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SCANDELLA, American deported
from Venezuela, 288 n.
SCHAEFER, Tageblatt prosecution,
85, 87, 94-101, 106, 207, 216, 218,
265.

SCHENCK, prosecution, 9 n., 16 n.,
88-93, 98, 99, 102, 155, 178, 179,
191, 192, 285.
SCHOFIELD, Henry, Freedom of the
Press in the United States, 4 n.,
8 n., 20 n., 21, 24 n., 30 and n.,
31 n., 56.
SCHOOLS, political speeches by su-
perintendent, 11 n.; freedom for
teachers, 365-376.
SCHWARTZ, prosecution, 124, 125,
126, 146. See ABRAMS.
SCIENCE, promoted by freedom of
speech, 17, 31, 32, 170, 370, 374.
SCOTLAND, sedition trials in, 28.
SCOTT, Austin W., on atheism,
172 n.

SCRUTTON, Lord Justice, 119.
SEARCHES AND SEIZURES, warrants

authorized by Espionage Act, 43,
45, 302; raids in the war, 115,
229, 302; Russia, 176; impor-
tance of warrants, 140, 159; in
deportation proceedings, 241 and
n., 242 n., 244-247, 302; at time
of Wilkes, 295-298; Supreme
Court decisions on Fourth
Amendment, 299-301; conse-
quences of illegality, 300-302;
when legal, 242 n., 301, 310 n.;
Lusk Committee raids, 302-310;
N. Y. law, 303-310; Massachu-
setts raids, 310, 311.
SEARS, Clara E., 172 n.
SEAS, FREEDOM OF THE, 17.
Seattle Union-Record, raided, 115,
229, 302.

SEDITION, Common law of, and free

speech, 8, 9, 11, 14, 19-32, 170;
not federal common law crime;
British trials, 22, 23, 26-29, 118,
146 n., 157, 175, 296 ff.; colonial
trials, 19, 22, 23; societies to
suppress, 71, 72, 357; in war, see
WAR, ESPIONAGE ACT; punish-
ment in peace, chapter IV., 161-
228; normal criminal law suffi-
cient, 161-169; criminal law of
obscenity, breaches of peace, etc.,
distinguished, 169-173; criminal

law of violence distinguished,
173-180, 196; suppression of agi-
tation by law unwise, 219 ff.;
distinguished from treason, 325-
328. See SPIES.
SEDITION ACT OF 1798, 1, 17, 25,
65 n., 109, 116, 157, 162, 194, 199,
208, 223, 229, 329, 345; summary
of text, 29, 30; constitutionality,
20-22 and nn., 30, 200, 204; com-
parison with Espionage Act, 56,
128; juries, 78 and n.; judges,
80, 81.

SEDITION ACT OF 1918, 44. See
ESPIONAGE ACT.

SEDITION BILLS, FEDERAL, 81, 140,
194-228, 229, 230, 231; summary,
194-199; constitutionality, af-
firmative federal power, 199-
201, treason clause, 201-203, first
amendment, 203-207; wisdom,
207-228, 268.

SEDITION STATUTES OF STATES, in
war, 57, 74 n., 110-113, 163; in
peace, 163, 169, 173-194, 204, 212,
216, 224, 246; red flag laws, 180-
187; anarchy syndicalism, and
sedition, 187-194, 261, 265, 268;
constitutionality, 191-194;
ommended by Palmer, 195; en-
forced by Palmer, 229, 249.
SELF-INCRIMINATION, rule against,
69, 303 and n., 307.
Sentenced to Twenty Years Prison,
145 n.

rec-

SENTENCES, English and Scotch se-
dition trials, 28 and n., 87 n.; De-
fense of the Realm Act trials,
118 n.; India, 159 n.; Espionage
Act trials, 58-62, 87 and n., 147,
148, 159, 160, 220; long sentences
as cruel and unusual punish-
ment, 148 n.

September Morn, suppression of,
175.

Sermon on the Mount, and war,
55, 119.

SERVICE-LETTER STATUTES, 3 n.
SERVITUDE, involuntary, sometimes
constitutional, 7, 35, 36.
SEWARD, W. F., arbitrary arrests,
116; on intervention, 160 n.
SEX, discussion, 171, 172.
SHAKESPEARE, William, 14, 55;
censored, 175, 214.

SHAW, Bernard, 32; censored, 175,
283.

SHAW, Lord, 42 n.
SHAY'S REBELLION, 164.
SHELLEY, 172.

SHERMAN ANTI-TRUST LAW, 53 n.,
106.

SHIPLACOFF, A., prosecution, 125.
SHIPMAN, Clare, 190 n.

SHIPS, discussion of sinking of, 57,
60; parables of, 276, 286.
SHIPYARDS, limiting war-time dis-
cussion, 7, 58.
SIDIS, W., 186 n.
SIMS, Admiral, 64.

SISSON, Edgar, Russian documents,
132 and n.; in Abrams case,
133.

SISTERS, discouragement of, in war,
criminal, 103.

SLANDER, no previous restraint pos-
sible, 14; not immune, 15. See
LIBEL.

SMITH, Alfred, Governor, 362 and

n.

SMITH, F. E. (now Lord Birken-

head), criticism of, excluded
from mails, 108.

SMITH, Jeremiah, on intent, 149 n.,
150 n.

SMITH AND WESSON Co., 153.
SMOOт, Reed, Senator, exclusion
case, 347 n., 352, 353.
Socialist Review, 319 n., 331 n.
SOCIALISTS, 2, 10, 27, 260; need for
judicial comprehension, 82-84,
86; in the War, 81, 83, 162; St.
Louis Platform, 162, 315, 316,
334; peace-time prosecutions,
188, 210, 216, 224; secession of
left-wing, 256, 262; exclusion as
a party from legislature, 306,
329-338, 355-364; in schools,
365 ff.; in Germany, 262. See
DEBS; PIERCE; STOKES; SYRA-
CUSE; BERGER; RAND SCHOOL;
LIPMAN; LEGISLATIVE EXCLUSION;
COMMUNISTS.

SOCIETIES, to suppress sedition, 71,
72.

SOCRATES, 367, 370.

SOLICITATION, criminal, relation to
freedom of speech, 25, 165, 166,
173, and to Espionage Act, 49,

51-53, 88, 89, 155; to non-crim-
inal interference with the gov-
ernment's war activities, 53, 169;
in federal crimes, 166 and n.,
201.

SOLOMON, Charles, N. Y. Socialist
assemblyman, 333, 356, 357.
SOUTH CAROLINA, constitution, free
speech clause, 4 n.
SOVIET GOVERNMENT.
SPEECH, FREEDOM OF.

See RUSSIA.

Constitutions: guaranty in U.
S. Constitution, 3-5, 18, 200, de-
manded by states, 3, 4, 19, 156;
in Congressional debates, 3; in
state constitutions, 3 and n., 4
and n., 17, 18, 21 n., 30 n., 374;
exception of "abuse" implied if
not expressed, 4 n.; clauses a
guide to interpretation of con-
stitutional statutes, 5, 6, 46, 48,
193, 194, 207; and also invalidate
statutes, 3, 4, 11 and n., 16,
111 n., 156, 192 n.

Meaning: 1-39, 155-158, 366-
372; subject to limits, 2, 7; nec-
essarily extends to unpopular
persons and causes, 3, 156, 157,
294, 366; Blackstonian censorship
view, 8-12, 19, 21-23, 31, 32, 38,
108, 199; liberty and license view,
12-16, 210, 211, 368; history of
principle, 17-32; inconsistent
with common law of sedition, 14,
22-24, 170; social and political
function, 34-36; conclusions on
meaning, 34-39, 156 ff., 368 ff.;
view of Judge Hand, 50, 51; of
Justice Holmes, 88, 155, 156; an
issue between two tests of crim-
inality, danger v. bad tendency,
24-31, 37-39, 49-52, 154-159, 173-
180, 213-219, and elsewhere; not
secured by juries, 24-28, see
JURY TRIAL; meaning not fixed in
1791, 14, 32, 35, 36; does not ex-
clude intemperate and foolish
discussion, 48, 83, 114, 140 n.,
173, 206, 219, 220; applies to po-
litical research, 370, 371; but not
limited to political discussion,
156, 170; does not depend on
merits of existing government,
210; suppression ineffectual, 118,
119, 219, 220, 226, 227.

Procedural safeguards: 39, 49,
66-69, 92, 93; Fox's Libel Act,
etc., 24, 39, 69; precise offense
must be specified, 49, 92, 93; ob-
jective test of criminality of
words, 49-51, 54 ff., 216 ff.; ex-
clusion of psychological ques-
tions and disputes of opinion,
52, 66-69, 73, 103-106; judicial
guidance of jury, 85, 86, 94-100;
evils of bad intention as test of
guilt, 63-68, 86, see INTENTION;
culling sentences, 100, 102, 220;
right to counsel, 236 ff., 247 ff.;
narrow range of administrative
power in criminal law, 75. See
HUMAN MACHINERY.

Relation to other branches of
the law and concrete applica-
tions: libel, see same; nuisance,
52, 171, 205; breaches of the
peace, 24, 25, 74 and n., 102 n.,
110 n., 111, 171, 172, 205, 208;
war, 6, 7 and n., 25, 26, 32-38,
46-56, 63-66, 88-90, 96, 104-106,
176, 179, 369 ff.; obscenity, blas-
phemy, etc., 169-173, and
same; peace-time sedition laws,
173-180, 191-194, 199-228; depor-
tations, 280-291; legislative ex-
clusion, 328-332, 362-364; schools,
368-376. See ATTEMPT; SOLICI-
TATION; ESPIONAGE ACT; POST-
OFFICE; ASSEMBLY.

see

Summary of recent events in
U. S., 296, 336-339.
SPENCER, Herbert, 226, 276.
SPIES, German, 6, 70-72; opponents
of war as, 41, 42; government
spies and informers 59, 71, 72,
227, 268-272, 302, 357.

SPIES, August, anarchist, 165, 205,
206.

Spirit of "76, moving picture case,
10, 38 n., 43, 60, 61.

STAMP TAX, restraint of press by,
19 n., 32.

STANCHFIELD, J. B., on guilt by
association, 360.

STANTON, E. M., arbitrary ar-
rests, 116.

STAR CHAMBER, 32, 232, 238.
Star-Spangled Banner, alleged
prosecutions for not standing up,
102 and n., 103.

STATE SEDITION LAWS, in war and
peace. See SEDITION STATUTES

OF STATES.

STATE

WAR CASES, miscellaneous,

110 n.
STEAD, W. T., "The Maiden Trib-
ute," 171.

STEIMER, Molly, prosecution, 123,
126, 143 and n., 144, 145, 147 n.,
148. See ABRAMS.
STEPHEN, James Fitzjames, 13,
20 n., 23 n., 24, 26 n., 29 n., 56,
201 n., 263 n.
STERLING BILL, 197, 207.
STEVENSON, J. A., 269 n.
STEVENSON, R. L., on Braxfield,
146 n.

STIRNER, 221.

STOKES, Rose Pastor, prosecution,
13 n., 28 n., 58, 59, 67, 87 n., 92,
118, 119, 225.

STONE, F. D., 19 n.

STOREY, Moorfield, on intervention,
160 n.

STORY, Joseph, 8 n., 341, 345 n.
STREET MEETINGS. See ASSEMBLY.
STRIKES, 53, 164, 218, 220; under
Espionage Act of 1918, 74, 269,
273, 274; coal strike, 82, 260;
advocacy of general strike, 122,
125, 139, 140, 149-153, 163, 188,
216, 257-261, 271. See LABOR
UNIONS.

STRONG, A. L., 115 n.

SUBMARINE WARFARE, discussion of
criminal, 57, 60.

SUGARMAN, prosecution, 88 n., 89,

90.

SUHR, an I. W. W., 163.
SUMNER, Charles, 210, 330.
SUMNER, William G., 97, 362.
SUNDAY, Rev. Wm., 260.
SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED

STATES, Espionage Act cases, 15,
16, 87-106, 116, 120-160 passim,
178, 191, 207, 285; other free
speech cases, 9, 12; on conscrip-
tion, 7, 35, 40, 57; on postal
power, 108; protection of lives of
judges, 197, 200, 206; on power
over aliens, 230 ff.; on anarchist
exclusions, 275 ff.; on guilt by
association, 265; on searches and
seizures, 299-301, 335; on federal
peace-time sedition bill, 207.

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TACITUS, quoted, 118 n.
Tageblatt, Philadelphia.
SCHAEFER.

See

TANEY, Chief Justice, 34 n.;
against lawlessness in war, 81 n.
TARDE, 163.

TAXATION, 106, 233; restraint of
free speech by, 19 n., 32, 282;
discussion of war taxation sup-
pressed, 57, 64, 65, 95, 107.
TELEGRAPH, censorship of, 109 n.
TENDENCY, bad, as test of crimi-
nality of words, fatal to free-
dom of speech, see SPEECH,

FREEDOM OF; social and economic
tendency unsuitable for decision
by judges and juries, 49, 52, 68,
69, 104, 132-136, 158.
TEST OATH, restricted by U. S.
Constitution, 3; in R. Ì., 77; in
N. Y., 333, 342, 343, 354 n.
TEST OATH ACT, 328, 330, 349-351,
353.

TEXAS, war sedition law, 111 n.
THAW, H. K., trial, 136 n., 163.
THAYER, J. B., 6 n.

THAYER, W. R., 203.

THEATER, shouting fire in, 16; cen-
sorship of, 172, 175.
THIRD AMENDMENT, 33.
THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT, 7, 35,
36.

THOMAS, A. V., 218 n.
THREATS. See PRESIDENT.
TIBERIUS, Emperor, censorship,
118 n., 268.

TIGHE, Ambrose, on war powers,
33 n., 117 n.

TILDSLEY, John L., 365 ff.

TOBACCO, 209.

TOLEDO, 191.

TOLSTOY, 276, 279, 294 n.

TORTS, Outside free speech clauses,
14, 15. See LIBEL.

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TRACHTENBERG, A., 257 n.
TRADE UNIONS.
TRADING WITH THE ENEMY ACT,
108 n., 195.

See LABOR UNIONS.

TRAINING CAMPS, limiting war-
time discussion, 7, 57, 119; sani-
tary conditions, 64.

TREASON, 97; levying war, 166, 201,
265; aid and comfort to ene-
mies, 148 n., 202, 324-328; in
war with Germany, 41 and n.,
50, 74, 91, 325 n.; against U. S.,
states cannot prosecute, 111; ef-
fect of clause on federal sedi-
tion statutes, 201-203, 218; Ber-
ger and relation of treason to
Espionage Act, 325-328.
TREATIES, 36, 233; with Germany,
1, 119; secret, 36, 37 and n.
TREVELYAN, G. O., 295, 312.
TROTSKY, Leon, 135, 144, 147, 311.
TRUMBULL, Lyman, Senator, on ex-
pulsion, 346, 347.

TRUTH, Social interest in, 34-39,
155-160, 176, 368 ff.; importance
in war, 36, 37, 46, 63, 65, 66, 96;
not concerned in mere advocacy
of violence and lawlessness, 49,
50, 63, 173, 204; not a defense
under Espionage Act, except
false statements clause, 56, 115;
relation to criminal law of ob-
scenity, profanity, etc., 169-173.
See LIBEL.

TUCKER, St. George, 8 n.
TUCKER, St. John, 101.

TUNNEY, T. J., Inspector, 123,
169 n., 181 and n., 182.
TURNER, John, anarchist ex-
cluded, 275-283 passim.
TYLER, Moses C., 276 n.

UNDER-COVER INFORMANTS, 269-272.
UNITED STATES, inciting resistance
to, opposing cause, see Es-
PIONAGE ACT; division of state
and federal jurisdiction over
crimes, 113 ff., 171; political par-
ties, see PARTIES; absence of
intellectual divergencies, 289,
363.

UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION, ab-
sence of free speech clause and

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UNITED STATES COURTS, no common
law crimes, 22. See SUPREME

COURT; DISTRICT COURTS; JUDGES;
FEDERALIST JUDGES.
UNITED STATES OFFICIALS, protec-
tion of, from violence, 163-169,
196-207, 213-215, 251. See PRESI-
DENT; PROSECUTING OFFICIALS;
JUSTICE, DEPARTMENT OF.
UNITED STATES STATUTES, adequacy
against utterances in war, 40-42,
46, 50; against revolution and
attacks on officials, 165-169, 194,
196; accessories, 52 and n., 53,
166 n.; attempts and incitement,
166 and n.; judicial code, 269,
149 n.; Explosives Act, 169.
UNTERMEYER, Samuel, on Rand
School, 309, 310.

VALLANDIGHAM, 97, 117 and n.,
325, 330.

VANCE, W. R., on freedom of

speech, 22 n., 76 n.
VAN VALKENBURGH, Judge, 13 n.,
28 n., 58, 59, 87, 225.
VEBLEN, Thorstein, book on Ger-
many excluded from mails,

108.

VENEZUELA, deportation of Amer-
ican, 288 n.

VERMONT, Constitution, free speech
clause, 4 n.

VESSELS, merchant, sinking of, 57,
60. See SHIPS.

VIOLENCE, draft riots, 40, 50; mobs
in war, 44-46; law against, 165-
169; advocacy of, by radicals,
chapters IV., V., passim; by
conservatives, 260, 261; suppres-
sion of opinion by, 196, 197, 219,
260, 264. See FORCE AND VIO-
LENCE"; SOLICITATION; RIOTS.
VIRGINIA, demands federal free
speech clause, 4; constitution,
free speech clause, 4; religious
toleration statute, 17, 18, 31, 66,

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WALLACE, D. H., prosecution, 13 n.,
62.
WALLAS, Graham, 271 n., 294 n.
WAR, extended scope to-day, 6, 7;
criticism of flogging in army,
27, 28, 68; of general by troops,
50; trial of civilians by military
courts, 33 n., 42; censorship on
military news, 10, 98, 99; Bills
of Rights in, 32-34; importance
of the truth in, 36, 37, 46, 63-66,
114; psychological effects, 225;
mob violence, 44-46; causes of
war not subject to judicial
proof, 104-106; state war cases,
110 n.; effect on legislative ex-
clusion, 328-332; on schools,
366 ff.; technical war, 113-119;
future wars and free speech, 46,
64, 113 ff.; federal war powers,
88, 200. See SPEECH, FREEDOM
OF, Concrete applications; Cox-
SCRIPTION; ESPIONAGE ACT;
ARMY; NAVY; SEDITION STATUTES
OF STATES; ASSEMBLY; names of
various wars.

WAR DEPARTMENT, Report of Ac-
tivities in Field of Industrial
Relations, cited, 153 n.

WAR OF 1812, opposition to, 64,
330 n.

War College Publications, cited,
98, 99.

War-time Prosecutions and Mob
Violence, cited, 45 n., 57 n., 74 n.,
102 n., 110 n., 302 n.
WARD, Judge, 54 n.
WARRANTS, general, 296, 297, 299
311. See ARRESTS; SEARCHES ANA
SEIZURES; DEPORTATIONS.

WARREN, Charles, on treason,
325 n., 326 n., 327 n.
WASHINGTON, prosecution for libel

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