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in a very soiled wallet. The only pleasure they afford you is the rapturous dread lest some one may be taking them away. And some one is taking them away. But not the one you think. Unkindness, hypocrisy, and greed-these are the forces that shall bring us low and enslave our children. Yet we quarter their troops in our houses without a murmur. We show them where the treasure is hid. But they know it already.

This is the way you look at it: These men were Anarchists, and they are well out of the way; you are fortunate to have escaped destrucion at their hands; they were probably murlerers; but, in any case, they are well out of the way. It was that word Anarchist which brought them to the chair; that word, and your ignorance of its meaning.

OR you do not at all know what an Anarchist

vord Anarchist has played such an important art you have not even looked up the word in he dictionary, your position being that, in the irst place, you know quite well enough, and, in he second place, you would think shame to


An Anarchist, you insist, is a man who makes ombs and puts them under the State House, nd that is that. On the contrary, that is by o means that. The person you have in mind ; not an Anarchist, he is a bomber. You will nd him everywhere-among Anarchists, among 'ascists, among dry-law enforcers, among Modernists, among Fundamentalists, and freely istributed throughout the Ku Klux Klan. He

that person who, when he does not like a hing, lynches it, tars and feathers it, lays a urse upon it, or puts a bomb under it. His ame is legion, and you will find him in every arty.

An Anarchist, according to the dictionary, is a erson who believes that human beings are aturally good, and that if left to themselves they 'ould, by mutual agreement, govern themselves uch better and much more peaceably than they re being governed now by a government based n violence. An interesting theory. Nonsense, f course, because man is not naturally good; lan is naturally cruel, selfish, and vain, and hat he would be if left to his own devices it is orrible to contemplate. Still, it is an interestig concept, very idealistic, very pretty.

Of those who hold with the theory of Anrchism, the dictionary further tells us, there is


one group whose members "occasionally resort to an act of violence against representatives of oppression to express a protest against, or to draw public attention to, existing social wrongs.' (It is in this group that your bombers are happy and at home.) But "generally speaking," says the dictionary, "Anarchism repudiates violent methods, and hopes for a gradual evolution towards its goal."

AH, you will say, but these men belonged

to the

Their history would indicate otherwise. Up to the time of their detention for the crime for which they were later sentenced to die no slightest act of violence had ever been attributed to either of them. There are those who would have given much to be able to bring to light against them such an act of violence, and were unable to do so; it is to the counsel for the prosecution that I refer. "Throughout the entire trial" (I quote the uncontested statement of one who was in a position to know the facts)— "not one word of testimony was introduced against their character for honesty, peace, and good order."

I am going into this in some detail because I find it interesting. You, I fear, find it not only uninteresting, but vaguely and uncomfortably obscene. Yet, after all, you have very plentifully had your say on the subject-that action of yours, you know, that spoke so much louder than any words.

These men were castaways upon our shore, and we, an ignorant and savage tribe, have put them to death because their speech and their manners were different from our own, and because to the untutored mind that which is strange is in its infancy ludicrous, but in its prime evil, dangerous, and to be done away with.

These men were put to death because they made you nervous; and your children know it. The minds of your children are like clear pools, reflecting faithfully whatever passes on the bank; whereas in the pool of your own mind, whenever an alien image bends above, a fish of terror leaps to meet it, shattering its reflection..


AM free to say these things because I am not an Anarchist, although you will say that I am. It is unreasonable to you that a person should go to any trouble in behalf of another person unless the two are members of the same family, or of the same fraternity, or, at the re(Continued on page 310)


A Fight in Two Centuries


AYOR THOMPSON, of Chicago, is recruiting his hosts for his campaign of super-patriotism. He is excitedly living all over again the Revolution of 1776; but has the advantage of drumming up his followers from masses of people that are anti-British by tradition. Mayor Thompson has the great advantage of living and seeking votes in what is called the biggest German city in the world. That's an advantage that General George Washington never never enjoyed. Mayor Thompson also has the support of the American Association for the Recognition of the Irish Republic. In 1776 the Irish weren't helping out

American politicians. So Mayor Thomp- H

son has all the advantage of enlisting troops in the twentieth century for a revolution in the eighteenth. Nobody in history ever was so favored.

His plan as he has launched it is to establish the "America First Foundation." He has invited the mayors of cities larger than twenty thousand, Representatives in Congress, Senators, and Governors of States to fall in behind him. "Membership fee $10."

Mayor Thompson's invitation to the Mayor of Beloit, Wisconsin, was turned over to the Beloit America First Club, which replied:

Wisconsin's pro-British Conservation Commission protects English pheasants introduced into this State to make our loyal Germans dissatisfied with their spareribs and sauerkraut. In the name of 100 per cent Americans, can't you do something about it? Under your starry banner we will fight for the complete extermination of English pheasants, English sparrows, and English bulldogs. Don't let King George buy you off.


William McAndrew, the Chicago Superintendent of Schools.

Meantime Mayor Thompson has made sure that his banner, starry or otherwise, receives attention and respect. This banner in the form of a pennant is draped in the room of the President of the Chicago Board of Education. Here are the shock troops massed against Dr.

According to the canons of proper observance of respect for the flag of the United States, no flag except that of the cross is ever flown above it. But in the room of the President of the Chicago Board of Education above the StarSpangled Banner hangs Mayor Thompson's pennant.

According to Mayor Thompson himself, there is something above even America first-Mayor Thompson's propaganda.

Lost at Sea

ow many ships and how many lives have been saved by Marconi's invention through the wireless S. O. S.? We do not know the answer to that question, but almost every week some such incident is reported. It is certain that but for the wireless the Principessa Mafalda's 1,256 passengers and crew would have gone down when the vessel plunged into the depths off the coast of Brazil.

Nearly three-fourths of the lives endangered were saved because of the rush to the scene of the disaster of one rescue ship after another, and thus was prevented a sea tragedy that would have ranked in fatalities with the sinking of the Titanic and the Lusitania.

Had it not been for the wireless, it is also probable that the Mafalda would have been listed among the many ships that have gone out into the sea never to be heard from again. That roll of missing ships is full of tragedy and mystery. Poets have written of the loss of the President in 1841 and the Pacific in 1856; both were lost in ways unknown; and, as the reader runs an eye down the record of later sea disasters, he comes upon such strange disappearances as those of four British steamships which left England in one month in 1885, not one of which was ever reported or seen again, or of our naval auxiliary Cyclops, which left Barbados in 1918 with 273

men on board and simply vanished at


The cause of the Mafalda's loss was the explosion of her boilers. That is nowadays a rare thing to happen in a passenger ship, although in the early days of steamboating such disasters were exceedingly common.

The commander of the ship, Captain Guli, was faithful to the tradition of sea heroism and went down on his bridge, while the radio operator, after saving the vessel by standing at his post, died, a hero also. Captain Guli's last words by wireless were in praise of the bravery of the crew and the men passengers. Some reports speak of panic; horror and suffering there certainly were. The ship carried lifeboats enough to hold all; but rush of steerage passengers capsized two lifeboats, and the time was too short to get all aboard the smaller boats.

Perhaps the day may come when airship voyages may have fewer disasters recorded than steamships have now.

Rumania's Prodigal Son

AROL, once Crown Prince of Rumania, who renounced a kingdom for a love affair, is challenging Bratianu, Premier and real dictator at Bucharest. In exile in Paris, Carol has declared his candidacy for the throne which has been given to his little five-year-old son, Mihai. He has separated from the lady for whom an infatuation caused him the disapproval and antagonism of Bratianu. And he has announced himself ready to respond to a call from his country.

That call-if it should be utteredwould be hard to hear. Bratianu would smother it. He has appointed a Regency of three to act for the boy King Mihai, and even in the face of a tendency on the part of the Regents to oppose him he enforces his will in the land. To Dowager Queen Marie, when she wanted to go to Paris lately to see her son Carol, he is reported to have said: "I have had enough of your family affairs. If you

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But Bratianu comes of a father who knew how to run Rumania, and he seems able to maintain the tradition.

"perpendicular" airplane, embodying in
part the helicopter and auto-gyro prin-
ciples, but free from the "whirling
dervish" tendencies that has marked
former experiments. It is to justify its
name by rising absolutely vertically and
is expected to climb toward the sky at
the rate of 1,900 feet a minute. In a
lateral direction the flight will be limited
in speed, but Army and Navy experts
see in this type great possibilities for
observation purposes; the air-mail ser-
vice thinks it would be of use; and it
may be an important contribution to
aeronautical science.

How varied air navigation already is
was shown at the opening of Daniel
Field, the new airport at Augusta, Geor-
gia, the other day. A blimp, pursuit
planes, bombers, transports, observation
planes, and two-seaters were among
those present. Stunts and machine-gun
target shooting helped to make a good

declared martial law and asserted that he will treat all agitators for a change in the national rule as rebels. That is a statesmanlike move, characteristic of him, which will clear the air. Following it he secured from the Rumanian Parliament-which of course he controls -a vote of confidence.

Bratianu is a strong man who regards Carol as an unstable individual. He has argued that in power Carol would be dangerous to Rumania's interests. If Carol could have visited his father, the

An Assassin Acquitted

late King Ferdinand, before his death, Nor since the Dreyfus case have we

a reconciliation might have resulted which would have opened the way to the royal heritage. But Bratianu foresaw just that, and kept Carol out of Rumania and the fatted calf safe in his own hands. From the National Peasants' Party, led by Julius Maniu, which favors Carol, he faces formidable opposition.

had such a singular instance of emotionalism in French criminal trials as that which occurred in Paris last month. Those accustomed to AngloSaxon ideas of evidence and the limiting of personal feeling may well stand amazed at the accounts of the trial of Samuel Schwartzbar for the killing of General Simon Petlura. There was no doubt at all that Schwartzbar emptied his revolver into the body of Petlura on a street corner in Paris and that Petlura died from his wounds.

The Advance in Air Science


E shall see new and strange things in the air before long if tests and plans now discussed succeed. To say nothing of the super-Zeppelins under construction abroad, the Curtiss Company hopes to build within a year a

Plans and suggestions for new airports multiply. One proposal is to make Governors Island, in New York Bay, a large permanent airport for the Government and the metropolitan district; another is to build a great landing and take-off dock for seaplanes and amphibians at Twenty-third Street and the East River.

Twenty-four years ago next month the first airplane flew; what advance will the next quarter-century show?

The jury, the great majority of the people in court, and the press and people of Paris loudly acclaimed the righteousness of the acquittal and did not turn a hair at what seems to us the absurdity of the jury in answering in the negative the first of several counts in the indictment: "Was the accused guilty of striking blows causing the injuries of the

victim?" This settled the whole matter. As the press account states, eight hundred spectators in a court-room intended for three hundred "screamed and cheered, laughed and cried."

The reason is simple; it is expressed in the words of Schwartzbar's lawyer:

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"You are not trying him; you are tryin pogroms."

Petlura had been chief or ataman of the Cossacks and President of the Ukraine. He was held by the Jews of that region directly responsible for the wholesale assassinations of their people known as pogroms. A Red Cross nurse who served at Proskuroff testified in detail to the horrors of the dead and wounded, including babies and women, and shrieked: "Petlura was responsible! Even Ukrainian officers said so. His soldiers killed our people, shouting his name."

These pogroms took place in 1919, and were, as testified, organized, systematized massacres of the Jews.

The French prosecutor attempted to show that Schwartzbar had been hired by the Russian Soviet leaders to commit the assassination, and that therefore his motive was not hatred and revenge, but political. He totally failed, however, to convince the jury of this alleged motive

So the trial resulted in making Schwartzbar a hero and in making the man he killed a despised and hateful memory.

Justice above law, said the jury. Five Years of Fascismo


USSOLINI made the only speech in all Italy on the fifth anniversary of the Fascist revolution. Lenine turned

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