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This proposition involves the limitation of the area of a possible war. History has told us that neutrality is one of the greatest steps toward Peace. The Massachusetts State Board of Trade has considered that, and is presenting these resolutions as business men. They find it in the neutralization of Switzerland, Belgium and Luxemburg; they find it in the neutralization which was guaranteed by the Congress of the State of New York in 1840; incorporated in 1837.
It also finds expression virtually in the neutralization of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River separating Canada from the United States.
It has been invoked in the Suez Canal and is to be applied in our own Panama Canal. The State Board of Trade simply asks that this question may be submitted with your approval.
There are two more principles which it invokes; that is, the initiative intercourse which must be had between two nations, between all nations, which is the basis of diplomatic relations.
The other is, that the whole ocean is the common property of everybody; everybody has the right to use the ocean; and no nation, no two belligerent nations, have the right to bring their trouble and their strife into that great route so that trade is interfered with. We say these great routes, which are as clearly defined as the banks of a river, shall be neutralized by all the nations of the world.
MR. MAGILL: Mr. Chairman: William Randall Cremer, I am sure, will be known by a large portion of this audience, for he has done more to promote the Interparliamentary Union than any other living man. He said that when we formed a Supreme Court we went a great way toward the promotion of Universal Peace; that when our different states came under one Supreme Court, that was a very long step toward Permanent Peace. What we want is a Supreme Court of the World. We don't want a Supreme Court of the United States merely, but we want it to have the same relation exactly, the same powers, toward the nations, that the Supreme Court of the United States. has in our states. The Supreme Court had been established two years and six months before it got a case. Why? People would not trust it. Each state wanted its own court and would not appeal to the Supreme Court. But after two years and six months it got its first case. Now cases go from the lower
court to the higher court of the state, and then to the Supreme Court, and they are understood to be absolutely settled by the decision of the Supreme Court.
What we want to-day is a Supreme Court of the world, and we want it to be in continuous session. We want every nation represented there and all cases considered where one party feels itself dishonored. The Court should have supreme power among all the nations, or in other words it should be a permanent Supreme Court of the nations, and that should be distinctly stated in some way in these resolutions.
MRS. ANNA GARLIN SPENCER: We have so much other business besides resolutions that I will add but a word to Mrs. Mead's talk. Mr. Chairman, so far as the moral and the intellectual initiative of woman is concerned and has the power of expression, it desires just as much Peace here and now as it can get. It is incumbent upon the statesmen, the jurists, and the students of international law to work out the next steps. We are trying to make the rising generation such men and women as will not only carry out these resolutions, but whose influence will extend far beyond the horizon of the Peace in sight to that universal fraternity in which men shall understand that he alone is successful who is working with and not against the forces that draw the ages on toward universal brotherhood.
MR. TRUEBLOOD: Mr. Bryan has proposed a slight change in the wording of one of the resolutions, which the committee is glad to accept. It will then read: "Resolved, that the Congress records its endorsement of the resolution adopted by the Interparliamentary Union last July, urging that in case of disputes, etc." The rest of the resolution will remain as it was read.
(The proposed change was approved.)
MR. S. L. HARTMAN, speaking on the resolution which recommended the exemption of private property at sea from capture in time of war, suggested that a small international fleet of cruisers might be created which would afford ample protection to commerce and save the expense of the great national fleets.
MR. J. C. CLAYTON: I rise to support the resolutions, although I am one of several who submitted to the committee resolutions that were not adopted. I prepared and submitted to the committee a ten-page draft of a constitu
tion for the United States of the World, covering the whole thing. The committee, in their wisdom (and I now agree with them upon that point), said that the authority of this Congress was not adequate to take into consideration such a proposition. I still believe that ultimately the wisdom of the suggestions in that tentative constitution will come to be admitted, some time when the people are ripe for it; that a constitution of the United Nations of the World, combining a legislative, an executive and a judicial department, will be adopted; and I believe that when that action shall be reached,-it may be fifty or sixty years hence, it will be 'found to have no little resemblance to the paper which I had the presumption to submit to the committee. I cordially support the resolutions as presented by the committee.
As chairman of the Committee on Resolutions I think we ought now to vote on this body of resolutions, with the two or three verbal changes which we have made to meet the suggestions which have been offered. Then other resolutions may be taken up.
Possibly the Congress can adopt something in simple form that will meet the wishes of the Massachusetts State Board of Trade. Their proposal to neutralize the trade routes of the ocean was before the committee, but we did not formulate any resolution on the subject. The committee think they can present a subsequent resolution that will meet the wishes of Judge Chamberlain and the Board of Trade.
MR. PEABODY: The question now is upon the adoption of the resolutions as submitted by the committee, with the amendments suggested.
A DELEGATE: Read the resolutions without the whereases. (Cries of "No" and "Vote.")
MR. PEABODY: The delegates do not desire to have them read. May the Chair say that the delegates present should carry with them the thought that they are under obligations to see that these resolutions mean something to the bodies from which they are delegated, that they may aid in the creation of a public opinion which will truly represent the people of the United States. (Applause.)
(The resolutions were unanimously adopted.)
MR. TRUEBLOOD: I should like in behalf of the committee to present the following resolution, which covers the matter presented by Judge Chamberlain from the Massachusetts State Board of Trade. It does not express approval of the proposition, but only asks that it may be considered at The Hague.
Resolved, That this Congress requests the coming Hague Conference to consider the proposition of the Massachusetts State Board of Trade, which has been approved by the Massachusetts Legislature, the Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration, the Universal Peace Congress, and other bodies, to neutralize the trade routes of the ocean.
(The resolution was unanimously approved.)
MR. MARKS: Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: While I fully appreciate the good that comes out of such a meeting as we have been having, expressing the sentiment of people, crystallizing it and strengthening it, I feel that a great deal depends upon our action after we leave the hall this afterroon. I have been representing the Committee on Commerce and Industry, and as such I feel that unless we back up what we say by what we do, we shall not accomplish much. Dollars have been called the sinews of trade, and I propose that dollars shall be made the sinews of Peace. A million dollars spent by us in the cause of Peace will certainly save ten million dollars spent in the cause of war, and a business man would consider that a good proposition.
I have a resolution to present here toward carrying out this suggestion, which, if I am right in the assumption that every dollar spent for Peace saves ten to be spent in the cause of war, will save, if put into effect, every poor man and every rich man something every day in his expenses, if he drinks tea, or if he eats or drinks other things. This is the resolution:
Resolved, That this Congress authorizes the appointment of the following named trustees, who shall have power to add to their number, to collect funds for the promotion of International Peace, and to disperse such funds in their discretion through existing or new agencies:
Robert Treat Paine, of Boston,
and trustees from Chicago, Pittsburgh, the South, the Pacific Coast and such other sections as they may decide.
(The resolution was adopted.)
MR. TRUEBLOOD: Something has been said here about the creation of a National Peace Organization. May I say for the benefit of a number of persons that there is already in existence and has been for many years a National Peace Organization, the American Peace Society with its office in Boston. This society has a considerable permanent fund, which it is perfectly willing to have increased to a million dollars. Membership is open to everybody, in every state in the Union; the society has in fact members in nearly every state. This organization initiated the call for this Congress. It has a monthly organ, the Advocate of Peace, and possesses all the qualities that could be given to any new organization. It already has a national standing and I hope that all new comers in the movement will acquaint themselves with its history and its work.
MR. PEABODY: The chair has the pleasure of presenting Mrs. Robert Abbe, who will offer one of the most important matters that we have to consider, the matter of a children's league.
MRS. ABBE: I think all the people who attended the Young People's Meeting yesterday afternoon will bear me out in the statement that there was more enthusiasm there than we have seen at any other meeting. We know that this work will eventually fall into the hands of the children of to-day. I therefore move that this body approve the resolution proposed at the Young People's Meeting of this Congress yesterday afternoon by Professor Charles Sprague Smith for the establishment of a Children's League, for the promotion of International Peace, and that the following committee be appointed, with power to add to its number, to carry this resolution into effect:
Charles Sprague Smith, Chairman,
Nathan C. Schaeffer, Superintendent of Public Instruction in Pennsylvania.
Robert Erskine Ely.
Edwin D. Mead of Boston.
George H. Martin, Secretary of the State Board of Education of Massachusetts.