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In the discussions there are a few interesting and lively pages by Prof. Paul Shorey on "Mind and Body." "While we all agree," he says, in deprecating the contamination of psychology with metaphysics, psychological literature is largely occupied with controversy over metaphysical conceptions introduced by the back door."

Professor James's article, "The Knowing of Things Together," in the March number is the text of his address as President of the American Psychological Association, the last meeting of which was held in Princeton during the last Christmas vacation. The subject of the address is "The Synthetic Unity of Consciousness." He reviews his own and several other attempts to describe accurately and exhaustively this phenomenon, and concludes by abandoning the attempt made in his Principles of Psychology to formulate mental states as integers. He admits now, moreover, that metaphysical and epistemological discussions cannot be kept out of psychological treatises.

Abstracts of the papers read before the Psychological Association at the last meeting are published in this number of the Review. The Psychological Index, comprising the titles of the literature of psychology and cognate subjects in all languages for 1894 (price, 75 cents; to subscribers, 50 cents) is announced by the editors of the Review, as is also the founding of a series of Monograph Supplements ($4.00 a volume, for 600 pages). One, on Sensations from Pressure and Impact, by Dr. H. Griffing, is now ready.

THE PHILOSOPHICAL REVIEW.

Vol. IV.

No. 1.

EVOLUTION AND DevelopmenT. By Prof. S. W. Dyde.-PLEASURE AND PAIN DEFINED. By Prof. Sidney E. Mezes.-THE METHOD OF IDEALIST ETHICS. By Sydney H. Mellone.-AFFECTIVE MEMORY. By Prof. E. B. TitchenerBOOK REVIEWS.-(Boston, New York, Chicago: Ginn & Co.)

Professor Dyde distinguishes between evolution and development, evolution being taken to denote a fact of the science of life, and development to indicate the course and character of thought. The article is in the literary style and shows the relations which are influential between the facts of the world and the thoughts that reflect them.

Professor Mezes does not consider all the theories of pleasure and pain, nor has he mentioned the view that pleasure is a feeling accompanying the gratification of a want, and pain the reverse. Following the analogy of the German, he distinguishes two kinds of pain, Unlust and Schmerz. His conclusions and definitions are: I. Any psychic fact attended to is pleasant if there is no discernible inhibition in the apperceptive system into which it is received. II. Any psychic fact attended to is unpleasant if there is discernible inhibition in the apperceptive system into which it is received. III A pain is an unpleasant sensation, either of touch or systemic, of abnormal intensity."

According to Mr. Mellone's view "we are able to regard the process of Evolution as a gradual emergence, a gradual bringing to light, of what the matter and energy' of Nature really are; and we explain what Nature (or, what Evolution is) by looking, not to its beginning, but to its End." Physical or non-human Nature becomes the manifestation of a deeper cosmic process, which has a vital relation to human ideal aims of Truth, Goodness, Beauty.

Professor Titchener had maintained the thesis that the affection, as such, pleasure-pain qua elemental process, could never be the object of attention." His present article is a criticism of Ribot's recent assertion that in certain individuals a

truly affective memory is verifiable. He finds that "the affective element, pleas antness-unpleasantness, exists alongside of the sensational and conative factors as a primitive functional constituent of mind; and is not reducible to either of the others. It is impossible to attend to pleasantness-unpleasantness as such. It is therefore impossible to voluntarily recall a past affective state as such. Spontaneous revival of a past affective state as such is also impossible. Even if a pleasantness-unpleas antness were reproduced it could not be recognised."

MIND. NEW SERIES, No. 13.

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WHAT DO WE MEAN BY THE INTENSITY OF PSYCHICAL STATES? By F. H. Bradley-ON the DifferencE OF TIME AND RHYTHM IN MUSIC. By Dr. R. Wallascheck.-THE METAPHYSICS OF THE TIME-PROCESS. By F. C. S. Schiller. THE RELATION OF ATTENTION TO MEMORY. By W. G. Smith.-SIMPLE REACTIONS. By E. B. Titchener.-REALITY AND CAUSATION. By W. Carlile.-DISCUSSIONS, ETC.-(London and Edinburgh: Williams & Norgate.) Although doubtful whether his discussions lead to any definite conclusion, and having a desire only to reopen the subject," Mr. Bradley believes his inquiries point to five results: "(1) The force of a mental state is a phrase which is most ambiguous. It seldom, if ever, means the same as its actual quantity or area. (2) Psychical strength, taken as an amount of psychical existence or a number of its units, is a conception valid and perhaps useful. Its scale may be relative to my varying condition, but again is average, normal, or absolute. (3) The units of this scale probably cannot be shown, and certainly cannot exist bare; but as an abstraction we seem forced theoretically to assume them. (4) Everything in the soul which in any sense becomes more or less, has so far a more or less of psychical existence, but only so far. Every 'state' is complex, and the whole state therefore may have a quantity which bears no fixed ratio to any one aspect. (5) Within our psychical content there thus fall scales indefinite in number and more or less independent and able to diverge. Hence a single state may vary quantitatively in various respects, as well as in respect of psychical existence."

The fundamental difference between time and rhythm in music Dr. Wallascheck finds to consist in the fact that rhythm is the form of objective movement, time-sense [that is, the sense of musical time, the French mesure, and the German Takt] is the form of the perceiving subjective mind. Music, according to Dr. Wallascheck, is essentially a social function; "a musical ensemble, an orchestra, a chorus, is one organism, one person, just as the state represents (juridically) one person, not only a company of several members."

Mr. F. C. S. Schiller is bothered with the question how that full reality, the individual in the time-process," is to be explained. Scientific knowledge, he thinks, is not an unanalysable term in the explanation of things. Science abstracts from the particularity of reality, in obedience to certain practical aims which it must fulfil. To the discipline in which those aims are formed into a connected and coherent system we must look for an ultimate account of the world. This discipline is abstract metaphysics. It is Mr. Schiller's belief that a metaphysic of the timeprocess will stand in the same relation to the explanation of phenomena by their history as a metaphysic of abstract ideas stands to their explanation by universal

laws."

Mr. Smith's discussion of "the relation of attention to our power of associating and recollecting objects presented to consciousness" is based upon experiments made in Leipsic in 1893 and continued afterwards in Oxford.

His results differ

slightly from the conclusions of previous investigators, and he finds that one great drawback to the researches of Ebbinghaus, Mueller, and Schumann on memory is the formulation of the work of memory in terms of time only, leaving the qualitative analysis of memory to be still sought. His own experiments show what visual, auditory, motor, and other elements enter into play.

THE NEW WORLD.
SOME QUESTIONS IN RELIGION NOW PRESSING.

Vol. III, No. 12. Vol. IV, No. 13.

By David N. Beach.-A UNI-
TARIAN'S GOSPEL. By Charles E. St. John. —ATHANASIANISM. By Levi L.
Paine-SCIENCE A NATURAL ALLY OF RELIGION. By E. Benjamin Andrews.
-"One Lord, and HIS NAME ONE. By Samuel R. Calthrop.-THE GOSPEL
ACCORDING TO PETER. By J. Armitage Robinson.-JOHN ADDINGTON SY-
MONDS. By Frank Sewall.-MODERN JESUITISM. By Charles C. Starbuck.—
THE MIMICRY OF HEREDITY. By George Batchelor.

THE DEVIL. By Charles Carroll Everett.-RACE - PREJUDICE. By Maurice
Bloomfield-Oliver WendelL HOLMES. By 7. T. Munger.—THE GOD OF
ZOROASTER. By L. H. Mills. -THE TRUTH OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.
By Allan Menzies.-THE PREACHING OF PHILLIPS BROOKS. By Henry G.
Spaulding.-Some of MR. KIDD'S FALLACIES. By James M. Whiton.-The
ORIGINS OF THE RELIGION AND HISTORY OF ISRAEL. By F. Meinhold.-THE
POET IN AN AGE OF SCIENCE. By Charles J. Goodwin.-THE SONG OF THE
WELL. By Karl Rudde.—Book Reviews.—(Boston: Houghton, Mifflin &
Co.)

There are significant signs of stirring in the orthodox theological world, and it will be invigorating for people who have laid the question of the reconciliation of science and religion to heart, to read from the pen of a Congregational clergyman, David Nelson Beach, the article Some Questions in Religion Now Pressing, in the December number of The New World. Mr. Beach asks: "Has not the time come for a definite reconstruction of theology along the lines in harmony with the largest knowledge and the sturdiest faith of the age? The theology under whose spell the world still rests, that of the age of Anselm and of Aquinas, was conformed to the best contemporaneous science and philosophy. It was of even date. Is ours?"

The article by E. Benjamin Andrews, Science a Natural Ally to Religion, tends in the same direction but is written in a slightly different spirit. In any case it is apparent that the opponents of the alliance of science with religion are not all found in the Church proper.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ETHICS. Vol. V. No. 2.

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF RECENT LABOR TROUBLES IN AMERICA. By Hon. Carroll
D. Wright.-THE NECESSITY OF DOGMA. By J. Ellis McTaggart.—THE
JUVENILE OFFENDER, AND THE CONDITIONS WHICH PRODUCE HIM. By Rev.
W. D. Morrison.-THE TELEology of VIRTUE. By Walter Smith.-THE
ALTRUISTIC IMPULSE IN MAN AND ANIMALS. By T. Gavanescul.-MATTHEW
ARNOLD'S POETRY FROM AN ETHICAL STANDPOINT. By Abraham Flexner.-
DISCUSSIONS. BOOK REVIEWs. - (Philadelphia: International Journal of
Ethics, 1305 Arch Street.)

the losses have been great,

In the late labor troubles, Carroll Wright says. the demoralisation certain, the bitterness intensified, and yet out of it all the great moral lesson comes that there must be found a way to deal with such affairs with

out the presence of the sheriff and all that the sheriff stands for " (pp 144-145). The most significant results will be the application, through various offices, voluntary and statutory, of the principles of conciliation and arbitration" (p. 146).

J. Ellis McTaggart's fundamental idea on the indispensableness of dogma is unquestionably correct; but we prefer to call "doctrine" what he calls dogma, reserving the name "dogma" for such axiomatic doctrines as lay claim to be above investigation and criticism. (As to the distinction we make between dogma and doctrine, see The Religion of Science, p. 10.)

REVUE PHILOSOPHIQUE. Vol. XX. No. 1 and 2.

LA VISION MENTALE.

(First Article.) By J. Soury.-PSYCHOLOGIE DU MUSI(III.) De l'intelligence musicale et de ses conditions subjectives. By L. Dauriac.-Morale et dÉTERMINISME. By Schinz.

CIEN.

L'ENSEIGNEMENT PHILOSOPHIQUE ET L'AGRÉGATION DE PHILOSOPHIE. By E.
Durkheim.-CRIMINALITÉ ET SANTÉ SOCIALE. By G. Tarde.- LA VISION
MENTALE. (Concluded.) By J. Soury.-ANALYSES ET COMPTES RENDUS, ETC.
-(Paris: Felix Alcan.)

In the articles on "Mental Vision " M. Soury recapitulates the results of the most recent research in the anatomy, physiology, histology, and neurology of the organs of visions and visual perception as they bear on psychology. The reader will find succinctly summarised here the facts which have recently revolutionised this department of inquiry. The article in the February number by M. Durkheim on "Philosophical Instruction in France" is both interesting and opportune.

REVUE DE MÉTAPHYSIQUE ET DE MORALE. Vol. III.

No. 1.

DE L'ORIENTATION DE LA MÉTHODE EN ÉVOLUTIONNISME. By A. Sabatier.—
REMARQUES SUR LE PROBLÈME DE L'INSTINCT. By Louis Weber.-TROISIÈME
DIALOGUE PHILOSOPHIQUE ENTRE EUDOXE ET ARISTE. By Criton.-DISCUS
SIONS.-(Paris: Librairie Hachette et Cie.)

With the January number the Revue begins its third year, and we have in this number a brief editorial retrospect or confession of what the Revue has achieved in the brief period of its existence. Although much space has been accorded to the logic of the sciences, and to metaphysical philosophy, and the discussions of these branches have been very fruitful, scarcely anything has been done in the department of morals, if we except one remarkable study on Utilitarianism; in fact, very few articles on the subject have been handed in to the editor. The circumstance is significant, and the editor seizes the occasion to make some remarks on the practical bearings of philosophy and to emphasise the pressing necessity of its application to the solution of the problem of real life. His criticisms touch primarily the conditions in France, and it is promised that the future numbers of the Revue will devote more attention to this subject. Accordingly, under the title of Reflexions of a Philosopher on the Questions of the Day," A. Darlu begins the work with a discussion of the Impôt progressif sur les successions. If one looks over the contents of the Revue for the past two years it will certainly be granted that the first part of its task, that relating to the logic of the sciences, has been very successfully fulfilled In the present number M. Sabatier contends that the scientific method always remains the same as a method, as an intellectual process, but that the angle under which facts are viewed, the importance and the character attached to them are con

stantly changing. This is what he means by the "orientation of method." His views have a conservative tinge.

M. Weber discusses Instinct in Some of its Metaphysical Aspects, and finds it, naturally enough, in all the manifestations of the mental life. The advantages of dialogue for philosophical exposition,-an instrument now fallen almost entirely into disuse, are well shown in "Crito's" colloquies.

Dr. G. Frege continues the discussion of the Philosophical Foundations of Mathematics, and we have besides a detailed criticism of some new works on Spinoza by Ch. Andler.

L'ANNEE PSYCHOLOGIQUE.

This is the title of a new psychological year-book to be edited by Prof. H. Beaunis of Nancy, and Dr. A Binet, director of the psychological laboratory at the Sorbonne, Paris, and having as collaborators Messrs. Ribot, Flourney, Delabarre, Weeks, Victor Henri, Philippe, Courtier, and Bourdon. The Annual, which is announced for March and has by this time appeared, is to consist of four parts. The first contains detailed analyses of the various important psychological works which have appeared in 1894 with diagrams, figures, and tables, and so made as to dispense with references to the sources. The main questions treated under this head in the first number are: The nervous system (as recently investigated by Cajal, de Viallet, de Mosso, and others), sensations of sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste, muscular sensations, sensations of vertigo, etc., memory, association of ideas, and paramnesia (the experiments of Münsterberg, Bryan, Kirkpatrick, and others), attention, the sense of time and rhythm (experiments of Bolton and Neumann), psychometry and psychophysics, ratiocination, will, personality, illusions, hallucinations, dreams, colored audition, pleasure, pain, the sentiments, emotions, æsthetics, the psychology of children and pedagogics, and, finally, discussions of new treatises of psychology and philosophical questions. The second part is a biblio graphical index, containing over twelve hundred items, of all the works that have appeared in 1894 touching the histology, anatomy, and physiology of the nervous system, mental and nervous pathology, psychology, philosophy, ethics, pedagogy, criminology, and the psychology of children. The third part will be a publication in full of articles constituting the results of the special labors of the psychological laboratory of the Sorbonne. The fourth part relates to psychological observations and experiments and to new psychological instruments. Appended is a necrology. Subscriptions sent direct to M. Binet at the Sorbonne, Paris, are only seven francs; bought from the trade the volume will cost ten francs each.

ARCHIV FÜR SYSTEMATISCHE PHILOSOPHIE.

Vol. I. No. 1.

UEBER METAPHYSIK ALS ERFAHRUNGSWISSENSCHAFT. By E. Zeller.- ZUR THEORIE DER Beobachtung (I). By B. Erdmann.—UEBer eine Beziehung DER SELECTIONSLEHRE ZUR ERKENNTNISSTHEORIE. By G. Simmel.-UEBER PSYCHOPHYSISCHE Energie uND IHRE FACTOREN. By K. Lasswitz.-GRUNDLINIEN EINER THEORIE DER WillensbildUNG (I). By P. Natorp.-(Berlin: George Reimer.)

The Archiv is the continuation under a new name and with more specialised objects, of the old Philosophische Monatshefte. It is still edited by Dr. Paul Natorp, with whom are now associated Wilhelm Dilthey, Benno Erdmann, Christoph Sigwart, Ludwig Stein, and Eduard Zeller. Although appearing only quarterly, in

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