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Whereas, The said court of arbitration having adjusted four controversies, in which nearly all the prominent powers were participants, has become a fixed and well-recognized means of settling international disputes, though its operation is only voluntary; and
Whereas, The principle of international commissions of inquiry, provided for in the Hague Convention, has proved itself one of great practical efficiency, as illustrated in the Anglo-Russian North Sea crisis; and
Whereas, More than forty treaties of obligatory arbitration between nations, two and two, have been concluded, stipulating reference to the Hague Court for five years of all disputes of a judicial order and those arising in the interpretation of treaties; and
Whereas, Public opinion in favor of the pacific settlement of controversies has made extraordinary advance since the first Hague Conference, and, as recently declared by the British Prime Minister, "has attained a practical potency and a moral authority undreamt of in 1899"; and
Whereas, The States of the Western Hemisphere, through the action of the Third Pan-American Congress and the reorganization of the International Bureau of American Republics, have reached what is virtually a permanent union destined henceforth to wield a mighty influence in behalf of permanent peace;
Whereas, The First Hague Conference, though it failed to solve the question of reduction of armaments, for which it was primarily called, unanimously recommended to the powers the serious study of the problem with the view of relieving the people of the vast burdens imposed upon them by rivalry of armaments;
Resolved, By the National Arbitration and Peace Congress held in New York City, April 14 to 17, 1907, composed of delegates from thirty-five States, that the Government of the United States be requested, through its representatives to the Second Hague Conference, to urge upon that body the formation of a more permanent and more comprehensive International Union for the regular purpose of insuring the efficient co-operation of the
nations in the development and application of international law and the maintenance of the peace of the world;
Resolved, That, to this end, it is the judgment of this Congress that the governments should provide that the Hague Conference shall hereafter be a permanent institution, with representatives from all the nations, meeting periodically for the regular and systematic consideration of the international problems constantly arising in the intercourse of the nations, and that we invite our government to instruct its delegates to the coming Conference to secure, if possible, action in this direction;
Resolved, That as a logical sequence of the First Hague Conference, the Hague Court should be open to all the nations of the world;
Resolved, That a general treaty of arbitration for ratification by all the nations should be drafted by the coming Conference, providing for the reference to the Hague Court of international disputes which may hereafter arise, which cannot be adjusted by diplomacy;
Resolved, That the Congress records its endorsement of the resolution adopted by the Interparliamentary Union at its Conference last July, that in case of disputes arising between nations which it may not be possible to embrace within the terms of an arbitration convention, the disputing parties before resorting to force shall always invoke the services of an International Commission of Inquiry, or the mediation of one or more friendly powers;
Resolved, That our government be requested to urge upon the coming Hague Conference the adoption of the proposition, long advocated by our country, to extend to private property at sea the same immunity from capture in war as now shelters private property on land;
Resolved, That the time has arrived for decided action toward the limitation of the burdens of armaments, which have enormously increased since 1899, and the government of the United States is respectfully requested and urged to instruct its delegates to the coming Hague Conference to support with the full weight of our national influence the proposition of the British Government as announced by the Prime Minister, to have, if possible, the subject of armaments considered by the Conference;
Resolved, That the Congress highly appreciates the eminent services of President Roosevelt in bringing the Hague Court into successful operation, in exercising his good offices for restoring peace between Russia and Japan, in preventing, in co-operation with Mexico, a threatened war in Central America, and in initiating, at the request of the Interparliamentary Union, the assembling of a second International Peace Conference at The Hague. It congratulates him upon the reception of the Nobel prize as a just recognition of his efficient services for peace;
Resolved, That the distinguished services of the Hon. Elihu Root, Secretary of State, to the cause of International Peace and good-will, during his recent visits to the South American capitals and to Canada, be accorded the grateful recognition of this Congress;
Resolved, That we thank the Prime Minister of Great Britain, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, for the noble stand which he has taken in favor of a settled policy of peace among the nations, and of a limitation and reduction of the military and naval burdens now weighing upon the world;
Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent by a committee of this Congress, to be appointed by the President of the Congress, to President Roosevelt, to Secretary Root, and to each of the United States delegates to the forthcoming Hague Conference.
I move that these resolutions be adopted as the platform of this Congress.
MR. PEABODY: You have heard the motion of Dr. Trueblood that the report be adopted as the platform of this Congress. A DELEGATE: I want to second it.
MR. PEABODY: The Chair recognizes Hon. Mr. Bartholdt. MR. BARTHOLDT:
MR. CHAIRMAN, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: I shall occupy but a minute or two in seconding these resolutions, merely to state that the resolutions are almost identical with the plan agreed upon by the Interparliamentary Union for submission to the Second Hague Conference. Only in one respect do I see any difference, namely, in the resolutions as they have been read, it is proposed that all disputes over international differences shall be submitted to arbitration, while according to the plans of the Interparliamentary Union only certain specific classes of disputes
shall be referred to the Hague Court for obligatory arbitration, while in cases of questions affecting the vital interests in any way, or the independence of a nation, an investigation shall first be had before the sword is drawn; but it is perfectly proper, in their judgment, for the people to go further than the official representatives of the people care to go, and I welcome, therefore, the resolutions because they go, at least as far as a number of the European States have already gone, in the recognition of the principle of arbitration, and in the fact that in these treaties they refer all disputes to arbitration. There is one other demand which the Interparliamentary Union has incorporated in its platform, and that is, that the Congress of the United States, the same as all the parliaments of all countries, should make an appropriation for the purpose of Peace propaganda, not an appropriation for a certain percentage of the war expenditures, because that, in my humble judgment, would seem impracticable, but a direct, straight out, annual appropriation for the purpose of encouraging mutual visits, between the officials of the different nations, and for the purpose of promoting that fraternity and that hospitality, and that knowledge of each other, which are so essential to the cause of good-will and Peace among the nations. However, I have not pressed, as a member of the Committee on Resolutions, for the insertion of this plank, for the reason that it has nothing really to do with the diplomatic relations of the coming Hague Conference; that is a matter for the people to the several parliamentary congresses to decide. At some future time this question will surely be presented to the peace-loving people of the United States for an expression of opinion as to whether it is desirable in view of the millions that are being appropriated for war, that a few hundred thousand dollars be annually appropriated for the propaganda of Peace. (Great applause.)
There is only one suggestion I should like to make, with the permission of the Chairman, and the other members of the Committee on Resolutions, that instead of sending these resolutions by mail to the President of the United States and to the delegates of the Second Hague Conference, that the Chairman, or the President of this great Congress-Mr. Andrew Carnegiebe requested to appoint a committee for the purpose of handing these resolutions personally to the President of the United States, or personally to the Secretary of State, and personally to every
one of the delegates appointed to represent this Congress at The Hague.
I am sure the committee will accept Mr. Bartholdt's suggestion that these resolutions be presented by a committee of this Congress, to be named by the President of the Congress.
(The amendment was accepted by the committee.) MR. PEABODY: The Chair will now MacCracken:
MR. CHAIRMAN: Like my predecessor, I shall be very brief. In connection with the multitude of proposed resolutions, I was reminded of an incident as I was sailing down the St. Lawrence River upon a great steamer. The Governor-General of Canada and his household were upon the deck, and we had had a shower; there was a beautiful sky, and there came out a resplendent bridegroom with his bride following him, and in the presence of all the distinguished company he cried out to her: "Mary, Mary, come here; there are two rainbows-one for you and one for me." I, too, had a rainbow of my own that I brought in my pocket to the meeting of the committee, but when I found that the Chairman of the committee and the members who had done more work than I were all in favor of confining our resolutions chiefly to matters that might be expected to influence the proceedings of the Conference at The Hague, I did not even take my "rainbow resolution" out of my pocket. Now, you will see that there were seven members of the committee, and you will see there are seven resolutions, omitting the merely complimentary and the resolution as to sending this action to the President of the United States. I trust it may be said of this platform, as the Book of Proverbs says, "Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars."
If I were compelled to make a choice among these seven resolutions, I should prefer a single one to be adopted, even though it cost the adoption of all the rest, and that is the second resolution. The first, as you have observed, is a general preface to all the other six. The second resolution, about which I want to speak for a minute, is this: