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Exposition and having more than a thousand delegates from England alone, were immense and most impressive gatherings, and in them the Peace Movement in the last century reached its highest point. They were followed by two important British Congresses, at Manchester and Edinburgh; and then came the Crimean war and the other great wars of that period, and there was a long interregnum.
The first of the present series of International Peace Congresses was held at Paris in 1889, the year of the Paris Exposition. Frederic Passey was its president, and the number of delegates in attendance was almost the same as at the first London Congress in 1843. The second Congress met the next year in London, Hon. David Dudley Field of New York serving as its president. The subsequent Congresses have been held at Rome, Berne, Chicago (in 1893), Antwerp, Buda-Pest, Hamburg, Paris, Glasgow, Monaco, Rouen, Boston, Lucerne and Milan. Of all these International Congresses that in Boston in 1904 had the largest attendance, its impressive feature being a series of great mass-meetings for the people. One of its results was an American delegation of over fifty at the Lucerne Congress the following year, a number five times as great as that which had attended the other Congresses in Europe during these eighteen years. It is earnestly hoped that an American delegation as large or larger will be present at the Congress this year, which is to meet at Munich in September. It is ten years since the last International Congress was held in Germany,—at Hamburg, in 1897; and this occasion should be embraced for a demonstration of American friendship and admiration for the great German nation, to which our scholars owe so great a debt of gratitude, and to which so many millions of our people are bound by the close ties of race.
In recent years the need for regular National Peace Congresses, in addition to the International Congresses, has been making itself everywhere more and more strongly felt. Comparatively few at best of the peace-workers in any country are able to attend the Congresses in other countries. To many the hindrances of foreign languages and usages are serious. It is important, moreover, to consolidate and organize the Peace party in each country, and by National Congresses to influence public opinion. France, which has taken the lead in so many of the
important Peace movements of the last twenty years, was the first to act in response to this widespread feeling. The first French National Peace Congress was held at Toulouse in 1902; and subsequent Congresses have been held at Nismes, Lille and Lyons. England was the second to act; and the Congresses at Manchester, Bristol and Birmingham in the last three years have been large and influential, giving new life and better direction to the English Peace Movement. The agitation for similar action in Germany is now strong; and the inauguration of German National Congresses is likely to result from conferences of the great number of German peace-workers who will gather at Munich in September.
It is at this juncture and with this background that the first American National Peace Congress assembled in New York in April, 1907. But the Congress had also a distinct American background. The Mohonk Arbitration Conferences, which antedate the English and French Peace Congresses, have in great measure performed the function of National Congresses for America for a dozen years. The education and inspiration in right international thought which they have given the country in the critical period when that influence was most imperatively needed, are incalculable. America's obligation to the consecrated and prophetic founder of the Mohonk Conference is profound. That stimulating nursery and school for effort in the great cities of the country will render ever larger service and have ever wider scope as the Peace Congresses multiply with the years.
Above all other preparations for the new epoch and larger activities of the Peace Movement in America marked by the assembling of our first National Peace Congress, has been the steady, increasing influence of our great Prophets of Peace, from the founders of the Republic, and from David Low Dodge and Noah Worcester to the present hour, whose lofty conceptions and inspired words have leavened the public thought. In this time of larger life and larger hopes we remember with gratitude and reverence the men who laid the foundations of our temple of Peace. E. D. M.
STATE OF NEW YORK IN ASSEMBLY
ALBANY, N. Y., April 11, 1907.
BY MR. MORELAND:
CONCURRENT RESOLUTION of Senate and Assembly of the State of New York, in relation to the Convention of the National Arbitration and Peace Congress to be held at New York City, April fourteenth to seventeenth, nineteen hundred and
Whereas, The Convention of the National Arbitration and Peace Congress is to be held in the City of New York, April fourteenth to seventeenth, nineteen hundred and seven, therefore be it
Resolved (if the Senate concur)
I. That general treaties of arbitration should be negotiated by the United States with all nations, granting jurisdiction to the International Court at The Hague over as many classes of controversies as the other contracting powers can be induced to transfer from the arbitrament of war to trial before a court of justice.
2. That the United States should declare in favor of a permanent International Congress composed of representatives from every nation, to assemble periodically and automatically for the purpose of suggesting such changes in the law of nations, and in the method of its administration, as the current of events may make desirable and practicable.
3. That pending the construction and successful operation of such an assembly and also the other machinery necessary for the effectual substitution of law for war in the international domain, the United States Government should adopt a naval program which will enable the navy to perform its duty-guarding our exposed sea coasts, distant possessions, our ocean-going commerce, also our interests and our citizens in foreign countries, and executing the just foreign policies of the nation.
4. That the Governor be, and he hereby is, authorized and instructed to appoint a suitable number of delegates to accom
pany him to the National Arbitration and Peace Congress to be held at New York City, April 14-17, as representatives of this body, and to extend to the delegates from other State Capitals such hospitality as will be appropriate.
5. That the Clerk of the Assembly transmit copies of this resolution, suitably engrossed, to the Legislatures of the several States.
Agreed to by the Assembly,
April 11, 1907. Concurred in without amendment.
By order of the Senate.
LAFAYETTE B. GLEASON,
George B. Agnew,
John P. Cohalan,
Charles H. Fuller,
Alfred R. Page,
A. E. BAXTER,
The delegates to the Congress appointed by Governor Hughes were:
Owen W. Bohan,
C. F. Murphy,
Beverly R. Robinson,
J. Mayhew Wainwright.
NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE
The following resolutions were passed by the New York Chamber of Commerce:
Whereas, A Congress for the promotion of a system of Law and Order as a substitute for war between nations is to be convened in this city on April 14, 1907, at the instance of men prominent in the cause of International Peace; and
Whereas, The Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York is deeply interested in movements tending to preserve friendly relations between this country and other nations and in the promotion of commerce; therefore, be it
Resolved, That the Executive Committee be requested to take such action in regard to the Congress as in its judgment will be well and appropriate and in accordance with the principles of the Chamber.
The following delegates were appointed:
Levi P. Morton,
R. Fulton Cutting, A. Barton Hepburn,
BUSINESS MEN'S ASSOCIATION, PROVIDENCE
We are, individually and as a body, entirely in sympathy with the causes and purposes for which the Congress stands, and, as Secretary of the Association, I was instructed to communicate this expression to you as our unanimous sentiment. The importance of this Congress and its value to the entire world are inestimable. Each association of business men should be, and no doubt is, ready to do all in its power toward the ideal of commercial, industrial, and universal peace.
JAMES B. LITTLEFIELD,
MERCHANTS' EXCHANGE OF ST. LOUIS
The Merchants' Exchange of St. Louis, through its Board of Directors, has repeatedly given expression in favor of International Arbitration for the settlement of disputes between nations, and, therefore, is in hearty accord with the movement for a National Arbitration and Peace Congress to be held in New York City, April 14th to 17th.
GEORGE H. MORGAN,
BOARD OF TRADE OF THE CITY OF CHICAGO
The Chicago Board of Trade is in hearty sympathy with the views and aims of the International Arbitration and Peace Congress, and recognizes the vital relation that exists between international commerce and universal peace. Commerce is promoted more than anything else by peaceful and friendly relations. Our foreign commerce can be promoted in no higher or more permanent sense than by preserving and cultivating peaceful relations with the nations of the world. On the other hand, there is