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sible that should have very real practical sible that should have very real practical results apart from its immediate effect upon trade relations. upon trade relations. And it is high time that we should know more of the East. The interests of the United States are closely bound to those of China and Japan, and we cannot afford to remain in semi-ignorance of the course of Eastern development.

time the prohibitive cost of cable tolls so restricts our news of the Far East that only events of dramatic importance break through this curtain of silence. We hear nothing of China except the reports of the recurrent crises in her civil war; we hear little of Japan except the story of earthquakes.

All this should be changed when competition between the new cables of the rival companies brings about a reduction. in rates and allows American newspapers THE World Motor Transport Com

Good Roads Mileage

to give greater latitude to their Far Eastern correspondents. The plans of the Western Union call for a new fast cable which will cost from $10,000,000 to $15,000,000, according to the route adopted, while the Mackay interests contemplate the establishment of radio service between the United States and the Philippines in conjunction with a new cable between the islands and China. It is estimated that the radio service could be put in operation at a cost of $5,000,000 and be ready for use before the Western Union cable can be laid.

mittee of the International Association of Automobile Manufacturers, in co-operation with the United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, the Canadian Department of Highways, and the Highway Committee of the National Automobile Chamber of Commerce, is engaged in collecting the results of a survey covering the development of good roads throughout the world. In a report just completed, covering the United States, Canada, and Latin America, it reveals that we have 521,260 miles of surfaced highways and 2,484,522 miles of dirt. Canada has surfaced 54,611 miles and has 323,629 still unimproved. Latin America makes the smallest showing, having but 12,670 miles of permanent paving and only 111,900 of plain dirt-often little more than mule-paths. Highway improvement

With facilities of this sort, those 5,000 miles of ocean which separate America from Asia will no longer be such an effective barrier to Western understanding of the East. A rapid interchange of ideas and information will become pos


France Triumphant in Tennis


T last the French tennis players have captured the Davis Cup. And, so despatches tell us, French daily journals in headlines echo: "At Last." It has been a well-planned and longfought campaign on the part of the French. They deserved the victory they won. For years they have been perfecting their game and have with patience and persistence entered tournament after tournament. There was a time not many years ago when Americans and British alike regarded the French as incapable of becoming respected competitors in athletic sports. France seemed to lack the atmosphere of sportsmen. Indeed, an American amateur sportsman wrote in The Outlook in 1911 that the men of the European Continent got on one's nerves because they were not manly enough to be good sports, that they were likely to be "lily-livered." Though he mentioned the Germans and Austrians especially, he made no exception of the French. He would have to make an exception of the French now. It is a Frenchman, Cochet, that, winning at Wimbledon in England, holds the premier position among amateur tennis



Rene La Coste and "Bill" Tilden at the end of their Davis Cup match. The smiles

give no indication as to which is the victor

players in the world. It is another Frenchman, La Coste, that has for this past year held the National Championship here both of indoor tennis and of lawn tennis on the turf. And now Cochet and La Coste, representatives of France in the singles, and Borotra and Brugnon, representatives of France in the doubles, have captured the international tennis trophy, the Davis Cup.

There has been nothing meteoric in the rise of the French players. For four years they have held the English singles and in 1925 and 1926 they held the English doubles championship. Two years ago Jean Borotra was American indoor champion in the singles and with Asthalter won the indoor doubles championship. And last year, having won the finals in the European tournament, the French beat the Japanese in the inter-zone contest and were only beaten

in the challenge round for the Davis Cup by the American team, Tilden, Johnston, Williams, and Richards.

On September 8 there began the ending of America's supremacy in international tennis. Although William Tilden beat Cochet in a hard-fought four-set match, La Coste overwhelmed William Johnston in three sets. The next day the American doubles team, Tilden and Hunter, won the doubles match against Borotra and Brugnon; but on Saturday Tilden fell before La Coste, and Johnston, in spite of a rally that carried the match to four sets, was conquered by Cochet.

It is generally believed that with this defeat the star of the popular, game, and sportsmanlike William Johnston has set. Indeed it looks very much as if the future of American tennis would have to be entrusted to the hands of younger

The Outlook for men than those who formed the Davis Cup team this year.

Though the loss of the Davis Cup is bewailed by those who regret to see its passing to a nation where championship tennis is played not on turf but on clay, the transfer of tennis supremacy across the Atlantic will not be without benefit to the game. In an international contest in which over a score of nations participated, seven years is quite long enough for any one nation successively to hold the championship title. The United States was last beaten in 1919, when the finals were won by Australasia against the British. Now, moreover, younger men can compete nerved with hope that was remote as long as the veterans were supreme.

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The contest was held on the Queens Valley Golf Club course at Forest Hills, Long Island. It was designed to determine which of the four sports "makes the greatest demands upon arm and eye of its adherents." The object was to cover the course-nine holes in the fewest shots. Rules were applied which equalized the problems of distance and precision.

Dr. Paul W. Crouch, a championship archer, made the nine holes in thirty arrow flights. Only one shot behind him, in thirty-one, came Lou Gehrig, Yankee first baseman and star batter. Far behind him, in thirty-seven, came the fly and surf casters, Fred Berger and Jack Schwinn. Furthest of all behind, in forty, came Eddie Diggs, Jr., star golfer. All were required to make not merely the distance but the holes or their equivalent.

The result as a whole may be surprising to many. Some may have expected that the archer and even the batter could beat the golfer. But that the men with the fishing rods could do it must have surprised all except the most ardent of Waltonians. Gentle as their sport has always been, it has proved itself powerful.

But the contest, it is to be hoped, is not over. There are others worthy of

September 21, 1927

Underwood & Underwood

The Long Bow Triumphs

Dr. Paul W. Crouch demonstrates the superiority of his specialty. The other contestants are Lou Gehrig, Eddie Driggs, Fred C. Berger, and Jack Schwinn

their chance. There is an implement of precision and distance older than that of Walton, older than that of Robin Hood. In the service of genuine sportsmanship it is not amiss to mention David and his smooth stones from the brook.

Actual and conclusive supremacy will not be demonstrated until a country boy with a pocket full of rocks has been given his chance.

Darkness Penetrates Smoke-
A Paradox of Noctovision


N the laboratory of the Scottish inventor, John L. Baird, noctovision is the successor of, and presumably an improvement upon, television. The name is, in part, self-explanatory. The process is noctovision because it is vision in the dark, or at least in invisible light. The subject whose image is to be transmitted by telephone sits in apparent total darkness but is in fact bathed in

infra-red rays. With that exception, noctovision appears to be practically identical with what has been called television. Light rays are converted into electric impulses at the sending end which are reconverted at the receiving


Mr. Baird demonstrated his invention before the British Association for the Advancement of Science in session at

Leeds. He also demonstrated it from Leeds to London, by arrangement with the New York "Times." One of the things that he did in the "Times" demonstration was to smoke a cigarette to prove that, in noctovision, smoke is invisible.

This part of the demonstration might appear to be trivial but for the fact that in just this particular noctovision promises to be of almost immediate practical importance. What is true of the smoke from a cigarette is true of the smoke that hangs over a city, of the fog that hangs over an ocean. Airplanes and ships, therefore, can see their way in smoke and fog if equipped with television sets. This, at least, is the claim made for the invention; and both aviation and shipping interests already have manifested interest in it.

A Mystery Re-solved


HE mystery of the Marie Celeste (Mary Celeste was the real name; Conan Doyle in a story changed Mary to Marie) will not down. London cable despatches state that one J. G. Lockhart has in a book called "A Great Sea Mystery" offered a solution-namely that the brig was abandoned by her captain and crew under a misapprehension that her cargo of alcohol was about to explode



If Mr. Lockhart would turn to The Outlook for September 1, 1926, he would find an article on the Marie Celeste written by Dr. Oliver W. Cobb, a cousin of Captain Briggs of the vessel. The exact theory now adduced by Mr. Lockhart is therein expounded as consistent with all the known facts. Absolute proof of what happened when the brig was abandoned is impossible to obtain. Dr. Cobb's article was called out by our comment on an English magazine interview claiming to tell the story of the Marie Celeste's cook-a story that was slanderous as regards Captain Briggs and Captain Boyce of the Dei Gratia, which found the brig and salvaged her, both men of character and proved integrity. Dr. Cobb left nothing recognizable as fact out of the alleged cook's story and another alleged solution, but made a reasonable presentation of the alcohol theory as the best offered.

The Marie Celeste's loss was a tragedy and a mystery but it was not a dimenovel plot or a hectic romance, as some "solutions" would suggest.


HANKS to the beneficence of the Hartley Corporation the Yale Press has published the Third Study of Motor Deaths and Injuries in Connecticut, by Richard Shelton Kirby of the Depart


ment of Civil Engineering, Yale University. Since 1910 the deaths have numbered 3,200 and the injuries 65,000 from motor mishaps. Four times as many people were killed by motors last year as died from diphtheria, and twelve times as many as perished from typhoid fever. In all, three times as many died from auto accidents as from these two dreaded diseases combined. Forty fewer children and young people were killed but one-third more past forty-five were numbered among the fatalities. Jitney bus accidents averaged a little over one per car, an increase of 60 per cent over 1925. The total number of deaths for the year was 332, a decrease of 22 over 1925. Accidents totaled 24,326, an increase of 1,758. Persons injured numbered 9,802, against 7,992 in 1925. Professor Kirby's conclusion is that the situation has become more intensified with no very great progress toward improvement, and quotes a remark of a former President of the National Council of Safety that "We are not yet horrified enough." Which about covers it.

The Germanic Museum of


EVENTY-FIVE years ago, in August, 1852, a generous Franconian nobleman, Baron Hans von und zu Aufsees, presented the city of Nuremberg with a museum. The residents of the charming old town have just celebrated this anniversary, and justly, for nowhere else does there exist such a comprehensive, graphic collection covering the life of Germany in the Middle Ages.

Quickly attuned to the atmosphere of long dead days by the outward aspects of the venerable city, the tourist easily adapts himself to the study of the art and culture of the past as represented here by the foremost creative artists of that era. The exhibits include treasures of architecture, sculpture, painting, graphic art, science, and applied arts, arranged chronologically so that progress through them is progress through German history.

First comes the "Gothic Hall," where among the examples of early and late Gothic work one may particularly note the artistic pottery, wood-carving, and glass painting. Then in "Renaissance Hall" are excellent examples of the more pompous work of the late Renaissance. In "Baroque Hall," with its gold, its white marble, and its stucco, its crooklegged chairs with opulent silk upholstery, we find the period which gave to Germany a great number of its beautiful palaces. A unique collection of German carpets with inwoven pictures, dating

The Germanic Museum at Nuremberg

from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, are particularly of note here. The "Faience Halls" also offer many interesting things, including an unusually beautiful colored porcelain stove from Ochsenfurth of the 16th century.

Pictures are housed by themselves in a new building, and include the works of many of the old masters. Worthy of note also are the comprehensive and valuable exhibits of goldsmith's work, and an extensive collection of bourgeois and peasant costumes. Of not the least charm are the rooms with the historic cultural oddities, for which Germany is particularly noted-toys, ancient furniture, dolls' rooms, old peasant rooms, etc., which give an interesting picture of the home and social life of these olden days.

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No more artless or honest method of presenting the history of a race can be found than the graphic museum manner which is so finely executed in the Germanic Museum of Nuremberg as a re

The Outlook for


sult of its seventy-five years of development.

Criminal Appeals: The English

HE law's delay in criminal cases in this country is universally admitted to be in large part due to our complicated system of appeals or rather, our forty-nine systems of appeals for each State has a system and the Federal courts have another. England has, to be sure, the advantage of possessing a single, unified system-impossible for the United States because of our dual plan of government. plan of government. Even so there is ample room for simplification, and it must be done if we are to avoid such scandalous instances of delays as were seen in the Sacco-Vanzetti case in which over seven years elapsed between the crime and the execution.

It is admitted by American lawyers that in England appeals in criminal cases are few as compared with the num

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