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martial spirit, has been invested with the personality of a woman. Minerva was considered to be the patron of the naval arts because she is said to have taught Danaos, leaving Egypt, to unfurl the sail and to have surveyed the construction of the ship Argo. She is represented on the coins sitting on the prow of that ship guiding its course. Though that Goddess was considered also the Goddess of War because she inspired the heroes, and protected them with a calm and thoughtful courage so that they might oppose the blind and senseless fury of Ares, the God of War, still she was principally known as Minerva working— Athena Ergani-that is the Deity who above all presided over all female manual work.
She was the incomparable artist who wove and embroidered for the Gods splendid robes trimmed with admirable designs. But this female deity was considered to be connected with many physical elements, and is thought by those who possess the mysteries of Sanscrit to have been the Goddess of the morning and of the lightning.
Still this female Deity presided also over the works that seem rather belonging to man. Therefore she was called too Athena Agrotera, namely, Minerva of the Fields.
In Thessaly and Boeotia, two great and fertile parts of Greece, where there are also luxuriant pastures, she was considered to have taught men to yoke the oxen. So she was the Goddess that presided over agriculture-that is the very root of life-over those works that are most apt to form the mildest character and bring peace to the soul.
The Athenians attributed to her the culture of the olive tree in which consisted the principal fortune of the Athenian valley, the fruit of which brings abundance to domestic life, gives that liquid which is the sweetest and most fortifying, and which lessens all pain, and the branch of which is the emblem of all pacific character.
So the Goddess of wisdom wants her followers to workshe loves the country and agricultural life, and is the patron of domestic economy which secures the honor and happiness of life. And are not these attributes of Minerva ratified by the best examples of history? Is not the return of Cincinnatus to his plow, the lesson that the best leaders are those who can limit
their ambition, and who, after they have fulfilled their duty, know how to leave the place to others and retreat to private and honest and peaceful life? Let all women make her attributes their own attributes and inclinations. This can only be obtained through education. "Education must bring to light the ideal of each individual," said John Paul Richter, and such a life can hardly be obtained without an education which will enable each child of both sexes to discover and cultivate his own inclinations and aptitudes, an education equally divided between the culture of the heart and mind through religion and philosophy, the scientific culture of the body and the scientific study of agriculture in all its branches.
"I was always of the opinion that humanity would be reformed if the education of youth were reformed," wrote Leibnitz to Placcius.
We women hold the world in our hands because God has destined us to be the educators of humanity. It is in our hands to give nobility to humanity; but we must first imbibe it ourselves.
According to the mythology, how was the Goddess Athena born? She sprang from the head of Jove. Is not this the lesson that every young woman must learn, and the principle that must guide her from the first moment that she is called to fulfil the very first duty of motherhood? That the being to whom she is to give life must be an intellectual one, not one of mere flesh and blood-that she has to nourish the mind and soul of that being by feeding her own mind and soul with the noblest thoughts that knowledge may afford, and that she should continue this education even when her children shall have grown to manhood and womanhood?
It behooves us at this present time to give to our girls lofty ideals of motherhood. They must fit themselves to give to the world men and women of lofty characters, of intellectual strength, governed by their ideals, not by their passions. We need to teach the world that to give to the nation strong, upright, loyal citizens, is more worthy of praise than to engage in the murderous pursuits of war.
Education is the great factor that will change the state of humanity. The axis of that education must be religion-rational religion with her companions, justice and truth, and love of work.
"It is a heaven upon earth where a man's mind rests in Providence, moves in Charity and turns upon the poles of Truth," said Bacon.
Is the cause of war any other but the ambition and insatiability of the so-called great, under all sorts of pretexts?
Let the children and youth of both sexes learn the beautiful lesson that is given to us by the aspect of the sheep feeding in the fields. They are near each other; they all eat the grass of the earth, but they do not jostle each other. Is not this picture a lesson that God provides for all, and is not that the sweetest lesson of Peace?
If we have Peace in every-day life we will have it among nations. Think of the horror of the white snow, which was made for the calm of purity, polluted with the blood shed by ferocity. I felt the grief of this thing when two years ago, while inspecting the schools in Thessaly, the snow lay three feet thick upon the valleys, and the mountains; every roof, and every twig upon the trees was veiled in white, the sight brought calm into my soul; then I could not help thinking of the plains of Manchuria covered with the same mantle of purity, but with its beauty and calm destroyed by the blood and mangled bodies of human beings. We all know more or less the evils of war, and we all feel what the presence and the sound of the footsteps of our own mean to us. How happy we feel when we hear them. Let us all think what they feel who see or hear no more the steps of those who for the ambition and rapacity of some are gone forever.
When Pericles the Great was dying he was surrounded by his friends, who were weeping and praising all the great works he had done; he interrupted them, saying: "You pass by my best deed. I never caused anyone to shed tears."
Would it be a small task for women throughout the world to educate men so that they might every one of them say: "No parent will be childless, no wife a widow, no child an orphannor will any weep through us?"
Would it not be a great thing if women throughout the world might be educated so as to feel strongly in themselves and inspire in men the words of Antigone: "I am born and exist in order to love, not to hate."
A literature is hardly understood without its own language. There is no literature so well calculated to uplift the mind and the heart of man and woman as the Greek literature, because it expresses the noblest of human thought and feelings, nor is there a language more divine or musical than the Greek language. While the young people everywhere spend so much time learning to tap on the piano, to dabble in colors, and utter nonsense in different languages, schools make the Greek language optional. Yet its strong, noble and delicate spirit, along with its harmony, has civilized humanity and might keep on civilizing it. I express the wish that it should become compulsory. Its power may be seen in the regeneration of modern Greece, the spirit of which may be seen in its emblem, its flag, as you all saw it trimming most splendidly the hall of the Peace Congress. It bears the most peaceful colors; the blue of the Greek sky, the white, and on the right top of its stripes a white cross, the emblems of purity, strength and sacrifice.
Let us be like Noah's dove carrying the olive leaf. It is said that the voice of the People is the voice of God; I say that the voice of a true woman is the voice of God. There was once a philosopher who had a small cottage behind which was a narrow strip of land with a single tree, and a bench under it. He was always telling his friends what a fine, large place he had to read and think in. One of these friends visited him one day and was astonished to behold only a humble cottage and instead of a garden a single tree. He said nothing, but the philosopher understood, and pointing to the broad expanse of the sky, he said, "All this is mine."
I wish, dear ladies and gentlemen, that we all might, like that philosopher, be content with little; then Peace will be on earth. Visit the land of all good and calm and Peace and take from the Valley of Athens a slip of the olive tree and plant the tree of Peace in your gardens. Teach your children under its shadow the lesson of Peace and let it be the emblem of the tree of Peace that will grow in your hearts.
MRS. MAY WRIGHT SEwall:
MRS. PRESIDENT AND LADIES: I should have liked to add something to what has been said as a suggestion of what our
mothers might do in opposing the introduction of rifle practice in our schools.
I should also have liked to speak on the method of inculcating the spirit of internationalism which necessarily must permeate the world. But in the few moments I have I will only tell you, with the hope of securing aid of all kinds from you, that the National Council of Women has the interesting position of hostess for the women of the world at the Jamestown Exposition during months of that Exposition, a house having been placed at our disposal. The Chairman of the Committee in charge of the work which the National Council of Women will do is Mrs. Kate Waller Barrett. There is also a board of hospitality for the entertainment of the women of other countries. I am a member of her committee, and as the Chairman of the Peace Committee of the National Council of Women, and formerly President of both the National and International Councils, it is thought that we may perhaps form a link between the women of our own country and the women of all other countries. I shall devote myself to the concentration of efforts upon ways in which this meeting at Jamestown may be made an opportunity for furthering both local and international Peace projects. I feel that just the announcement of this should give to you some added interest in anything which you may do in regard to it, and it also gives me an opportunity to place this statement in the printed volume of the transactions of this Congress. It is for the women of the world (and when I say the women of the world, I am by no means reflecting upon the men of the world) to do something for Peace at the Jamestown Exposition, that it may be one of the means of cancelling the influence of the immense naval display which is being made at the Exposition for the advancement of the interests of militarism.
We now have a very important question and we shall go as rapidly as possible to the next conference.
At the close of the meeting Mrs. Gielow asks that there be placed upon the records a memorandum that Mrs. Martha Gielow, of Alabama, a delegate from her association to the Peace Congress, brings this message, that the removal of ignorance is the first step toward Peace. Mrs. Gielow has just returned from the