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Swiss Echoes of Sacco and Vanzetti

HERE has been much tension

here these days over Sacco and Vanzetti. In fact, for weeks placards of a fiery nature have been posted on the walls.

We went to the Students Union last evening to hear Dame Rachel Crowdy, and were unable to cross Place Neuve. On the steps of the Conservatory of Music, where our girls assemble daily for the Zimmern Lectures, stood a gesticulating, haranguing man, with the Place packed with an audience. Its attitude was ugly in regard to our passing so we turned and went another way. Just to avoid confusion, we returned by taxi. The Place was then free, but we ran into crowds on reaching the Pont du Mont Blanc and a block from our apartment a murmuring, hustling throng held our passage back.

Before we reached our place other crowds were pouring up side streets and began running so that they were only a block behind when we reached home. Shouts and murmurings and tramping feet lent agility to our own steps. Our plucky little concierge was at the entrance, but we did not wait to open up with the big night key; she hustled us into her own quarters that you recall give on the pavement outside. She had turned out all the lights. We skittered our way through directly to the lift and by the time we had reached our floor the crowd had arrived below and were trying our heavy entrance door and attacking the autos of the "rich" that were parked along the street.

An individual dining in the building saw his car endangered and rushed out. A woman hurled some invective and the misguided gentleman thrust at her with his foot and slapped her face, snarling "canaille." Enough for the crowd, which crouched and closed in on the unfortunate, landing a stone on his temple.


N the meantime the Bellevue Hotel became the center of excitement as the probable refuge for a man who had killed a bystander in the general uproar, The crowd surged about, breaking windows at random with stones and shouting portentously. At this crisis came an illustration of latent Swiss respect for the "Arm of the Law." Four nice little gendarmes, all trimmed up with white braid that stood out in the dark (looking all the world like boy dolls!), gave a flourish of authority and three-quarters of the packed bunch of people twittered away like startled sheep. It

Co such a vivid ac

count as this can people

in this country get any idea of the feeling aroused in some quarters of Europe towards America. Explain how we will, that feeling exists. It is pictured in its outward expression by this vivid sketch by Mrs. Elbert Francis Baldwin, wife of The Outlook's European correspondent. Though not intended for publication, it is here printed by her permission. Mrs Baldwin's account of the rescue of the Antinoe at sea by the President Roosevelt will be remembered by many Outlook readers.

was as amusing as it was significant. The other quarter were of sturdier mood but were backed up along the Quai. However, a host had tramped up to the League above us in the next block. Do you recall the great police dog, sole resident-police, in that place of "moral suasion"? That large brother-of-thewolf was released in the space between the bronze fence and the entrance, and charged up and down, speaking his mind and offering the "teeth" that the League is assumed to lack, according to certain mistaken American interpretations. The canine proved as effective as the gendarmes but he was more fortunate than some of his confrères in the town who were badly hurt. The crowd contented itself by smashing the shutterless winIdows in the famous Glass Room of the League and the Library, for the emotion now embraced Internationalism as well as the United States of America, including demonstrations at the International Club and Pharmacy. However the first attentions had been given to our own land; the American Express headquarters were badly damaged, and the Walk-Over Shoe (that in Geneva is chaperoned by a perfectly good Swiss), was looted and the fine hand-sewn "chaussures Americaines," flung by the box into the near-by lake. Thrifty citizens, however, fished out many of the floating shoes; incidentally, the first evidence I have had that any of the multitudinous Izaak Waltons hereabout ever caught anything!

I felt concern for our group, for I realized the natural interest any one feels in a demonstration alien to one's prein a demonstration alien to one's previous experiences. So I called up our

nice vice-consul for directions. As a consequence, Young America (and Old for that matter), is urged to keep off the streets entirely to-day and to-night and the evening papers demanded that all youth under eighteen remain indoors. A mass-meeting and procession are planned, and reports are that the Consulate is to be raided. In any case the local militia is ordered into soldier clothes for an "alerte," and troops are coming from Berne. Further, the noonday papers are suppressed; thus incidental oil is withheld from an inflammatory state of mind. It is better taste, in any case, to keep our easily recognized personalities in their own houses for the moment, though no one need exaggerate conditions and dangers.


NE thing seems clear: However just the sentence of these two men, there is a deep feeling of protest in regard to the antiquated legal system of Massachusetts under which these men have been tried. Doubtless the evidence must have been convincing to the highminded men whose painful conclusions make them targets for the anarchist.

Later: Drenching rains all day have had a helpful share in cooling inflamed ardor. In fact, H2O has been widely effective; the Fire Department took up its position in front of the American Consulate and met untoward interest of aliens with instant streams, deftly aimed.

One begins to sort out the various opinions. All are moved by the seeming uncertainty that persists in this cruelly drawn-out case. The universal conscience is troubled with the feeling that a possible moral fault has been committed, that this case has been handled in a way to play effectively into the hands of communists and anarchists-this very group that aids and abets far greater crimes of their brothers in Moscow. They would screen through their atti tude the Soviet leaders who send victims to die of cold and privation; who kill in cold blood priests, women and children, who with hate in their hearts. would spread the power of Communism over an immense Empire and the world. Needless to say, the Swiss authorities are stirred over this hysterical outburs in a town noted for its sanity and order Switzerland stands so solidly for law. readiness, and preparedness that its citi zens are shocked and humiliated over this hysterical episode staged in the quiet and beautiful streets of this tran quil city.-MARY WASHBURN BALDWIN

Geneva, Switzerland.

Let Football Alone

Yale's Famous Football Coach Gives His Views on the Game as He


Enters His Last Year at Yale

HIS year will be my last year in football.

In looking directly at this season's situation, in looking back over twenty-five years of active connection with football as player and coach, in looking forward to what I hope the game of football will be in the future, I discover some convictions which I think I ought to express.

Football is the finest influence for good in the life of a university.


(In Interview with Dixon Merritt)


Let me change that. Football can be made the finest influence for good in the life of a university. The difference between what football is in the life of a particular university and what it might be in the life of that same university is not exactly the difference between the number of games won and the number of games that might be won, but the two things are related.


OOTBALL has changed very greatly in my time. In my playing days, it was a terribly grinding affair. Still, to the best of my recollection, I liked it. But, also to the best of my recollection, I was an exception to the rule.

I remember how Lucius Bigelow used to try to tell me how he loathed going on the field. He never could quite find words to express it. What Lucius tried to express most of the others felt, I think. But, while they loathed the monotony of practice, they must have realized that they derived something from the game which they could not get in any other way.

That was before the forward pass came into existence. There was much less football played then than now and, therefore, less competition.

Then you could cover the entire country with half a dozen fine broken-field -runners. Now there are almost as many fine broken-field runners as that on every first-class team.

Nobody ever saw a finer bunch of boys than the ones I have handled during my years at Yale. They have been simply great. And my principal compensation, no matter what else I may have received, has been my association with them.

The great trouble with football at Yale, and probably at other institutions,

Photos Wide World

Tad Jones, football coach at Yale for the eighth consecutive year lies in the lack of time which can be be trained under such conditions that given to it. There should be some real the boys will still have time for pleasure fun in football, and we have had a little in their work. of it here at Yale, but a team cannot be clocked at full speed at every afternoon's practice and expect to derive much pleasure from their play. On the other hand, if they are not driven at full speed for the entire hour of practice which is at their disposal, then it is impossible to attain precision in the execution of plays, either offensively or defensively.

Great football teams go through their plays in much the same way that Bobby Jones executes a golf swing. It is a habit. In the pinch, they do not press. They do not revert to incorrect position. and stance, or to any other bad habits. It all takes time and patience and very careful training. But the team ought to

Now that matter of fun as against drudgery may have something to do with the ratio of games won to games lost. I mention it for what it is worth.


HERE is no possibility of questioning the fact that there is a football spirit in every university-something that does not apply to track or crew or anything else. Students are interested in those other things, but it is in football that the university spirit is most felt.

A hundred and twenty-five men, perhaps, come on the field. You actually try to make football players out of


seventy-five of them. The other fifty are so hopeless from the beginning that you know you can never make anything out of them. But you do not cut them off. You keep them on and let them get whatever they can get from football.

Now let us think about some of the things that can be done with those one hundred and twenty-five men toward making university life what university life ought to be.

I do not need to tell you-having fiddled with an end position, you knowthat no coach, even if he wanted to do it, ever needed to coach an end to hold the opposing tackle. It is just the natural thing to do-as natural as to clutch at something when you are falling. It is against the letter and the spirit of the rules, but it can be done without detection many times. You may be penalized half the times, but the other half more than makes up.

to understand than he would be to un-
derstand some of the finer points.

AKE the matter of shifting. The


men are supposed to come to a full stop. If they do not, they are off ahead of the ball. And it is so easy to develop a scheme by which your team can beat the ball while the people in the stands know nothing about it. In order to develop such a scheme, it is not necessary that the coach actively or even consciously encourage or permit it. Here is the kind of thing that will encourage itself.

I am running over in my mind three games of last season which Yale played against opponents who shifted. Perhaps all of these teams were coached to stop. One did stop, one beat the ball during the entire first half but stopped during the entire second half, the third sometimes stopped after shifting but it was

If it is done, other things being nearly the exception to the rule. equal, you win.

I had rather lose every Saturday than to encourage one boy to do it-or even to permit him to follow his natural inclination to do it.

This matter of holding is not one of the most important things. I mention it because it furnishes an illustration which the average person is more likely

In one of those games our opponents were off ahead of the ball three times in succession. One of these plays was penalized. The other two netted a touchdown. If we were out to win games regardless at Yale, we should be perfectly willing to take a hundred yards in penalties in exchange for one touchdown.

The Outlook for

Understand, now, that boys may do this thing without realizing it; may once in a while do it in spite of themselves when they do realize it, just as a sprinter oftentimes is unable to hold his marks until the gun has been fired.

Beating the rules may produce victory but, even if it does, it most certainly is not worthwhile.

Any coach who encourages or permits violation of the letter or the spirit of the rules is gambling with the character of his boys.

ou can see the other side of the picture. If a hundred and twentyfive boys are taught that these easy and almost undiscoverable violations are not honest, if they are taught fair play, if they are taught ordinary decency-you can see what they will do in the life of a university.

The point I am making is this: Unless the coach has a pretty clear perspective, he will find after a while that he has been permitting his boys to do things that should not be done. And, if he permits them to do those things on the field, he is in no position to complain if they do other things not to the credit of the university.

I do not believe that many men in football encourage this kind of thing;

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but I am convinced that there are still a very few not above turning a trick when they can do it handily. But, generally speaking, I am thoroughly sold on the men who are handling football. They have improved the game tremendously, and they have done it in spite of the demand for victory.

Still, against all these obstacles, football is tremendously a better game than it was when I played it. The men identified with it are a higher type. The standards are higher. Football is on the way to being all that it can be.

Tad Jones, (right, facing camera) instilling good habits in his boys.
letics of any kind. But he is a "bug" on
athletics, knows the name of every
player who ever put on a suit, and has
a style of writing that attracts people.
Under the proper influence, he could do
much to elevate the game, but he ap-
pears to be under the influence of that
pressure for victory which comes from
outside the ranks of those men who have
the best interests of their university at
heart. He is being misled by a small
group that has endeavored for a long

YES, there is more to be done, but the

work can be carried to completion by the selection of the right kind of men to coach the teams. And that is up to the university authorities.

That demand for victory-that which you have heard spoken of as the pressure of the old grads-has made and is making life miserable for many a coach. The old grad, without knowing whether he ought to win or not, still wants to win-partly because of university spirit and partly because he has his five dollars up on the game.

That pressure is none the less real because it is indirect. Let me show you how it works, sometimes.

You saw me buy that newspaper down at the cigar stand. I bought it to see if just one thing was in it, and here it is. This sports writer, you see, is telling how we ruined a player here at Yale last year by our method of training. He must know that the facts are the other way. He never played football and, so far as ! wy, never engaged in ath

Sometimes I think that football is growing so big that it has not much time to grow better. But when you ask me what is to be done about it, I have to answer that I do not know.


time to secure a grip on Yale foot- My personal opinion is that what


That is an illustration of the way in which the pressure of the old grad for victory is brought to bear.

This same writer, some time ago, praised another team, another coach, for sharp football practices which, if they had really been engaged in, would have constituted a violation of the spirit of the rules. I do not know whether the writer knew what he was doing or not but, if I had been that coach, I should have demanded a correction.

Football could be so much better than it is if so many of the sports writers were not looking for space and atmosphere. They treat young football men just as some sports writers used to treat professional baseball players fifteen years ago.

Sometimes I thank God in my prayers for the real sports writers like-but you know who they are.


football most needs is to be let

Football does not need reforming. There is no reason for worrying because a great many more people go to see a football game than would go to see a revival of a Greek play. There may be things in football which are not exactly what they should be, but conditions are improving every year. The boys playing the game are fine, clean lads with high ideals and a clear conception of sportsmanship. No coach identified with the game, no matter how successful in the matter of victories, can hope for a long life if he is guilty of doing anything to undermine these high ideals.

Football needs earnest thought by the men who are in the game. If we talked less in the press and more among ourselves, we should get along better.


Mexico Turns the Corner

N an extended interview with the Vice-Minister of Education of Mexico, Dr. Moises Saenz, which I have just had, I gathered some facts of vital importance to the American people. Taking advantage of an opportunity to intercept him on his return from Toronto, where he addressed the recent World Federation of Education Associations Convention, I plied him with questions about the situation in Mexico.

Dr. Saenz is an outstanding educator, with a Ph.D. degree from Columbia University, who for five years has been connected with educational reforms in

his own country. He is a straightforward, hard-working Mexican. He is neither a politician nor a figurehead. Nor is he a Communist. As President of the Mexico City Young Men's Christian Association he is doing all he can to give the young men and boys of that city a spiritual conception of life. To his Government task he brings, not only a high degree of technical skill, but also a devotion which amounts to the zeal of a missionary or prophet.

From the interview I got the following clear and unmistakable impression:


EXICO has a stable Government. President Calles is making a sincere and earnest effort to further the welfare of the Mexican people as a whole. The mass of Mexican people are being definitely benefited by the revolution that is taking place.

"We speak of the revolution with a capital 'R," explained Dr. Saenz, "Foreigners often speak of the many revolutions in my country, but I tell them that we have had but one Revolution-not more than one. It started in 1910, and is still going on. It is more than a political change. It is a huge social revolution reaching into the consciousness of all classes. The present revolution is not a mere eddy or whirlpool on the surface of the water, but a deep ongoing stream with nation-making as the object. The final outcome of the revolution does not depend on one group of persons or the régime now in power. Its success is dependent on the will of the people, and the people are determined to see that the changes which have been undertaken are carried through. No party could stay in power three months if it betrayed the people."

The present Mexican leadership is not Red or Communistic. Its leaders are so sane, so well disciplined, and so much

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VIOLENCE and revolt against church control is no new thing; but it often, as in Russia and the French Revolution, has been used in the attempt to break down not only the Church but the influence of religion itself. In Mexico those who have resorted to violent methods have, according to the Mexican Vice-Minister of Education interviewed in this article, been religious men. They want not to destroy religion, but to free it. To many Americans Mexico means lawlessness, disorder, and perhaps religious persecution. This article presents that chaos and confusion as but the outward and necessary results of a social revolution which will extend even to the children and provide such a simple symbol of health and progress as a toothbrush for every child.

anti-religious. The Government has at times taken extreme measures against the Church, but this was done to cut the Church's dominance in the economic, political, and educational life of the nation. As evidence that the Government does not desire to destroy religion Dr. Saenz told me that most of the leaders of the present Government as well as the leading intellectuals of the country were deeply spiritual men and believed in the teachings of Christ. He spoke of a series of religious lectures given a few months ago in Mexico City by Julio Navarro Monzo, the outstanding Christian leader of Latin America, which were given under the auspices of the National University in the halls of the University and with all invitations and announcements issued by the University. Navarro Monzo dealt in the frankest way with the failure of democracy in the Latin countries of both Europe and America, stating that the failure was due to the absence of real Christianity, and closed with a ringing appeal for vital Christianity. The Minister of Education asked that his Department be permitted to publish the address. The educational authorities would hardly be sponsoring the work of

a Christian leader like Navarro Monz if it were the purpose of the administra tion to destroy religion.

The Mexican labor movement is no like the leaders of the labor movemen in America that the Communists o Russia will have nothing to do wit them. As a matter of fact, when th head of the labor movement of Mexico Mr. Luis Morones, attempted to go t Russia to study conditions the Sovie Government refused to honor his pass port. The program of reform in Mexic is not Communistic, but intensel humanistic.

Dr. Saenz told me about the signif cant progress now being made in conned tion with road building, school develop ment, and land reforms.

"A system of paved roads," he sai "extending from the American border t Mexico City, from the capital eastwar to the Gulf, westward to the Pacific, an southward to Central America, is no under construction. This huge enter prise covers more than three thousan miles, and is fashioned like the spokes a wheel extending from the hub to th rim. Five years ago no one thought roads. To-day Mexico is road ma Even the smallest villages are agitatin for roads. New roads are penetratin places never before reached except b trails. Automobiles are seen for the fir time, and let me assure you when a c does arrive among the Indians it creat a sensation. Telephone and telegrap lines follow the newly constructed hig ways. Regular delivery of mails assured, and over these routes ideas well as goods are carried far into th interior. In one State 'Roads ar Schools' have become the official moti or slogan of the government and is use on all State papers as well as on country side signboards."

N speaking of the rapid growth of th

number of schools in Mexico D Saenz's eyes snapped. Schools are him what children are to a mother.

"We are proceeding on the theo that elementary education should be gift of the State to all the people. Fort nately, in 1922 the Federal Governme was given authority to establish schoo in any State of the Republic. In a cordance with the spirit of the times, th Central Government in establishing th new schools, has gone mainly to th country districts, to the small village and scattered communities. These hat

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