxes must be by the rules of uniformity or apportion-
ment, notes 22, 81, 144, 145. It here means that the same
duties shall be paid at all the ports.

IMPOSTS. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any
(See Duties.)
imposts or duties on imports or exports, &c.
Imposts defined, n. 162.

INABILITY. In case of the inability of the President to discharge
the powers and duties of that office, the same shall de-
volve on the Vice-President; and in case of the inability
of both President and Vice-President, Congress shall by
law declare what officer shall then act as President.
The law of, n. 172, § 8. The President pro tem, to act
as President when; Speaker of the House, n. 172.

INDEPENDENCE. Declaration of, pp. 1-8.

INDEPENDENCE. All who adhered to the cause of, became citizens

of the United States, n. 220, §§ 1, 6. And those who ad-
hered to the independence of Mexico how far, Id.
INDEPENDENT. That these United States are, &c., p. 6. Texas
was before annexation, Pref. p. viii. Its rights, as such, how
far surrendered, Id.

Population during the dif-
Assigned to the seventh
Admitted into the Union,

INDIANA. Qualifications for suffrage in, n. 17, p. 61. Eleven
representatives in 1360, n. 24.
ferent decades, n. 24, pp. 69-71.
judicial circuit, n. 197, p. 192.
n. 230. Ratified the 13th amendment, n. 274; and the
14th, n. 275.

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