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advantage as possible of a short shrift of dictatorship for the cause of world revolution. Along with the conviction that they would fall before the forces of some other temporary dictator went the conviction that the workers of the world— and the soldiers too-war-weary and sick at heart, would answer the call to revolt. "Proletarians of all lands, unite! You have nothing to lose but your chains. You have a world to gain." How could they fail to respond, with the spectacle before them of their class comrades in control of one of the hugest lands of the globe?

Time went on. The Bolsheviks made their peace at BrestLitovsk with Germany. The Allies and America won the war. The Kaiser fled from his embittered subjects. Germany became a democratic republic. Austria-Hungary fell to pieces. Brief red flares lighted Budapest and Vienna; then they were quenched. Stambulisky, the radical Agrarian in Bulgaria, fell before the Conservatives. Mustapha Kemal and Nationalist Turkey proved to be anything but Communistic. The workers' rebellion and seizure of the factories in Italy ended in the Fascist march on Rome, the "Black Shirt" militia, imperious industrialism—and Mussolini. In turbulent Barcelona arose Primo di Rivera to master Spain through the army. France, standing guard in the Rhineland, remained quiet. The coal strike and general strike in Great Britain brought the inevitable triumph of middle-class and trade-union common sense. Gandhi and non-co-operation came to nothing tangible in India. And Moscow's last disappointment was the fizzle of the civil war in China.

All the time America, prosperous as never before, and with its labor unions among the most determined antagonists of Communism, watched.

The Bolsheviks long before this faced the problem of consolidating their power. They had designed the first destructive phase of their Revolution to clear the ground, sweep away old institutions, and leave as little as possible for their anticipated successors to work with. Then they found themselves under the necessity of carrying on. The recognition of that fact was Lenine's famous phrase: "We have gone too far. If we wish to advance again, we must retire."

The "new economic policy"-state capitalism with some supervised private capitalism-followed. Meanwhile the peasants, who saw the town workers favored at their expense, disturbed the People's Commissars with their discontent. Lenine died. The policy of placating the peasants by allowing them limited freedom of trade grew up. Stalin finally attained to his present position as boss of the Communist Party, the real ruler of Russia-practically Lenine's understudy. And today Trotsky-once Lenine's right-hand man-is fighting a duel for political life or death with Stalin. The Executive Committee of the Communist Party recently expelled from its membership both Trotsky and his old colleague Zinoviev. The fight between their extremist faction favoring the factory workers as the bodyguard of Bolshevik dominion and the ruling clique favoring conciliation of the peasants and an inclusive state economic system is the picture today. Red Russia, ten years after, finds itself in one of the normal stages of a national revolution.

The world may have shaken, but it has settled down on its foundations. The system of ideas outside Russia has proved stronger, more appealing to the average man, than the system of ideas inside Russia. We have now only to wait and see what form social evolution there will take. Bolshevism as a world menace no longer worries any one-it is a wet bomb.


Between Two Fires

EVEN hundred members of American churches in a memorial to President Coolidge urge the Government to join with other nations in substituting peaceful methods. for force in the settlement of international disputes.

War, they believe, should never be resorted to in settling disputes or enforcing claims, and, except for self-defense against attack, should be outlawed as an international crime.

In particular, they ask that the proposal of M. Briand, the French Foreign Minister, that his country and ours should mutually agree to renounce war "as an instrument of national policy" should receive from the President and Senate a prompt and favorable response.

This memorial raises several questions.

Is all war indefensible? If war is hell, is there not something, as Lyman Abbott once said in an editorial in The Outlook, that is worse than hell? If peace is to be pursued, are there not, nevertheless, as Woodrow Wilson said, things "more precious than peace"?

If war is ever defensible-what kind of war? Only, as these memorialists say, a war of self-defense? But is that not making self-interest supreme? Are there not other purposes higher than self-interest-even the self-interest of the nation? Was not the war for the emancipation of Cuba, the sacrifice of the strong for the weak, a more worthy national act, according to Christian standards, than any war by a nation for the defense of its own rights? Were not those who fought for the defense of Belgium actuated by higher motives than those who fought to keep their own boundaries free?

Are these questions too hard for the Church? Shall it stick to theology and let matters of conduct go? It was an English lord who, after listening to a practical sermon by his rector, stalked out of church muttering, "Things have come to a pretty pass when religion is allowed to invade the sphere of private life." Shall the message of the Church be kept out also of the sphere of public life?

In these matters the Church is between two fires.

On the one side is the fire of criticism against the Church for being other-worldly, for withdrawing within itself, becoming a saved, rather than a saving, remnant. By that fire it is driven to participate in social efforts. In a book just issued by the Century Company called "Christianity and Social Adventuring," edited by Jerome Davis, more than a score of writers show how the Church may apply its faith by molding the community in the interest of justice, truth, and mercy.

On the other side is the fire of protest against the Church for attempting to mix in politics, to direct and control legislation, to work itself insidiously into matters of state, to intimidate or otherwise turn to its own ends the force of public opinion, to become a menace to personal and political liberty.

These two fires are wholesome warnings for the Church. It is possible for it to avoid them both. But to do so the Church must walk circumspectly. It is passing beyond its function and its capacity when it undertakes to substitute itself for experts in any social subject, or for the instruments of the state, as the grand or petty jury or the police. But it does not exceed its function when it holds up the spirit of its Master as a model for the state as well as for the individual, for relations between nations, for employer and employee, for the prison and hospital, for the school and the home, and for every relation of life.

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Songs and Swords

A Musician Looks at History



PISTOL shot. The Archduke of Austria is murdered at Serajevo, 1914, and the World War


is the result.

To be sure, the assassination furnishes the immediate spark to explode Europe's tinder-box. But what do historians say in regard to the other less obvious reasons? "Germany desired a larger place in the sun; England was jealous; Italy's growing pains caused resentment of Austria's transgressions," etc.

But how many historians seriously consider music (primarily song) as a potential cause of this war? Where is the chronicler who remarks of the influence on Germany's Kultur of the song "Deutschland über Alles," and of similar patriotic songs of the World War participants?

Think back. Recollect some occasion when you were one of a large congregation singing perhaps your own National anthem or some stirring hymn. Recall the electrifying effect it had on you. Could you ever accurately estimate its influence on the thoughts and actions of your life in the years that came after? Then imagine the arrogant point of view that might very well have been brought about by great gatherings of Germans singing on every suitable occasion

Our Germany, our Germany,
O'er all the world transcending.

A people which from the formative days of childhood have heard and sung such sentiments cannot but be tremendously influenced by them.

IT is comparatively easy to see and

estimate the influence of music on so concrete an event as a battle-a piping band of Scotch Highlanders, for instance. Most historians admit and give credit to the power of music in a case of this kind. But the subtle, yeast-like fermentation of song upon the less spectacular movements of mankind is not so readily recognized.

Would we be exaggerating to claim that the "Internationale" was one of the causes of the Russian Revolution? Though the historians might rightly say: "Yes, but without the oppression of the Czars there would have been no 'Internationale.'"


When one verse of "La Marseillaise" was as good as a regiment of reinforcements

But what historians can claim that "Lilliburlero" was not an important cause of the English Revolution of 1688 (the uprising against King James II, whose ruthless treatment of Protestants contributed to this uprising)?

Writers of this rebellion speak of this song as "more powerful than a Cicero or a Demosthenes." Its words were merest doggerel referring to the tyrannical conduct of one General Talbot (appointed to the Lieutenancy of Ireland by King James in 1687) and his arbitrary treatment of Protestants. The singing of this song by the enemies of the King, with whom it was tremendously popular,

aroused such ill feeling, however, that bloodshed was not long in following.

Lord Wharton, who wrote the words to this "Lilliburlero," boasted that to this tune the King had been sung out of three kingdoms.

"Lilliburlero" continued to be popular in later British campaigns. Then, coming to America, it became, with "Yankee Doodle," one of the popular tunes of the Continental Army. Many a sinking heart was raised by its martial lilt and many a harassed Britisher trembled when he heard it shrilling away on the Yankee fifes.

Another song ranking in historic sig

nificance with this "Lilliburlero" was our own popular tune of Civil War days, "John Brown's Body."

This song, a sort of hymn to the famous anti-slaver, hanged for his activities in freeing the slaves, first appeared in the South just before the Civil War. (Brown was executed at Charlestown, Virginia, 1859.) The song immediately became popular and played no small part in precipitating the declaration of war.

The value of music as a solace or inspiration during times of tribulation, is well known. I have had a marine tell me that but for the "Long, Long Trail" he might never have come back from the hospital at all. And there is the story of the wounded Scotch piper, a leg shot from under him, piping "The Campbells are Coming" to keep up the courage of his comrades in the retreat from Mons, 1914. "Ay, more powerful than rum, it was!"



T no matter what movement of mankind we look, music seems to be an important factor either as an accessory before the fact, during the fact, or after the fact. There are some interesting examples where music has even decided the issue of some momentous event.

In the year 1212 a certain Ranulph, Earl of Chester, being besieged in his castle by the Welsh, sent for help to De Lacy, Constable of Chester. The latter gathered together the many minstrels who were present at the Chester fair and had them play an alluring tune which gathered a vast assembly of townfolk. Then the minstrels marched away, followed by an enamored audience. they approached the beleaguered castle, they were spied upon by the Welsh, who, thinking them a vast army of relief, raised the siege and departed.


As good a ruse as the Trojan horse

was the musical one practiced by Alfred of England in the war with the Danes, 878. Being desirous of information regarding the strength and plans of the Danes, Alfred disguised himself as a wandering minstrel. And as in that day the minstrel was a man of high position and accorded entrance into any court or camp, the approach of such a one to the Danish outpost was nothing unusual, and Alfred was passed within the ranks. He stayed long enough to get the desired information, and left with the best wishes of his enemy whom he was subsequently enabled to out-campaign.

TO THE TUNE OF "YANKEE DOODLE" "Lilliburlero" was also a favorite tune of the Continentals

This anecdote of Alfred out-foxing the Danes throws interesting light upon the mediæval minstrel. He is perhaps more readily recognizable to modern readers by the name of "troubadour." The political and historic importance of this mediæval singer was enormous. His social station was high-in fact, he often came of good family. His position of influence was analogous to almost that of a present-day newspaper, for his ballads were the chronicles of the time, and because of his value as an entertainer he was always welcome in any court in the land-listened to and believed by all. Honored by the kings and princes, he fought by their side in many a hardfought by their side in many a hardwon battle. Witness the prowess of Taillerfer, William the Conqueror's minstrel, who rode singing before the Norman army at the Battle of Hastings, then rushed into the fray and fell fighting.

Richard the Lion-Hearted had a

favorite minstrel who occupied a position of trust and influence equal to almost that of a prime minister. Blondel was his name; "stout was his heart and sweet was his harp."

To Blondel's heart and harp Richard owed his life. During the siege of Ascalon, in Palestine, Richard had offended Duke Leopold of Austria so greatly that the Duke (too fearful of the valorous Richard to demand satisfaction of the sword) plotted secretly against him.

Returning from the Crusades, Richard was wrecked on the shores of the Adriatic near Aquileria, in the Duke's dominions, and, though Richard had the forethought to disguise himself as a pilgrim, he was apprehended and imprisoned in the Fortress Dürnstein, poised on the edge of a well-nigh perpendicular rock rising out of the Danube River.

The minstrel Blondel, following his King from Palestine, lost his master and

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for some time unsuccessfully searched for him. Suddenly remembering Richard's quarrel with Duke Leopold, Blondel betook himself to Austria, where he learned of a distinguished person suffering confinement in Dürnstein.

"It is Richard, to be sure," thought Blondel, "but how to reach him? I may neither bribe nor deal fair to speak with my master, else my own life and his too perhaps be forfeit."

After much thought, Blondel resorted to a trick. In the stillness of the night, taking a station near a window in the fortress where rumor had it Richard was kept, he began to sing an amorous romanza, composed by Richard himself, anent the charms of the Countess Marguerite.

Blondel sang the first stanza only, for he believed that Richard would betray himself by singing the refrain,

With beating heart, the minstrel waited for the voice of his King.

Soon came from the prison the refrain in a hollow but well-practiced voice.

Then did Blondel feel certain that he had found his King. He sped to England, where a treaty was arranged and Richard was ransomed out of prison.

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The phenomenal spread of Christianity throughout Europe after the fall of Rome, was in no small measure due to the allurement of the musical liturgy. The work of Alcuin of York, Chief Assistant to Charlemagne, strengthened Christianity throughout France and Germany by means of plain-song. (A most important musical form of the early Catholic Church-chanted to this day in Catholic and Episcopal churches throughout the world.)

It is interesting to speculate here on the subtle effect this music had upon the people who listened to these plain-songs. One cannot live in a certain locality for long without having his life, habits, and thoughts colored by the nature of his surroundings. Mark the difference between a city-bred man and a mountaineer from Kentucky. In a like manner one must be influenced, though less obviously of course, by the nature of the music in so important a thing as church liturgy-particularly where, as was the case during the Middle Agesthe church was the biggest thing in a man's life.

Very good, then-let us grant that there are some grounds for this speculation. Now the plain-chants of the early Christian Church were literally rather plain, smacking of Greek musical origin and lending to the religious service a simple, naïve atmosphere. Then came the Crusades in the eleventh century.

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Is Commercial Aviation Here?

HEODORE ROOSEVELT, writing in The Outlook, once said: "It is always difficult to discuss question when it proves impossible to lefine the terms in which that question to be discussed." So it is with comnercial aviation. Just what is it and ow shall we define it? Shall we say viation at a profit? Or shall we say viation as applied to business and not o war activities? Or both?

The time has passed when "aviation a novelty" to many. Yet one field lone, in the last month, saw 14,000 ake their first flight; incidentally at $5 ach. Whole families, from babes to randmothers, returned to earth, their rilling experience over. Yet not so rilling, after all; quite tame, as a atter of fact, for flying per se is onotonous, slow. Forty per cent of e passengers taken on long trips go to eep after the first excitement of flight over. Yet at that it beats the scenic ilway!

But is the danger of flying past? Yes ad no.

Air-mail pilots have flown housands of miles on schedule through kinds of weather-in winter and immer, in rain and in sleet, in fog and moonlight-with far fewer accidents mishaps than the

ail drivers on our

reets. But those

wise ones


mpt fate by
imbing in a half-

sted, half-inspect-
hip" piloted by

me happy-go

cky, dare-devil ap often come wn quicker and ser than they cended. Air safeas in most other ings, comes from equate preparaen and endless gilance. Lindrgh's successful lantic flight came

a mature issue of air-mail experice. As Curran Ed, "Eternal vigi


lance is the price of liberty"-and safety in flying. But where else is this not so? Flying when properly done in accordance with Government requirements as regards pilot and ship is safe; as safe and sure as any other form of transportation. Besides, it is cleaner, quieter, and quicker. It has compressed space and time within new limits that are fast being crowded closer as financial rewards begin to lure the designers on.

Commercial aviation may be said to be here in this regard that money is being made in flying and business men know it. Business men and business are beginning to depend upon its efficacy. It is beginning to "deliver the goods," in the parlance of the street. Corporations and individuals are using airplanes daily, weekly, yearly, for business purposes, and when carefully managed these lines and ships are showing a profit. Several of the new lines in operation in this country are even now flying on the right side of the ledger. But it takes careful management, rigid discipline, regular schedules, good ships, and an operating plan that realizes that a commercial airplane must support itself in the air financially as well as aerodynamically. The problems of management are there


just as they are in railway, steamship, or motor-bus operation. One man makes a success, another doesn't.

It might be said that commercial aviation is developing in three strata; that is, there are at present three price groups, three types of craft each suitable for its particular purpose, each successful in its class. At the bottom is the single or double seater, corresponding to the roadster, selling at prices ranging from $3,500 to $7,500-little light passenger ships powered with small


Above this class is another; ships selling for $9,000 to $15,000-singlemotored planes, powered with 200-horsepower engines, and capable of carrying two to five passengers, comparable with the sedan or close-coupled small limousine.

At the top a class of three or more motored craft selling for from $45,000 to $100,000 or more, comparable with the large-size luxurious limousine or touring coach, which only a man of means or a corporation can afford to buy and maintain. Yet, strangely enough, it is this type of ship that is showing the greatest financial efficiency, although of course the single-motored is

One of the Ford commercial planes flying over the city of Detroit

more efficient mechanically. It is paying its way in business. This type is a multi-motored plane, built with a large factor of structural safety. Whether it carries passengers, express, or freight, it needs somewhat of an organization behind it. In other words, it is generally operated by two or more skilled pilots, who alternate, or by the owner-aviator and a general all-round air mechanic-pilot. It needs a properly equipped field, good runway. a (Continued on

page 345)

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