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FROM the "New Yorker the sight of

worm about to turn, we paused the othe afternoon to watch a meek little gentlema who was using one of the telephone boots in the Plaza. He stood there a long tin obviously having slipped the operator mind. Seated at her station in the cen of the booths, she was busily engaged pushing in plugs, pulling them out, reciti numbers, making change for patrons a declaring at intervals, "The liyen is bize Such an example of organized efficien was she that the meek gentleman palpaby lacked determination enough to recall him self to her attention. We had about giv up hope that he would take his own pa when she caught sight of him over th switchboard.

"Are you waiting for a number?" she c manded.

"Oh, no, ma'am," said the little man. just stepped in here to develop a picture."

An auto-renting company in Berkele California, has learned that an average 2.4 cents per mile is saved on gas when cars are driven over concrete highways compared with earth roads. It is cor cluded, therefore, that the hard surfaci of heavily traveled highways is in the in terest of public economy.

Indiana, woman who is in

terested in pageants received, accor ing to the Indianapolis "News," a let from a stranger who said that she had started to write a pageant and did not hav time to continue it. She wished to knc whether the Franklin woman could nee complete it for her.

By way of explanation the would-b pageant writer said: "I have named my pageant 'Creation.' It opens with a figu entering, moving slowly, very slowly. That is man. A second figure enters, moving slowly, very slowly. That is vegetation Now, that is as far as I got."

From the Boston "Transcript:"

"Money can take you anywhere," Remarked old Dan De Witt; "Money can take you anywhere, Save where you can't take it."

From the "Pacific Mutual News:"

It was dusk as she stopped at the filling station.

"I want a quart of red oil," she said t the service man. The man gasped ar hesitated. "Give me a quart of red ol she repeated.

"A q-q-quart of r-r-red oil?" he stut tered.

"Certainly," she said, "my tail light:


Five words of five letters each are need to compiete the following anagram. Each word contains the same letters.

The ships
Each bravely
The lead
And cat fresh

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bravely o'er the sea.

the storms' commo

right jovially

in huge proportions

Answer to last week's anagram: "Gnus "guns," "sung," and "snug."

Office at Dunellen, N. J., under the Act of March 3, 1879.
Published weekly by The Outlook Company at 120 East
Entered as second-class matter, July 21, 1893, at the Post

The Outlook for October 5, 1927

Have you the SECOND most important book in the world?

HE American Library Association has chosen The New International Encyclopædia as the world's second most necessary book, in a list of one hundred essential reference works. The dictionary* alone precedes it.

Why is The New International given this supreme ranking among encyclopædias?

First and foremost, The New International is truly international. It reflects the world scope of its great editors. And yet so important to you and your family-it is as truly American as it is international. No American need ever lay it down with the feeling that his country, his state, his city or town has been slighted through a lack of understanding, or that pursuits, pleasures and institutions dear to the American heart have been omitted through a lack of sympathy for the American people.

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Supplied free to readers of this publication who
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The one unquestioned authority Its presence in your home guarantees that your children, and yourself, will form true concepts of American men, institutions and accomplishments, as well as of those of other countries.

The New International's 80,000 articles cover every important event and phase of human knowledge from the dawn of creation to the present day. Contrast this with the 45,000 articles contained in its nearest competitor-you will readily see why The New International is hailed as the last word in reference in the English language, and recognized as the final and absolute authority by the colleges, courts and universities of the nation.

It is concise and clearly written in crisp, readable English that all can understand.

Now offered at a saving of 48%
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The New International


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$100-in the beautiful new Popular Édition form, a saving of nearly 48%.

By binding the Popular Edition into 13 volumes, which include exactly the same contents as the 25volume set, we have made possible this remarkable offer. We can, however, guarantee this price only for the one printing contract. After that the price will probably go up.

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A library of universal knowledge

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This new Popular Edition contains 20,000 pages of text matter, 100 beautiful full-page engravings, in natural colors, of animal, plant and insect life; 200 full-page half-tone illustrations in black and white; 500 full-page duotints; 200 two-page color maps, and thousands of smaller illustrations throughout the text.

The New International answers every question! You turn immediately to whatever subject you seek, without indexes or cross-references. It is knowledge instantly available the way you have always


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Send me today, without obligation on my part, the FREE 48-PAGE BOOKLET which tells about the great NEW INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPÆDIA, the FREE NEW-DESIGN BOOK-TABLE (offered for a limited time only) and the easy terms of payment.


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HAROLD T. PULSIFER, President and Managing Editor
NATHAN T. PULSIFER, Vice-President


What's Wrong With the Ring?

An Interview by DIXON MERRITT


Europe in the Air


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One Man Beats 150


Lights Down


The Book Table:


Is Pleasure Old-Fashioned?

A Review by R. D. TOWNSEND
Current Books

Rolls and Discs


By the Way.

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The Outlook is indexed in the Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature

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Arthur Bullard, just back from three years' first-hand study
of conditions in Europe, during which he attended the Economic
and Disarmament Conferences at Geneva and the International
Chamber of Commerce Convention at Stockholm, discusses in
The Outlook for next week some of the differences between
enthusiasms and realities in American relations with Europe.

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Published weekly by The Outlook Company, 120 East 16th Street, New York. Copyright, 1927, by The Outlook Company. By subscription $5.00 a year for the United States and Canada. Single copies 15 cents each. Foreign subscription to countries in the postal Union, $6.56.

ERNEST HAMLIN ABBOTT, Editor-in-Chief and Secretary
LAWRENCE F. ABBOTT, Contributing Editor

Volume 147

The Outlook

Al Smith and His Party


HE West "couldn't see" Governor Smith as a candidate for President in 1924. Now it can. That may be as much as the change amounts to, but that is a good deal.

A conference of Smith Democrats O

from the Pacific and intermountain States was held recently in Ogden, Utah. It was not largely attended. A number of leaders who came in at the beginning "bolted." Those who remained were not, for the most part, Nationally known. But, such as they were and for such as they represented, they unqualifiedly indorsed the candidacy of Governor Smith for the Democratic nomination for the Presidency.

That night a "fiery cross" burned on the heights of Mount Ogden, casting the flicker of its flames on the city of the Smith conference.

Clearly, Governor Smith is not in peaceable possession of the Democratic strength of that region. But, just as clearly, the fact that he is the outstanding figure in his party is recognized. Any strength that he has there is clear gain since 1924.

There is a feeling that he is to have the nomination by default. The withdrawal of Mr. McAdoo has left no organization opposed to him, and the wing of the party which is opposed to him has done nothing to bring about a new organization.

Edwin T. Meredith, of Des Moines, a McAdoo supporter and at one time apparent heir to the McAdoo strength, was recently in New York, and was quoted as saying that unless the dry, progressive Democrats perfected an organization within thirty days they might as well concede the nomination to Governor Smith. But the announcement comes from Patrick H. Callahan, the dry, Catholic Democrat of Louisville, that no conference will be held until winter. He then, in the rôle of a Jeremiah, predicted that the Democratic Party will lose two million votes if it nominates Smith and two million if it does not.

All of this, however, comes nine months ahead of the nominating Convention. These Democrats may be amused next June at what they said this September. Governor Smith is not yet the choice of his party for the Presi

October 5, 1927

dency. He is merely the one outstanding
figure in his party, with some elements
of strength in places where he had none
in 1924.

Indiana's Bitter Dose

UT of Indiana's reeking political
scandal has come a conviction in
the first case tried. John L. Duvall,
Mayor of Indianapolis, was found guilty
of violating the corrupt practices act,
was fined a thousand dollars, sentenced
to jail for thirty days, and barred from
holding public office for four years from
the commission of the offense. The spe-
cific charge proved was that Mayor
Duvall, when he was a candidate, bar-
tered three city offices for money, but
testimony was offered as to various other
alleged corrupt transactions. Members

of the Ku Klux Klan took the stand
both to assert and to deny that Duvall
promised not less than sixty per cent of
all patronage to that organization in ex-
change for its support.

Some of the truth has been established
in this trial. In other trials that are to
come other charges will be cleared up.
Whether any particular charge is proved
or disproved is not of paramount impor-
tance. The essential thing is that In-
diana has begun the process of purging
itself of a poison in its body politic, for
the presence of which not D. C. Stephen-
son nor the Klan nor Duvall nor Jack-
son, but the people of Indiana, were

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Ambassador Morrow

No better augury for the settlement of

the conflicting claims of the United States and Mexico could well be imagined than President Coolidge's appointment of Dwight W. Morrow as Ambassador to Mexico. Many Americans can see dangers involved in the investment of American capital in the Latin-American countries. In view of their fears, it is pertinent to quote here some of the statements made by Mr. Morrow in an article in the American quarterly review "Foreign Affairs" for last January. Citing Mr. Root as an authority, Mr. Morrow points out in this article that the United States has never regarded it as suitable to use armed forces for the collection of contract debts of foreign governments to its citizens. He goes further and says that it is to the interest


of investors that the policy initiated by Mr. Root should be carried on. "Investors who buy foreign loans," says Mr. Morrow, "are in a position to appreciate what a fruitless remedy for breach of contract war is.... Is there any one who thinks that if a man owes him money and cannot pay it, there is profit in going out and killing the debtor?" And in conclusion Mr. Morrow says:

In the overwhelming majority of business transactions, we rely upon the ability and the willingness of the debtor to pay. On no other principle could modern business be conducted.

There is no international sheriff. But there still remains our reliance upon good faith, our reliance upon that law which is older than statute law-the acknowledged custom of mankind.

These quotations indicate the spirit in which Mr. Morrow undertakes his new, difficult, but interesting task. Mr. Morrow's qualifications for this are further set forth at some length in an arti

cle on another page by the Contributing Editor entitled "On the Importance of Being an Ambassador."

A Trillion-Dollar Legacy-
Who will Get It?

The Outlook for October 5, 1927
more billions of tons-figures like this
mean little and statistics are as dry as
the Dead Sea environs themselves. The
point is that here nature has been
concentrating for at least hundreds of
thousands of years all these invaluable
chemicals, using a process which man
sometimes uses, but only at great cost-
the evaporation of solids from solutions.
Literally, the Dead Sea is and long has
been a big evaporating dish, the sun its

Potassium chloride, two billion tons; Codium chloride ("salt"), twelve billion magnesium and calcium salts,

Deposits of potash exist in other parts of the world; those of Alsace are the best known. Here it is a case of the same thing going on in far more ancient geologic periods-a sort of "fossil" dead sea; another of the same nature is rapidly coming to light in Texas, buried in this case by thousands of feet of more recent sediments. Greatest of all potash stores is granite, containing pink felspar, which is a compound of aluminum, silicon, oxygen, and potassium. Yet man cannot economically touch its potassium and must wait for rain and frost and atmospheric acids to break it slowly atmospheric acids to break it slowly down from the rock. This goes on all the time on all the continents, but the

potash escapes to the sea; in the Dead
Sea basin, without outlet, this escape

cannot occur, and concentration there

fore takes place.

Who will get the potash? First, the British. The Palestine governments will also get a royalty-enough to keep them fat, at least. And American interests are said to be trying to obtain a further slice. In any case, it looks as if the French-German fertilizer interests and all the other potash fertilizer interests had something to worry about.

What does the wealth of much fine gold amount to when stacked up against enough fertilizer to quicken a primary industry like agriculture?


HE Dead Sea has suddenly come to life. The world has just been told by the newspapers that the neglected chemicals-chiefly potash (fertilizer) — of this small body of water are worth a trillion dollars. A trillion dollars, not a billion. A trillion dollars is about three times the total value of the United States and everything within its boundaries. And thus, we are told, the Dead Sea is to be quickened by science and engineering into $1,190,000,000,000.

It seems odd to most of us that so incomprehensible a mine of wealth should have been discovered only at this late date. But, as a matter of fact, the knowledge of its existence is not particu

A Six Months' Strike

larly recent. Those who have to do with How many people know that a soft

mineral statistics have long known that there was at least a great deal of valuable mineral in the Dead Sea basin, though the full extent of it is a matter of recent realization. The Turk, who long blighted civilization in that part of the world, successfully opposed until recently the exploitation of the Dead Sea wealth. But no sooner had Allenby won the Last Crusade in 1918 than British geologists were heading for the Dead Sea to make a careful quantitative estimate of the suspected billions. They turned out to be trillions.

strike has been going on for six months in several States and is still unsettled? The reason illustrates pointedly the difference between this soft-coal strike and the anthracite strike two years ago. After half a year there is no shortage of soft coal and wages in the non-union and independent mines have not risen perceptibly. This is just another way of saying that if both union and non-union mines were fully at work the production of soft coal would exceed the need.

The obvious question asked is how such a strike can continue. Yet it does continue. The union leaders have refused an offer to settle at the current

wages of the districts and insist on the letter of the agreement made in Jacksonville three years ago. For one reason it continues because many of the 170,000 miners nominally out of work have actually taken jobs in the non-union mines or are working in some other employment. On the other hand, it is said that some union mines are paying the Jacksonville scale.

This peculiar situation is due to the fact that bituminous mining may exist on a small scale in some places with profit, in others not-depending on the ease of transportation and the extent of commercial needs. As both soft and hard coal miners belong to one National body, the United Mine Workers, there has been considerable influence brought to bear on the strikers to maintain their fight for other than their own local benefit and in the interest not of their economic needs but of the policy of the American Federation to maintain favorable contracts at all costs.

To fix wages without regard to production seems like trying to make water run up-hill.

Tips or Wages-Which ?


VERY one smiled who read in the newspapers that Pullman porters dislike tips. How fully the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters represent the large number of our colored friends known generically as George, the account does not show, but the Brotherhood seems to be earnest and honest. And there is a good deal to say in favor of their proposal to abolish all Pullman tips.

They say that they regard the practice as making their service menial. ground, they suggest that the Pullman Descending from social to financial Company is an undeserving beneficiary of the tipping system because it pays its porters only about half what it would have to pay if tips were not allowed, and that its stockholders are unduly benefiting thereby. Economically speaking. they argue that it would be better and sounder business for everybody if their salaries should be raised and be paid by the Pullman Company instead of by the public on a haphazard or chance basis.

A brief on the subject is to be laid before the Interstate Commerce Commission. It is argued that if tips were abolished railway fares would include the cost of porter service, which is now paid for indirectly and irregularly by passengers, and that this involves violations of railway law as to rates.

Incidentally, it appears that Pullman porters now get a minimum wage of

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