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From Stereograph. Copyright 1907. by Underwood & Underwood, New York.





LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: There are two classes of politicians, those who seek the office, and those whom the office seeks. (Applause.)

There are at least two instances in our history of men in private life who pursued the path of duty-professional duty-— thinking of nothing else but doing their duty. The beautiful lines of the poet are applicable to them. Tennyson says of the Duke of Wellington, following the path of duty:

"The path of duty was the way to glory;
He that walks it only thirsting

For the right, and learns to deaden

Love of self, before his journey closes
He shall find the stubborn thistle bursting
Into glossy purples, which out-redden
All voluptuous garden roses."

So it is with the gentleman I am about to present to you. He has begun his public career. Every man and woman in the State of New York, and in the United States, for that matter, knows that here is a man whose aims end not with self; that he embraces the office, with all its trials, disappointments, troubles, not because he sought it, but because the call of duty came to him. I am delighted to present to you our Governor Hughes.

(Mr. Hughes was greeted with such vociferous applause that Mr. Carnegie arose and cried "Have mercy on the Governor!")

Welcome from New York


Mr. CHAIRMAN, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: It is not my function to deliver a formal address upon any of the topics which will engage your attention, but rather in the name of the State of New York to bid you a hearty welcome. It is my pleasant duty to express the gratification of our citizens at the meeting of this Congress and their appreciation of the important influences which must radiate from such a representative assemblage.

It is fitting that this meeting should be held in a State representing in so conspicuous a degree the varied activities of peace, and in a metropolis which focuses the energies of a people who,

in beneficent concord, without desire of conquest or lust of power, are working out their destiny inspired by national ideals of equality and justice. (Applause.)

As a New Yorker, and as one representing the State in an official capacity, I find it agreeable to recall the names of its distinguished sons who have contributed in a marked manner to achievements in the interest of the peace of the world. You will not think it amiss if I claim for this role of honor the foremost citizen of the nation, whose federal activities have not obscured his relationship to his native State and the lustre of whose fame as President of the Republic has been heightened by his service as pacificator. (Applause.)

New York has also given to the nation the eminent public servant who has addressed you, the keeper of our foreign interests in whose wise diplomacy every citizen is assured of the astute and jealous defense of our peaceful policies. We may also claim by right of his adoption the presiding genius of this Congress (applause), whose personal interest and generous benefactions have contributed so notably to the progress of this worldmovement.

When the first Peace Conference met at The Hague three of the six representatives of the United States were New Yorkers— Andrew D. White, the scholar and veteran diplomatist; that eminent citizen of this metropolis, Seth Low; and the lamented Frederick William Holls, the versatile secretary of the American Commission and the historian of the work of the Conference. (Applause.) New York also should take special pride in the intelligent service in the cause of international arbitration which long in advance of the meeting of that Conference was rendered by the lawyers of this State.

In January, 1896, following an address delivered before it by the Hon. Chauncey M. Depew, the New York State Bar Association appointed a committee to consider the subject of international arbitration, and to devise and submit to it a plan for the organization of a tribunal to which international questions might be submitted. In April of the same year, after careful deliberation, the committee made its report, recommending the establishment of an International Court of Arbitration, to be composed of members selected by the agreeing nations and to be open at all times for the submission of controversies. The plan was laid

before the President of the United States, and later, as Secretary Foster states in his recent work, it became the basis of the instructions of the American delegates to the Hague Conference, and in accordance with this plan are found to be the essential features of the Permanent Court now in existence at The Hague. (Applause.) It is gratifying to trace this preliminary and influential activity of our public-spirited fellow citizens, and we of the State of New York welcome the members of this Congress with a cordiality emphasized by our long and sincere interest in the questions you are to consider.

There are few, if any, to plead the cause of war in general, however it may be defended in particular. Statesmen and soldiers alike condemn it, and against its monstrous cruelties and wastefulness, commerce and sentiment are allied. The necessity of war as a last defence of liberty and honor is admitted only to be deprecated, and in the desire to prevent armed strife, there is almost complete unanimity. There may still be those who believe in the beneficent effects of the discipline of war, and who shrink from contemplating a society enervated by exclusive devotion to the pursuits of peace. Undoubtedly benefits have been conferred by war. Against the dark background of ruin, desolation and death, the elemental virtues of humanity have stood out in bold relief. And aside from the important and beneficial results of certain wars, the world has largely learned its lessons of courage and fortitude, of the supremacy of duty and the sacred obligations of honor from those who, in fierce but heroic struggle, have revealed the noblest qualities of humanity. "He maketh the wrath of man to praise Him."

But while we justly appraise these consequences of past conflicts, we also know well their cost, and we keenly appreciate the frightful evils and the enormous wastes which have been incident to the evolution of the race through strife. We rejoice that the currents of progress lead to peace and that the time is sure to come when war will be unthinkable.

We can no longer look to war for the development of either national or individual character. The heroics of war have been replaced by mathematical calculations. (Applause.) If it was ever anything else, it is now unmitigated horror, exhibiting chiefly fiendish aspects of ingenuity and scientific skill in destruction. Under our modern conditions of civilization the supposed benefi

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