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Chairman: Prof. SAMUEL T. DUTTON, Teachers' College, Columbia University.
Secretary: ROBERT ERSKINE ELY, Director League for Political Education.
HAYNE DAVIS, American Secretary of the International Conciliation Committee.
RALPH M. EASLEY, Chairman Executive Council of the National Civic Federation.
HAMILTON HOLT, Managing Editor of The Independent.
Prof. GEORGE W. KIRCHWEY, Dean Columbia University Law School.
HENRY M. LEIPZIGER, Supervisor of Lectures, Board of Education.
Rev. FREDERICK LYNCH, Pastor Pilgrim Congregational Church.
MARCUS M. MARKS, Chairman Conciliation Committee, New York Civic Federation.
JOHN E. MILHOLLAND.
Prof. JOHN BASSETT MOORE, Columbia University.
Mrs. FREDERICK NATHAN.
Miss MARY J. PIERSON.
ERNST RICHARD, President German-American Peace Society.
CHARLES SPRAGUE SMITH, Director People's Institute.
Mrs. ANNA GARLIN SPENCER, Society for Ethical Culture.
Mrs. HENRY VILLARD.
EDWIN D. MEAD, Boston, Chairman Executive Committee International Peace Congress, 1904.
BENJAMIN F. TRUEBLOOD, Boston, Secretary American Peace Society.
MAHLON N. KLINE, Philadelphia.
STANLEY R. YARNALL, Philadelphia.
JAMES B. REYNOLDS, Washington.
WILLIAM CHRISTIE HERRON, Cincinnati.
Rev. JENKIN LLOYD JONES, Chicago, Pastor All Souls' Church.
Rabbi J. LEONARD LEVY, Pittsburg.
DANIEL SMILEY, Mohonk Arbitration Conference.
H. C. PHILLIPS, Secretary Mohonk Arbitration Conference.
Financial Secretary: SHERMAN M. CRAIGER
Executive Officer: THEODORE HARDEE
Office Secretary: MARY B. CLEVELAND
Introduction and Summary
The National Arbitration and Peace Congress has been called "the greatest gathering ever held in advocacy of the abolition of war as a means of settling international disputes, and the most important nonpolitical gathering ever held in this country for any purpose."
The suggestion that the first National Peace Congress in America meet in New York in the Spring of 1907, came from Mr. Edwin D. Mead and Dr. Benjamin F. Trueblood of Boston. Mr. Mead was the Chairman of the Executive Committee of the International Peace Congress which assembled in Boston in October, 1904. Dr. Trueblood has been the Secretary of the American Peace Society for many years. The success of the Boston Congress, the long and effective work of the Mohonk Arbitration Conferences and of the leading Peace Societies in influencing public sentiment, encouraged the friends of the Peace movement in New York to assume the task suggested to them.
The first step toward the successful issue of the Congress was taken when Mr. Andrew Carnegie consented to be its President. The presidency of Mr. Carnegie was of immense service in every respect. The feeling toward him of the members of the Congress and of the adherents of the Peace cause on this continent and abroad was symbolized by Baron d'Estournelles de Constant in the act of conferring upon him the cross of the Legion of Honor at the closing banquet. A large number of distinguished men from several European countries had been invited by Mr. Carnegie to be present at the dedication of the Carnegie Institute in Pittsburg on April 11th. The date of the Congress was so fixed that it closely followed this event, and the attendance of nearly all of these representatives of foreign nations was therefore secured.
The latest recipient of the Nobel Prize, President Roosevelt, was in cordial sympathy with the Congress and gave to it his earnest support, as was shown by his letter. Every member of his Cabinet was a VicePresident of the Congress and two Cabinet officers were among the speakers.
Those who were responsible for the Congress determined that while it should stand uncompromisingly for the highest ideals, at the same time it should be intensely practical in tone rather than Utopian. In view of the approaching Hague Conference, it was earnestly hoped that the addresses delivered and the resolutions passed would be of a character to assure the delegates at The Hague, especially those from this country, of the strong sympathy and support of the great mass of the American people in the movement for a definitely advanced Peace Program. The Congress was to stand for every inch of progress which can be made now toward the goal of International Peace. Peace was to be regarded as a practical business proposition, as well as a noble ideal.
The hopes of the officers of the Congress in this respect were realized. There were more delegates representing Chambers of Commerce, Boards of Trade and similar organizations of business men than from almost
any other single class of organizations, and probably more business men of high standing and representing all branches of trade and industry participated in the Congress than had ever before attended and taken part in any educational or philanthropic gathering.
Labor as well as capital, the vast agricultural interests of the nation as well as the commercial and manufacturing interests, were represented. Among the speakers were the President of the American Federation of Labor, who spoke for the two and a half million wage-earners in the ranks of organized labor; the President of the National Association of Manufacturers, representing three thousand manufacturing establishments in which millions of dollars are invested; and the Master of the National Grange, representing thirty thousand local organizations of farmers.
It was this intensely practical temper on the part of the delegates, both men and women, which led to the passing of the Resolutions summing up the purposes and convictions of the Congress. These resolutions have been characterized by the press of the United States substantially without dissent as thoroughly practical, business-like and realizable.
In order that the magnitude and impressiveness of the Congress may be appreciated, a few facts are here given:
The names of nearly 10,000 persons were received who were regularly appointed as the official delegates of institutions, organizations and societies of all kinds. There were in actual attendance at the Congress 1,253 delegates who registered at the headquarters. A considerable number of delegates present failed to register. These registered delegates came from thirty-nine states and territories. The far south and the Pacific coast were well represented as well as the nearer sections of the country. For example, nine delegates came from Alabama, two from Texas, two from Oklahoma, five from Wisconsin, two from Montana, four from California. From the New England and middle states there were large delegations. Massachusetts sent sixty-three persons, Connecticut sixty-one, and so on. There were representatives from seventeen or more foreign countries, including all of the great powers and many of the smaller nations of Europe, and also India, China and Japan. In the western hemisphere, the various provinces of Canada and also Mexico, Central America and South America were represented.
Special invitations to appoint delegates were sent in the name of the various sub-committees, to groups of organizations as follows: Commercial bodies; labor unions; farmers' granges; churches and other religious organizations; Peace Societies; ethical, reform and philanthropic societies; colleges, universities and other educational institutions; learned societies; women's organizations; patriotic societies. The medical and legal professions, journalism and literature, the fine arts and the drama were represented on the committees by some of their foremost leaders.
The Governors of States and the mayors of cities were invited, and many came. Invitations in the name of the legislative committee to members of both Houses of Congress and of the State Legislatures were in many cases accepted. The judiciary committee enlisted the sympathy and co-operation of federal and state judges. A remarkable press com
mittee was formed, members of which were the editors-in-chief of all the important daily newspapers in New York City, the editors of nearly all of the important weekly and monthly journals, and the managers of all of the news associations.
There participated in the Congress prominent representatives of the chief religious denominations, Hebrew and Christian, Catholic and Protestant, orthodox and liberal, and also of the ethical societies and freethought organizations. The Cardinal and two of the Archbishops of the Roman Catholic Church, Bishops of the Episcopal and Methodist Churches, and leaders in the other great religious bodies were actively connected with the Congress.
Delegates were appointed by a large majority of the four hundred colleges and universities of the land and many of these were in attendance at the meeting. The Governor of New York State appointed a committee of fifteen from both houses of the State Legislature to represent that body at the Congress, and all but two members of this committee attended some of its sessions.
The register of the Congress and its committees showed that there were enrolled among its membership and supporters two men who had been candidates for the Presidency of the United States, eight Cabinet officers, ten United States Senators, nineteen members of the House of Representatives, four Justices of the Supreme Court, twelve State Chief Justices, nine State Governors, sixty New York editors, thirty labor leaders, ten mayors, eighteen college and university presidents, twenty State Superintendents of Public Instruction, and forty bishops.
It is estimated that the total attendance at the seven meetings in Carnegie Hall, at the Business Men's meeting at Hotel Astor, the Labor meeting at Cooper Union, the conferences, the two banquets, the three luncheons, the receptions and the over-flow meetings amounted to considerably over 40,000. Never before in its history was Carnegie Hall filled to its full capacity three times in one day, in the morning, afternoon and evening, by audiences gathered for any one educational or philanthropic purpose. Especially worthy of mention were the Children's meeting, at which were gathered between four and five thousand children and teachers, representing the six hundred thousand pupils in the public schools of New York City, and also to some extent the schools of neighboring cities; and the Women's meeting, at which were delegates representing hundreds of thousands of American women connected with colleges, churches, clubs, reform, educational and charitable organizations from one end of the country to the other. The interest fittingly culminated in the two great banquets held simultaneously at the close of the Congress, at Hotel Astor and the Waldorf-Astoria, and arranged by Mr. Russell and Mr. de Lima.
A word must be said as to the preparatory work for the Congress. Under the auspices of the New York Peace Society meetings were held, during the preceding three months, in the churches of New York and vicinity, for the purpose of presenting the Peace cause. On the Sunday on which the Congress opened, April 14, sermons were preached and
addresses delivered in advocacy of International Peace in every city in the United States of over five thousand inhabitants, and in many of the smaller cities, towns and villages. The sympathy and co-operation of the press of the country was of immense value. In order that the plans for the Congress might be known and understood, three dinners were given in February and March, one by the New York Peace Society to the editors of New York; one by Mr. William H. Taylor to the City Editors and the Congress Committee, and one to the Reporters and the Committee by Mr. John D. Higgins. The daily newspapers of the metropolis gave an unprecedented amount of space to the gatherings, and most of the addresses were published either in full or in part, or commented upon by twelve thousand newspapers, and weekly and monthly periodicals of all kinds in the United States.
The spirit which animated all who were in any way connected with the Congress and who were present at its meetings, was remarkable. There was universal enthusiasm, earnestness and friendliness. It was felt that the Congress platform should be a free one in the sense that entire agreement in details on the part of the speakers was not expected or even desired. There was entire liberty of utterance. The striking result of this was, that beneath occasional superficial differences which helped to give vitality to the meetings, there was intense fundamental agreement. The officers of the Congress wish to express their thanks to all who in any degree contributed to its success; to the speakers; to the members of all the committees; to the other workers, both those regularly employed and the volunteers; to the subscribers to the fund to meet the expenses, without whose aid this gathering would have been impossible; to the representatives of the press; to the clergymen and religious leaders of all kinds; and by no means last, to the women of the committees representing various women's organizations, who added much to the cumulative effect of the proceedings.
The especial attention of all into whose hands this volume comes, is invited to the Resolutions which were passed. These Resolutions and the other action taken embody the idea that the work of the Peace Congress is to be permanent and steadily enlarging. The day has come, not merely for occasional and sporadic gatherings, however large and enthusiastic, in the interest of the Peace movement, but for steady, outreaching, progressive work which will never cease until the end in view shall be reached. The Peace cause henceforth takes on a new aspect. It is now a popular cause. The overwhelming mass of the people of the United States representing every creed, class, party and occupation, have proved emphatically and beyond question that they have a profound desire that war between nations should cease. Public sentiment, not merely in America, but in the whole world, is more and more the real sovereign. To focus and intensify public sentiment on this subject and to bring it to effective expression in action, is the work before us. The promoters of the first National Arbitration and Peace Congress have a strong faith that this task will be accomplished.
R. E. E.