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one even approached it in beneficence. Were that destiny revealed, I, for one, believe he would fulfill it. I cannot see how a mortal man could resist the divine call to perform a service so glorious. There are no victories like those of peace. The day has gone by for the heroship of such as kill and destroy. Millions of Frenchmen recently voted to determine their greatest man. Napoleon, the typical hero of barbarism, fell to seventh on the list; Pasteur, true hero of civilization, was first, and scientists and authors followed. The world advances fast toward peace.

Two remarks I wish to make. We hear from a high source that nations cannot submit all questions to arbitration. My reply to that is what the thief said to his lawyer. The lawyer asked, "What did you do?" The thief replied, "I just took a little piece of rope." "Why," said the lawyer, "they can't put you in jail for that." "Well, they have done it."

Now, we hear that nations cannot submit all questions to arbitration. Six nations in the world have already done that. (Applause.) I think that is a sufficient answer.

I have a word to add in regard to the sentiment of maintaining the honor of the country. No man ever touched another man's honor; no nation ever dishonored another nation; all honor's wounds are self-inflicted. (Applause.)

We hear a great deal about justice. Junius says, "The first principle of natural justice forbids men to be judges in their own cases." (Applause.) There is no justice when a man says, "I am right." He looks only upon the one side of the shield, self-interest. Justice is, and honor is, when a gentleman says, "You may be right, and I may be wrong; I will refer it to my friends Root and Hughes, both honest men, and what they say, Johnson, you and I will agree to." That is justice and that is honor. We don't allow a man to-day to avenge his injuries; we compel every man that speaks the English language to lay his case before a disinterested tribunal. A man who attempts to judge in his own case is radically unjust.

We hear another thing about righteousness, as if peace and righteousness could be ever divorced. (Applause.) Can you imagine the condition of a man's mind when he says that peace and good-will on earth are not the essence of the righteousness that exalts a nation? (Applause.)

We of this Arbitration and Peace Congress sadly acknowl

edge that great evils exist in the world, but so far as this Congress and our Society are concerned, we know but one, and restrict our efforts to the removal of that alone. All speeches, all work, all contributions, are devoted to the abolition of war. We invite all men and women to join our Society and to co-operate with us in the great work before us, which we firmly believe is soon to receive the needed impulse which will bring victory. If we dedicate ourselves to the abolition of war as the members of the anti-slavery societies did to the abolition of slavery, even in our own day we who have seen the owning and selling of man by man abolished, may yet see the killing of man by man in battle no longer disgracing our common humanity.





Monday Evening, April Fifteenth, at 8.15



LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: I see on the "Time Table" that Mr. Carnegie is allowed from 8:20 till 8:15. (Applause and laughter.) Short and sweet; Mr. Carnegie has nothing to say except to inform you of what you already know, that we are assembled to-night in the greatest of all causes, the establishment on earth of Peace and Good-will.

Your first speaker this evening is Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, who is known to all those who have the peace movement at heart in Britain, America and throughout Europe. He is one of the forthcoming class of men who may be called international men. Frenchmen who are more than Frenchmen, Germans who are more than Germans, Italians who are more than Italians, and Britons who are more than Britons, and Americans who are even more than Americans. (Applause.) And even Scotchmen (laughter) will open their hearts and try to take in something else than Scotchmen, and embrace the whole world as a brotherhood. That is our ideal and that is the ideal that brings us together to-night. Long and weary may be the path, but there is one delight however long and however weary; we will live and we will die, strong in the faith that the day is coming when man will no longer kill man like wild beasts in battle.

I now have pleasure in presenting to you Baron d'Estournelles de Constant.

Steps Toward Peace


LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: (First addressing the audience in French.)

I call this a great manifestation of the good will of man. I wish I could express to you in the strongest way what I feel to-night. I am proud of the good-will manifested; I am proud because I very seldom have the honor of addressing such a brilliant assembly on the subject of Peace. In fact I am afraid you would not find such a fine assembly in Europe ready to listen to a speech on Peace, but I hope to find that here in America you can have many such audiences for such a fine question.

I wish to offer my warm congratulations to the American citizens who have organized this Congress, and especially to my eminent friend, Monsieur Carnegie. It is partly to accept his invitation I came here, although I think it is a necessary thing that a Frenchman, or a European, should see what can be done with good will and strong hearts devoted to the cause of international justice. It is admirable to think that all this has been started by men who could, as so many others in Europe, and even in America, I suppose, do-enjoy life without accomplishing anything. Monsieur Carnegie himself could simply enjoy the good rest he has deserved after such an active life; instead he thinks the time of rest has not come for him (applause), nor would he find it rest were he not doing good to others. I came partly to express my gratitude and my admiration for his valuable activity, and to say that I do not consider he is resting, I do not consider he is finishing or crowning his active life, but that he is beginning a new one for the benefit of others; the best of life, not for himself, but a life of more happiness, of better days for the people who will follow us. (Applause.)

I have had the great pleasure this afternoon of listening to Mr. Elihu Root's speech. (Applause.) In that speech Mr. Root said all I would have liked to say myself. (Applause.) Is it not very striking, that coming from France, having prepared, without saying a word about it, a very long and special speech on organization as best I could, I should find what I desired. to say already expressed in the best way possible! It shows that the ocean has not prevented the best men, the men of different

nationalities from agreeing about the truth even without concerted or spoken agreement. (Applause.) In fact, as Mr. Root said, public opinion is now impressing itself even upon governments that are not willing to act peacefully. A meeting like this is a most significant manifestation; it shows that you are expecting a great deal, not of a far distant future, but, as Mr. Root said, from the coming conference at The Hague, and it shows that you are alive to its importance. That is the lesson, that is the great and useful lesson I have come to talk about here, to listen to and to carry back home. I shall tell them what I have seen and heard, and I shall repeat once more what is true, that the New World is paying its debt to the Old World by regenerating Europe. It is quite natural-there is nothing bitter in what I say -it is simply a fact that a son or a daughter must help a parent when he feels strong enough to do so.

What does it mean that we are expecting a great deal from the coming Hague Conference? How can I, who have been a representative of France and a faithful representative of France at the first Hague Conference, say this, knowing that my government and my people would not be displeased at what I say? I am sure no one will contradict me when I declare that we expect a great deal from the Hague Conference. You understand that it means a great deal. It means reasonable things; it does not mean, alas, the realization of universal peace or of disarmament. We know very well that we cannot obtain in two or three months results so far distant. We know very well that progress everywhere, and particularly in that matter, can be obtained only step by step, and we will be fortunate and satisfied and delighted if we are only sure that real progress may be obtained in the coming Hague Conference, feeling assured that after that Conference and after other conferences, and ever afterward, future generations will progress and other steps, steps we cannot even foresee now, will be taken. I will not speak of the questions Mr. Root has been speaking about this morning, especially the question of the duties and rights of neutrals and the protection of private property; and if you will allow me, I shall not speak of what they call amelioration of war; I do not believe in amelioration of war; I believe in the establishment of peace. (Applause.) People ought not to speak of humanizing war. It cannot be done. To talk of humanizing war is to dissimulate the real character of war. The worse

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