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discovered he had killed his own brother. He saw that the blood upon his hands was the blood of one reared about the same fireside, and he was overcome with horror to think that he had taken his brother's life. It is a pathetic story! But, my friends, are they only your brothers who claim the same father and mother? Shall we limit by so narrow lines our attachments and our kinship? God speed the day when we shall so recognize the power that binds each human being to every other human being that we shall see in everyone that bears the image of the Creator a brother, and shall shudder as much to take his life as to take the life of one who lived within the walls of the same home. (Applause.)
It is a striking thought that the very word "justice," and the thing itself, had their origin in the Roman forum, on the pavement before the Roman Senate House. Wherever the Roman arms went they carried with them the Roman law; the Pax Romana, the peace of Rome; and the Roman justice. And, broadly speaking, as long as Rome stood for justice the Roman arms flourished. The thing I want to ask you to consider to-night is, that for more than fifteen hundred years the arms of Rome have ceased to be a terror; but the Roman law, the Roman love of justice prevails over all the continent of Europe this day, and in our own State of Louisiana. So that what we have to consider as enduring, is not so much war as justice. The question that was asked in this Congress is, whether we cannot obtain justice in better ways than upon the battlefield. Certainly the Roman justice has outlived the Roman arms, and the day is coming, we gladly think, when the decisions upon international controversies given in a court of justice will command more enduring respect than decisions had upon the battlefield. I do not suppose that any of us are so sanguine as to think that from this time on there will be no war; but we are certainly right in thinking that precisely as public opinion is encouraged to demand justice by the methods which have outlived Rome, and which Rome has thus established, by just so much we hasten the day when justice, and not force, will rule among the nations of the earth. (Applause.)
It seems to me that we ought to see here the face of the
new commander of the Legion of Honor, and I am going to ask Mr. deLima if he will not suggest to Mr. Carnegie to favor this company with his presence for a few moments. He will have a welcome that will do his heart good. May I do that with the authority of this company? (Cries of "Yes! Yes!")
It is evidently not necessary to ask for the other side.
It now gives me very great pleasure to present to this company one who makes his home in the Mississippi Valley, but a man who is at home on the Atlantic no less than there, and a man who is at home on the Pacific no less than here; a man whom we always listen to with respect and attention—the Most Reverend John Ireland, Archbishop of St. Paul.
We have listened to speakers pronouncing many namesnames to which the world owes a tribute on behalf of Peace. I now pronounce a name higher than all others, a name to which, more than to all others, the world is indebted for Peace and for all that leads to Peace. It is most fitting that in a Congress of Peace the name be spoken, the name of Christ Jesus, the Saviour of men, the Master of the Christian religion.
Before His coming prophets had called Him the "Prince of Peace." At His birth angels sang "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good-will toward men." Christ brought into the world the high principles which make for Peace, and since His day the Christian Church has perpetually preached and enforced those principles. Whatever efforts we make, whatever movements we set on foot, we need to bring into them great and high principles. Principles take hold of the mind and the heart of man, and propel him upon the great pathway toward which he is bidden to march. If we seek Peace, we must believe in the principles preached by Christ. Allow, for a moment, man to be mere matter, a mere animal, grown accidentally into power, and into intelligence-why should he sacrifice himself for the sake of Peace? Why should he strive for the good of others? The leading motives in his life will be self-interest; the great rule which will dominate him in the arena of action will be the victory of the strongest. Take man, individually or collectively, take the individual, the family, the nation, humanity at large, and tell all to look up to the great, living eternal intelligence, in whose
image all are created, who is the Master and the Judge of all; tell all men, all nations, to question that great intelligence as to what is their duty, and you have laid deeply into their souls the foundations of Universal Peace. Christ spoke for all ages, saying: "When you pray say 'Our Father which art in Heaven.'' No other enunciation great as this has ever been made; no other could ever be made, as leading to Peace. If God is our Father, we are brothers one of another, members of one family. We are not simply brothers to those of our immediate family, to those of our own nation; we are brothers to members of all other families; we are brothers to the children of all nations. National frontiers become slender lines when in the light of the Fatherhood of God, and of the Brotherhood of Man, we look across humanity. However divided men are by mountain ranges, by seas or oceans, they are still brothers, obliged by the command of their common Father to love one another, to serve one another, to refrain from doing harm to one another. This is the great principle of Christ's religion; the principle that makes most powerfully for Peace between men and between nations.
The Gospel of Christ is essentially a gospel of mercy, a gospel of justice, a gospel of righteousness. When men by themselves, or through nationalities, are guilty of injustice, they become amenable to the high tribunal of the Almighty; the thought of the Almighty bids them pause, as the thought of no other power that may be built up before their soul. Let us establish justice between nations; let us teach humanity that to take from another nation that which duly belongs to it is a crime before the Almighty, and a stop is put to a large number of wars likely to desolate the land. What usually are the causes leading to war? Not infrequently foul ambition, the thirst for the expansion of territory, the wish to avenge an imaginary insult, the ambition of greed, the spirit of vengeancesentiments and purposes most sinful before the Almighty, most severely reproved by His law. If you wish Peace among nations you must bring before them the great principles that proclaim justice, charity and righteousness; bring before them the Almighty power, higher than all power in humanity, that commands justice and charity. This is what Christ preached, a gospel of Righteousness, of Justice, of human Brotherhood, and from the earliest days of the Christian religion Peace began
to shine upon humanity as it never had before. War did not at once disappear. It takes years and ages for principles to germinate and bear fruit; but the principles and the signs of Peace were visibly on the earth from the very first ages of the Christian religion. In Paganism war was absolute cruelty; it was death or slavery to be the prisoner of war. Wherever the Christian religion went the principles of Justice and of Peace grew stronger and deeper. If to-day public opinion has come to deprecate war as it never did before we must see in this beneficent growth, the expansion of the Gospel of Christ. If even the nations that had not known Christ are to-day willing to show mercy in war, they have learned the lesson of love from the nations over which has shone the Light of Christ's Gospel. We should not say that Christ's Gospel makes war a crime in all cases. Conditions, we must ever admit, may be found when a nation has no other remedy for the ills that threaten it than to make war, as conditions may be found for the individual that authorize him to defend himself even with the iron hand. As the world is constituted to-day war at times may be necessary, but the spirit of the Christian religion is ever impelling us to so ameliorate our conditions that war will not be necessary. You, members of the Peace Congress, are obeying the spirit of the Christian religion, the spirit of Christ's Gospel, when you propose a high tribunal of justice, which in days of Peace and in days of war will proclaim what is right and what is wrong, and will impress upon the nations the duty to do ever what is right, and to avoid ever what is wrong, without incurring the perils of bloodshed, the misery and the death of the battlefield. The Peace Congress is a wondrous assemblage; it is permeated with the spirit of Christ's Gospel. As one of Christ's ministers I bid you onward. Never falter in the noble work which you have taken in hand until there is established the parliament of man, where justice speaks, where recourse to the battlefield is forever forbidden.
The more we have of Christ, the more we will obey the law of justice and of love. The more the nations are deeply and thoroughly Christianized the more strongly are they bound to the great idea of Peace. When in our love for our nation we seek its advance in higher civilization, when we strive to secure for it happiness and prosperity, and to establish over its broad
fields a reign of justice and of love, let us know that our first duty is to build up in the hearts of its citizens a holy religion. The nearer we come to the sky, the more ethereal become our aspirations, the more angelic we are, the nearer we are to God. What we need is not so much commercial houses, great and powerful cities, what we need above all else is the inner culture of the soul that will bring out the divine that is in it. The deeper religion is in the hearts of the people, the more surely will Peace reign-Peace in the mind and heart of the individual, Peace in the family, Peace in the nation, Peace with all men, Peace with all nations. Woe to the land where Christ becomes neglected and unknown. Woe to mankind and to humanity when the message brought by the angel is no longer taught: "Glory to God in the highest and on earth peace, good-will toward men.” MR. Low:
I have received a telegram from Consul-General Massiglia, of Italy, saying that although absent in person he is present in spirit, as one who has all his life practiced conciliation.
Nothing has taken place upon this continent which is of more interest than the steady growth of order and prosperity in our neighboring Republic of Mexico; and we all recognize that in its President, Mr. Diaz, we see a truly great man. His Excellency, Señor Enrique C. Creel, the Mexican Ambassador to the United States, is with us to-night, and is the special representative of President Diaz on this occasion, and I ask him he will not kindly address us. (Applause.)
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: I am proud to say that I have two messages to convey to you which are exceedingly gratifying to me. I have just come from the great banquet at the Astor, where we have been exceedingly happy, where all have enjoyed themselves in the most magnificent way.
Here I am, located in one of the most artistic and beautiful spots of New York, and one which is decorated by the most beautiful and charming decorations which we could have,-by hundreds of American ladies, in whose blue eyes, and in the bright brown eyes of Kentucky, which are so well known the world over, and in the black eyes of the Roman race, and the Latin race,