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11. The function of BREATHING, as a preliminary to the use of the voice -2. The practice of ENUNCIATION, in the act of articulating elementary sounds and syllables, and of pronouncing words.-3. The study of the various " QUALITIES " of the voice, as an instrument of sound, and the training of the organs, with reference to the formation of "purity," fulness, vigor, and pliancy of voice.. 4. The study and practice of Force, "STRESS," 66 MELODY," pitch, "slide," "wave," "monotone," and "semitone," "TIME," "quantity," "movement," "rhythm," metre, and pause, with a view to organic discipline and the command of the voice, in EMPHASIS and "EXPRESSION," the appropriate utterance of thought and emotion.
To adapt the work to the purposes of practical instruction, and to render it convenient, as a class-book, those parts which are most important to learners, are distinguished by "leaded" lines, and larger type; and these are intended either to be impressed, in substance, on the memory, or to be practised as exercises. The portions of the work which are in smaller type, contain the theory and the explanations requisite for the guidance of the adult student and the teacher.
The sentential or grammatical department of elocution, - that which concerns the modifications of voice, for the purposes of strictly intellectual communication, the adapting of the voice to the structure of sentences in prose, and stanzas in poetry, -involves a more extensive study of "slides," (inflections,) emphasis, and pausing, together with prosodial elocution, or the regulation of the voice in the reading of verse. The full discussion and practice of these branches, are reserved for a separate course of study, as prescribed in the "American Elocutionist," to which the present manual is intended as an introduction. In that volume will also be found an extended course of practice in articulation and in pronunciation, with remarks on the character of cadence; and, in addition to the vocal part of elocution, an outline of the principles of gesture, and a collection of pieces for practice in reading and declamation.
The stereotype process, adopted in this new edition of the present work, enables the publishers to offer it in a more compact shape, without diminishing the actual extent of the matter; while the new arrangement of the chapters, and the addition of the Tables of Orthophony, will, it is thought, render the volume more useful as a manual for schools and academies.
1 The arrangement adopted in this improved edition of the Orthophony, is intended to facilitate the business of instruction, by presenting more prominently those parts of elocution which are most important in practice. The chapter on the structure and action of the vocal organs, has been transferred, therefore, to the appendix. But adult students may derive advantage from perusing it, before commencing the practice of the various exercises.
ORTHOPHONY, OR THE SYSTEMATIC CULTIVATION OF THE VOICE.
THE term orthophony is used to designate the art of cultivating the voice, for the purposes of speech, reading, declamation, recitation, or singing. This art, like all others, is founded on certain principles, the knowledge of which constitutes science. The principles of orthophony, are derived from the sciences of anatomy and physiology, as regards the structure and action of the vocal organs, from the science of acoustics, as regards the formation of sound, in general, and from the science and art of music, as regards the regu lation of vocal sound, in particular.
Orthophony is, to elocution, what solfeggi, and other rudimental exercises, are to music, - a course of elementary discipline, for the systematic cultivation of the voice. We may, it is true, read well, just as we may sing well, “by ear," or the teaching of nature, merely. But cultivation gives us, in both these uses of the voice, the immense advantages of knowledge, science, and skill. Furnished with these aids, and directed by discerning judgment and good taste, the cultivated reader or speaker has all the advantages of the culti vated singer, as regards the true and effective use of his organs.
The preparatory training and discipline of the voice, for the purposes of reading, recitation, and declamation, are of incalculable value, whether as regards the organic results connected with the
1 The terms phonation, (the act of producing vocal sound,) and phonology, (the science of voice,) are in current use among physiologists. But the systematic cultivation of the vocal organs, on the elements of expressive utterance, is a branch of education for which our own language furnishes no appropriate designation. The compiler of this manual has ventured to adopt, as a term convenient for this purpose, the word orthophony, -a modification of the corresponding French word, "orthophonie," used to designate the art of training the vocal organs. The etymology of this term, when traced to the original Greek words, signifying correct and voice, sanctions its use in elocution, on the same ground with that of "orthoëpy," in grammar.
easy, vigorous, and salutary exertion of the voice, or the healthy expansion of the chest, and the inspiring glow of vivid emotion, which is indispensable to effective expression. Dr. Rush's exact and scientific analysis of elocution, in its connection with the action of the organs of voice, enables the teacher to carry elementary cultivation to an extent previously unattainable, and, even yet, too little known by those who have not paid special attention to the subject. The actual benefits, however, arising from the practical applications of Dr. Rush's system, are equally felt in the exactness of intelligence, which it imparts, regarding all the expressive uses of the voice, and the force, freedom, and brilliancy of effect, which it gives to the action of the vocal organs, whether in the utterance of expressive emotion, or of distinctive meaning addressed to the understanding, by the process of unimpassioned articulation.
The methods of practical training, founded on the theory and the suggestions of Dr. Rush, are attended by a permanent salutary influence of the highest value. They produce a free and powerful exertion of the organs of respiration, a buoyancy of animal life, an exhilaration of spirits, and an energetic activity of the whole corporeal frame, all highly conducive to the well-being of the juvenile pupil, not less than to his attainment of a spirited, effective, and graceful elocution. The correspondent benefits conferred on adults, by a vigorous course of vocal gymnastics, are of perhaps still higher moment, for the immediate purposes of life and usefulness. The sedentary habits of students and professional men, render them liable not only to organic disability of utterance, and to injury of the lungs, but to numerous faults of habit, in their modes of exerting the organs of speech, faults which impair or counteract the intended effect of all their efforts in the form of public reading or speaking. The daily practice of vocal exercises, is the only effectual means of invigorating the organic system, or correcting faults of habit in utterance, and the surest means, at the same time, of fortifying the inward frame against the exhausting effects of professional exertion, when either pursued too long in succession, or practised at too distant intervals, both serious evils, and nearly equal in the amount of injury which they occasion.
The compiler of the present work, could enumerate many cases, in which, voice and health, equally impaired, have been restored in a few months, or even weeks, of vocal training, and still more in which new and brilliant powers of expression, have been elicited in individuals who have commenced practice with little hope of success,
and with little previous ground for such hope;-confirmed wrong habits of utterance, debilitated organs, and sinking health having all united their depressing and nearly ruinous influence on the whole man.1
It will be perceived, by referring to the subjoined expressions of opinion, that, in pressing this subject on general attention, there is ample professional authority for the expectation of invaluable benefits, as the result of the systematic vocal training recommended in this volume.
Opinions of Gentlemen of the Medical Profession, regarding Mr. Murdoch's System for the Cultivation of the Voice.
"BOSTON, July 29, 1842.
“I have carefully examined Mr. Murdoch's system of Vocal Gymnastics. It is based upon an accurate knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the larynx, or organ of the voice. All the details of the system seem to me to be practical, ingenious, interesting, and in accurate conformity to scientific principles. Its obvious utility in developing the functions of the human larynx, and giving flexibility, beauty, facility, and permanent power to the voice; and its eminent effect both in the prevention and cure of the diseases to which public speakers are liable, give it a strong claim upon the attention of the Teachers in our Schools and Colleges, our Youth, and all whose duties demand a frequent or great use of the voice. EDWARD REYNOLDS, Jr."
"We fully concur with Dr. Reynolds in the opinions above expressed. GEO. HAYWARD,
D. HUMPHREYS STORER."
"July 30, 1842.
"The exercise of Vocal Gymnastics, as recommended by James E. Murdoch, being founded on a correct knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the vocal apparatus, cannot fail, if properly practised, under his direction, to develop and strengthen the voice. Persons of
1 Mr. Murdoch, whose system of orthophony is imbodied in this volume, -seemed, at one time, while pursuing a profession in which the most intense exertion of the vocal organs is perpetually required, destined to sink under the effects of over-exertion; but, having seasonably turned his attention to the systematic practice of vocal gymnastics, he recovered his tone of health, and gained, to such an extent, in power and depth of voice, as to add to his previous range in the latter, a full octave, within the space of some months. On devoting himself to the daily occupation of conducting classes in the practice of regulated vocal exercise, the result continued to be a constant accession of vocal power and compass; and on returning to the practice of his early profession, in which he is now so distinguished, his utterance was at once remarked for its round, deep, rich, and full tone.
delicate constitutions and feeble voices, will receive great benefit from the practice of his system; as it is well calculated to give a healthy action to the vocal and pulmonary organs; and, in this particular, it is well worthy the attention of parents. WINSLOW LEWis, Jr."
"I have had the pleasure of a long interview with Mr. J. E. Murdoch, in which he illustrated his principles of managing and giving strength to the voice; and I am very happy to say, that I can fully concur with Dr. Lewis in his statement of Mr. M.'s system of Vocal Gymnastics. W. CHANNING."
We smile at the enumeration of the formal apparatus of Athenian rhetorical education, which, in addition to its long and classified array of grammarians and rhetoricians, furnished, it is said, five gradations of schools for different species of muscular exercise, and three distinct classes of instructors for the voice: one, to superintend practice in pitch; another, to conduct the exercises in force; and a third, to regulate vocal melody and inflections. Modern taste forbids this fastidious multiplicity and minuteness of appliances; but it makes, as yet, no adequate provision for the acquiring of that moral and intellectual power, and that expressive force, which result from the blending of a high-toned physical and mental training. The customary routine of academic declamation, consists in permitting or compelling a student to "speak," and pointing out his faults, after they have been committed. But it offers no genial inducement to the exercise, and provides no preventive training by which faults might be avoided. Eloquence, in his habits of voice and action, a student may bring with him to our literary institutions; but he will find little opportunity, there, of acquiring or of perfecting such accomplishments, till a correct and graceful elocution is duly recognized as a part of liberal education.