Imágenes de páginas

failure in that whereto it aspires. That, properly speaking, is the simple assertion of the principle of true individuality—the self-activity of the individual—or the right to fulfill the duty God has laid on individual man. Unlike Catholicism, it claims not (from our standpoint) to be a religion, but is content to cry, "Prepare ye the way of the Lord." For all that, the positive theology of Protestantism was strong, noble, independent. The theology of the Reformation was creative, although legalism and traditionalism were besetting evils of the century that immediately followed.

This individuality of which we have been speaking is begotten in us by the power of faith, but faith itself in its turn comes to owe its very life to this principle of individ uality. It would be strange if our thought to-day did not see the individualistic power of the Protestant faith foreshadowed in the very way in which it from the first created commanding personalities, whose impress has been left on succeeding generations, and whose force is felt to this hour. The thought of this time calmly but confidently maintains that the historic vindication of this daring Protestant principle of the unfettered freedom of individual power or genius, as the only condition of victoriously progressive scientific and æsthetic susceptibility, has, in spite of occasional iconoclasms, been ample. It has seen that principle persistently opposed, from the Jesuitical side, in the strained interests of authority, but also as firmly adhered to as the very crown of moral personality.

What it awaits is that justification of Protestantism in her children to which intellectual freedom and unity at length must lead, for vital individualism-when it shall be attained-is beginning rather than end. It has outgrown every view of Reformational principle which is satisfied with regarding it more as memorial of the past than as reserve of the future. The best thought of the time chills

VOL. LV. No. 218. 6

before every effort to press modern thought into the Procrustean bed of the thought of the past, and ardently pants for the ideal which in Protestantism shines from the sky of the future. We may perhaps say that it takes religious. Protestantism to be less an end than a means towards attaining freedom that shall be full, and rounded, and complete, and takes it to be, as means, of quite inestimable value. It takes what services Kant and Schleiermacher have rendered for the theology and religion of our own century to be nowise unrelated, as results, to the Reformation. Inestimable these services have been, albeit they reached not perfect or satisfying issues. But the self-revelation of God in Christ recovered for us by the Reformation has yet more glorious truth to give forth for us.

And when we speak of Schleiermacher, it cannot be forgotten what a new Reformation he has introduced-a Reformation which, beginning in a new sense of religion being brought to the cultured (gebildeten) among its despisers, awaits to-day the perfect result that will be reached when religion shall descend with renovating power to the uncultured (ungebildeten) among its despisers. For the reasons are not far to seek why the interests of these latter are to be considered not less than those of the former. And so it comes that, with its large outlook but too scanty leisure for seeing visions, the thought of to-day drops before every surmise that the Reformational position or principle may now lose its force, the venerated word, E pur si muove; for it sees that "the end is not yet." It sees that there is an unexhausted vitality in the Protestantism of a Leibnitz, a Newton, a Milton, a Butler, a Goethe, a Schleiermacher, a Wordsworth, a Dorner, a Ranke, a Martineau, which proclaims new developments and advancing regeneration for humanity. It sees that the strength of Protestant ideas is augmented in all conflict with Catholicism, and that the sense of their worth is thereby deepened.

But this does not keep it from recognizing that there is an intellectualism-of the hard, all-in-all sort-in Protestantism that yet remains to be broken, ere the spiritual ideal can be fully attained.

If it should even own, with Edmond Schérer in a certain place, that the days of Protestantism, as a positive system or an institution, are, by reason of its logical inconsistency, numbered, it should yet, with him, hold fast to the principle of it as immortal. It certainly owns the need that Protestantism, grown more ideal to-day, should seek the courage and secure the consciousness of its own principles, and enter more fully into the largeness of reason. Then will be seen how little the thoughts of men have entered into the truth of religious individuality brought to the front by the Reformation, when they have been content to regard it as empty protest, on which might be inscribed, Viduitas et sterilitas, rather than something which "rests not now by day or night" till it shall see all crowns of power and intellect freely cast before the feet of Christ. Not in vain has an enlightened Protestantism meanwhile striven to realize that whereunto its greatest teachers have, in recent times, been seeking to bring it,even that "equilibrium of the fixed and the alterable," in which, through communion with a risen Lord, progress is rendered possible.





MUCH of the region to the north and west of the Hindu Kush is now a barren waste. It was once a land of countless lakes and numerous rivers. The country could not have lost this character when occupied by the Indo-Iranians; and the pressure of the tribes behind, rather than the need of pasturage, was probably the cause of their onward march. The region to the south of the range does not appear to have suffered any great change, and it was probably not materially different from what it is to-day. It is a great plateau with lofty mountains, and extends as far east as the Indus valley. In its extreme northeastern corner, just under the Hindu Kush, lies the Kabul basin, which











Abel Bergaigne, La Religion Védique. Paris, 1878-83.

A. Hillebrandt, Ritual-Litteratur. Vedische Opfer und Zauber. (G. Bühler, Grundriss der Indo-arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde, iii. 2.) Strassburg, 1897.

American Journal of Philology. Baltimore.

A. A. Macdonell, Vedic Mythology. (G. Bühler, Grundriss der
Indo-arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde, iii. 1, A.)
Strassburg, 1897.

A. Barth, The Religions of India. Authorized Translation by J.
Wood. Boston, 1882.

Boston, 1881.

Part II. Boston, 1894.

J. F. Clarke, Ten Great Religions.
J. F. Clarke, Ten Great Religions.
Contemporary Review. London.
Encyclopædia Britannica. Ninth Edition. New York.
E. W. Hopkins, The Religions of India. Boston, 1895.

was for many centuries a part of India. This has a temperate climate. The descent from the plateau is sudden, and the change in the climate is equally marked. It is a region of scanty rain-fall, and the Indus valley is intensely hot. Here, in the dry season, everything becomes parched, and the surface of the ground gradually turns to an impalpable powder, which rises over all the plain like a mist. With the change in the monsoon comes the needed and longed-for rain.

As the time for this approaches, a slight haze begins to be visible about the mountains. It gradually increases in density from day to day; and, in the course of several weeks, begins to form into floating clouds, which, however, merely serve to tantalize the suffering beholders. At length an occasional flash of lightning is seen in the region of the peaks, and the haze at last begins to spread over the landscape. The action now becomes rapid. In a few hours the horizon grows black, and the clouds mass themselves in the heavens. The approach of the storm is marked by fitful gusts of wind, which are followed by terrific blasts, as the hurricane gathers itself and breaks in its fury. At times, when the approaching tempest is of unu F. B. Jevons, Introduction to the History of Religion. London, 1896.


JAOS. Journal of the American Oriental Society. New Haven.




J. Rhys, The Hibbert Lectures, 1886. London, 1888.

Adolf Kaegi, The Rigveda. Translated by R. Arrowsmith. Boston, 1886.

J. Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts. London, 1868-70.

MM. F. Max Müller, India: What Can It Teach Us? New York, 1883.
MM2. F. Max Müller, Anthropological Religion. London, 1892.
MM3. F. Max Müller, Physical Religion. London, 1891.


H. Oldenberg, Die Religion des Veda. Berlin, 1894. PAOS. Proceedings of the American Oriental Society. New Haven. SBE. Sacred Books of the East. Edited by F. Max Müller. Oxford. Schrader and Jevons, Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan Peoples. London, 1890.



W. D. Whitney, A Sanskrit Grammar. Boston, 1891.

« AnteriorContinuar »