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ÉTUDE SUR LE GREC DU NOUVEAU TESTAMENT, comparé avec celui des Septante: Sujet, complément et attribut. Par M. l'Abbé JOSEPH VITEAU, Docteur ès lettres, Élève diplômé de l'École pratique des Hautes Études. Paris: Émile Bouillon. 1896. Pp. v, 316. 25 cm. by 16. In the BIBLIOTHECA SACRA for July, 1894, some account was given of a previous "Study of New Testament Greek" by M. Viteau which treated of the construction of the Verb, alike in independent and dependent propositions. The present volume, which closely resembles its predecessor in form and appearance, is devoted to the Subject. Its twentyeight chapters are distributed among "Four Parts": the First of which is occupied with a brief survey of general principles; the Second, with the nature of the Subject (expressed or understood) and its agreement with its verb in number and person, together with its various anomalies; the Third deals similarly with the 'complement' of the verb, its forms and relations; the Fourth, with the 'Attribute.' The material is, in general, well arranged; the treatment is analytic and detailed; and the progress from the simple and obvious to the more complicated is such as to carry along a reader's attention.
The characteristics which at once secured for the former work the respectful consideration of scholars reappear in the present. The examples brought forward have evidently been selected with care, and the reader is glad to discover among them a considerable number of the stan ling exegetical problems. Ordinarily the connection in which they are introduced sufficiently indicates the interpretation adopted by the author; but here and there an explanatory remark is made, and occasionally suggestions are offered which, if not new, are ingenious and worthy of consideration. The impersonal, or rather the indefinite, use of dye in Luke xxiv. 21 is accepted (p. 75), and justification of it thought to be furnished by the Hebrew idiom; similarly in Acts v. 14, πpoσetídevтo is regarded (p. 133) as having an indefinite subject, of which Trevores is the 'complement' and with which λ0ŋ is in apposition (comp. R. V. marg.). In Mark vii. 19 he reads ka@apijwv, making the participle agree with the subject of Aéya (ver. 18), and express the judgment of the Evangelist. In 1 Thess. ii. 10, 11, he seems inclined (p. 89) to take кaðáñeр oldate as a parenthesis, and to regard the following us as introducing causally the participial explanation of the preceding eyevýnμev. On Acts xxvi. 28 (p. VOL. LV. NO. 217.
145) he raises the query whether Xpitiavòv moiñσa, in the accepted text, may not be taken to mean "to play the Christian, practice Christianity," after the analogy of the Sept. in 3 Kings xx. (xxi.) 7. Though our author's interpretations are in general guided by a sound exegetical judgment, it would be too much to expect that all of them should command general assent. In Rom. iii. 25, for example, he renders πроÉbεто (p. 212) "purposed,' 'appointed"; in Rom. vii. 21 he makes (p. 221) Tò κaλóν an apposition to ròv vóuov. In Appendix C he gives an interesting exhibition of the curious relation subsisting in the Septuagint between ős and őr; but expositors, we suspect, will hardly be moved to have recourse to it in the New Testament, tempting as is the relief it affords in the case of the or in Mark viii. 24. The untrammeled character of his criticism appears in his dealing with the troublesome passage in Luke ii. 2 (pp. 83, 246). He is disposed to doubt its genuineness, and even makes bold to regard it as a clumsy attempt to harmonize Luke and Josephus.
The present volume, like the earlier, gives valuable collections of grammatical statistics, of which specimens may be seen in chapter xx., which deals with variations in construction, and in chapter xxv., where the facts relative to the insertion and the omission of the verbal copula are carefully presented. The admirable summaries, exhibiting the deviations of New Testament usage from that of the classics, which were given before at the close of every chapter, the nature of the present discussion largely precludes; but the author, nevertheless, shows himself constantly mindful of a student's needs in this particular.
One of the conspicuous excellencies of the former work consisted in the copious illustrations of New Testament usage, which were gathered from the Septuagint. But in this particular, the present far surpasses it. The array of examples adduced is very gratifying, and must have cost the author a great outlay of time and labor. So full and valuable an exhibition of the peculiarities of that version is hardly to be found elsewhere; thus another very considerable contribution is made to the grammar of that literature, a work which it is to be hoped M. Viteau may at length find time to write. Once and again he employs the Septuagint felicitously in elucidating the harsh constructions of the Apocalypse— as a sample of which the use of duocov in i. 13; xiv. 14 (p. 127) may be noted. A careful consideration of the exposition as a whole will be sure to deepen a student's impression of the free and easy character of the popular, even the religious, usage of the period, and to secure assent to the author's caveat on the one hand, against an over-hasty rejection of texts and constructions which strike one at first as quite inadmissible, and on the other hand, against an excess of rigor and subtilty in minor matters of exegesis.
The typography of the book, as respects accuracy, is in keeping with its scholarship. As in our notice of its predecessor, complaint was made
of the absence of an index, we take pleasure in stating that full and careful indexes of Greek words, topics, and biblical passages are now furnished both to the earlier volume and to the present.
J. H. THAYER.
DIE SPRÜCHE JESU die in den kanonischen Evangelien nicht überliefert sind. Eine kritische Bearbeitung des von D. Alfred Resch gesammelten Materials, von JAMES HARDY ROPES. Pp. vi, 176. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. 1896. M.5.50.
In the year 1889 there appeared in Gebhardt and Harnack's "Texte und Untersuchungen (vol. v.) a work by Dr. Alfred Resch upon the extra-canonical Gospel fragments, which was followed by several kindred discussions during the years 1893-96. These discussions were the result of an exceedingly thorough examination of early Christian literature, and presented a large number of alleged Gospel fragments not found in our Gospels. Resch's interest in this work was due to his expectation of finding in these fragments support for his peculiar solution of the synoptic problem. His solution supposes that back of our Gospels lay a Gospel in the Hebrew (not Aramaic) language, various parts of which were translated into the Greek of our synoptical Gospels. Our synoptical Gospels did not exhaust this Hebrew original which was for a long time influential in the church, and which furnished material for many extracanonical Gospel fragments. To these fragments, collected from various quarters, Resch looked for help in reconstructing the Hebrew Gospel.
The fact that Resch succeeded in accumulating so large a number of extra-canonical fragments aroused, at first thought, the suspicion that our canonical Gospels had failed to preserve for us a great deal of valuable Gospel matter once in the possession of the church. It became necessary, therefore, to make an exceedingly careful examination of the mass of material accumulated by Resch, in order to ascertain the number and the importance of the genuine sayings of Jesus added by it to those contained in our four Gospels. This examination has now been made with great care and discrimination by Professor Ropes, who began his investigation in Professor Harnack's seminar, and has now presented his results in the present volume. It appears in the "Texte und Untersuchungen" (vol xiv. 4), but it can be purchased separately, as is indicated in the title above. It discusses one hundred and fifty-four possible sayings of Jesus, that number including all those of any possible significance cited by Resch, together with a few not contained in Resch's collection. These one hundred and fifty-four sayings are found, upon examination, to fall into three classes:
(1) Cases where the author in whose writings the supposed saying of Jesus occurs, did not regard himself as citing an extra-canonical saying of Jesus. Some of these cases are evidently loose quotations from our Gospels, and others are cases where the author is supposed to be quoting
when he really had no thought of doing so. Of the one hundred and fifty-four cases discussed, seventy-three are placed in this class.
(2) Cases where the author in whose writings the supposed quotation first occurs, did not regard himself as quoting sayings of Jesus, but was afterward by other early authors wrongly supposed to have done so. Of these there are eleven cases. Sometimes these are due to a failure of memory, a saying found in the Epistles being ascribed to the Lord. For instance, Paul in Eph. iv. 27 says, “μn didoтe тóпоv тậ diaßóλ," and the author of the Clementine Homilies (xix. 2) says, "And elsewhere he [i.e. the Teacher] said, 'He who sowed the bad seed is the devil,' and again, μὴ δότε πρόφασιν τῷ πονηρῷ.”
(3) Cases where sayings of Jesus not found in our Gospels are actually attributed to him in the places where they first appear. Of these there are three sub-classes, namely (a) those that cannot reasonably be regarded as genuine sayings of Jesus, forty-one in number; (b) those possibly genuine and valuable, thirteen in number; (c) those really having considerable value, fourteen in number.
Of these fourteen which may fairly be regarded as genuine and valuable, three are found in the New Testament outside the Gospels, namely, Acts xx. 35; Rev. xvi. 15; 1 Thess. iv. 15-17. A fourth is a reading of codex D on Matt. xx. 28, "But seek ye from being small to grow large, and from being greater to be less." A fifth is the paragraph describing Jesus' treatment of the woman taken in adultery (John vii. 53-viii. 11). A sixth, found in Origen, is an interesting addition to the conversation between Jesus and the rich young ruler, in which the young man is rebuked for saying he has kept the law and the prophets, "since it is written in the law, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself,' and behold many of thy brothers, sons of Abraham, are clothed with filth while dying of hunger, and thy house is full of many good things, and nothing at all goes out from it to them." A seventh occurs in a passage of Justin Martyr, combining Matt. x. 16 (Luke x. 3) and Matt. x. 28 (Luke xii. 4, 5), and is the reply of Jesus to a question of Peter, “What if the wolves rend the lambs? Jesus said to Peter, Let not the lambs fear the wolves after they [the lambs] die." The following seven are not found in any form in our canonical writings:
"In whatsoever condition I find you, in that will I judge you." (Justin Martyr.)
"Ask for the great things, and the small shall be added to you; ask for the heavenly things, and the earthly shall be added to you." (Clem. Alex.)
"Become approved money changers." (Clem. Alex. and elsewhere.) He is regarded as an offender “who has saddened his brother's spirit." (Gospel according to the Hebrews, quoted by Jerome.)
"Never rejoice except when you look upon your brother in love." (Gospel according to the Hebrews, quoted by Jerome.)
"I will choose for myself the good, those good that my Father in heaven has given me." (Gospel according to the Hebrews, quoted by Eusebius.)
Jesus' objection to the contribution of harlots' hire to the support of the temple service, as reported to Rabbi Akiba by a Christian Jew of Sepphoris, "They have collected it from harlots' hire, and harlots' hire shall it become again (Micah i. 7). From folly it came, and to the place of folly shall it go." (Talmud.)
That the actual sayings of Jesus not recorded in our Gospels should reduce to so small a number, is a matter of great significance. This might conceivably be explained, as Professor Ropes points out (p. 159), by supposing that our four Gospels, immediately after their composition, secured such exclusive authority as to drive from the field any information not contained in them. This supposition would give some ground for the suspicion that much valuable Gospel matter had been lost. Fortunately there was no such unwillingness on the part of the early church to receive matter not contained in our four Gospels, as is evident from the attitude of the early Christian writers toward such tradition. The natural conclusion, then, is that this residuum of genuine Lord's sayings, determined by Professor Ropes, owes its meagerness to the fact that our four Gospels included practically all the current Gospel material that was of any value (pp. 159-160). The character of the newly discovered Logia does not afford any reason for modifying this conclusion, and it does not seem probable that farther discoveries will do so.
E. I. BOSWORTH.
JESUS DE NAZARETH. Études critiques sur les antécédents de l'histoire évangélique et la vie de Jésus. ALBERT REVILLE, Professeur au College de France. Paris, 1897. Vol. I., pp. x, 500. Vol. II., pp. 520. M. Réville has published since 1881 several volumes upon comparative religion, and now adds these two volumes of critical studies upon the life of Christ. The wide range of the author's previous work leads him to place deserved emphasis upon the importance of Old Testament study as a preparation for a proper understanding of the New Testament, and upon the importance of an acquaintance with the whole Jewish background against which the Gospel narrative stands out.
He devotes two hundred and fifty-two pages to an explanation of the environment of the Gospel history, discussing such subjects as the monotheism of Israel, prophets, synagogue, Pharisees and Sadducees, the Messianic expectation, etc. In the following one hundred and five pages he discusses the sources of the Gospel history, concluding that our synoptical Gospels took their present form about the end of the first century, although preceded by written sources, and that the Fourth Gospel was produced under the influence of Alexandrian thought about the year 140. The third part, consisting of ninety-eight pages, discusses the