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movement has done more for Peace than all the Hague Conferences that ever were held, there was not a single word said about it here to-night upon the platform. There was not a single person invited to speak who was known to be a socialist and who would speak upon International Peace from a socialist standpoint. (Applause and cheering and cries of "Good Boy!") I will tell you one more thing, and then I will be through. (Cries of "Order! Order! Sit down! Sit down!") Can I say-(A voice, "Say it!")—they were going to send an expedition from the German Empire to help the Czar of Russia to put down a rebellion in Russia, but the leader of the Social Democracy, August Bebel, told the German Emperor that if that fleet was sent, he would have trouble in his own domain. (Applause.) Almost the same thing happened in your own country when they were going to send a fleet out to shake hands with Russia, and if I recollect aright, your own labor members told them to keep that fleet away. Those are the things that are making for International Peace, and I tell you that they will make for International Peace. If that committee you speak about, that you would like to have visit England, if they were to visit there they would not be much needed, because we are going to send over about fifty now, and if those fifty men cannot do it, then your sixty men cannot do it. If those sixty that you have spoken about will go to President Roosevelt and in the name of organized labor of the United States demand that he shall not build any more battleships for another year and a half, until 1909, then they would have something to present to the other nations, who might follow in our wake. Unless something of that kind is done, nothing substantial will take place. (Great applause.)

ANOTHER MAN: I want to say with reference to the speaker of the evening and the first question, Mr. Stead wrote a book in which he described Chicago and the great Pullman Strike. Mr. Stead stated in that book that capitalism was not the evil from which the workingman suffered. So Mr. Stead cannot agree with the first questioner in regard to the first question, unless he has changed his mind since those days. I don't know. Mr. Stead stated plainly in that book that it was not capitalism from which the working class suffered. That was during the great Pullman strike in Chicago. I still have the book in my possession.

MR. STEAD: I should like very much to see that book. I do not remember the passage you refer to. I should be very glad to see it.

MR. BUCHANAN: I want to say that my attention has been called to the fact that the time at which the trustees of this institute expect these meetings to close has passed. Now, if this is permitted to go on, we shall be here until morning, because some people are willing to stay until morning to get in their questions and talk on the floor. We cannot permit this. Mr. Stead has been very generous in giving up his time in this way.

MR. STEAD: I like it, my friends. (Laughter.)

MR. BUCHANAN: Mr. Stead likes it, and we are glad he does like it, and we do not dislike it ourselves, but Mr. Smith will explain the situation.

MR. SMITH: The janitors of the building live at a considerable distance from the building, and they want to go home and get sleep so as to get up and do a day's work to-morrow.


MR. STEAD: One thing before you go.

MR. BUCHANAN: Mr. Stead wants a word in conclusion

MR. STEAD: On Friday night I am going to be here again.
MR. SMITH: Silence, so you can hear Mr. Stead.

MR. STEAD: I am going to be here on Friday night at eight o'clock, and I will give you a talk of an hour, and then we will have two hours of hoggey-boggey, and I hope that you won't be deterred by having so many on the platform. In fact, if you like, there shall be nobody on the platform but myself and the chairman. That will give you an opportunity for questioning, but I do hope that when we come to the questioning you will stick to the point and put definite questions, asking for information, and I will answer to the best of my ability. I look forward with great joy to our having a really good time Friday night. (Great applause.)


Wednesday Morning, April Seventeenth, at 9.30



I have great pleasure in opening this meeting, as it ought to be opened, with a word from that society which is the oldest peace organization in the world-the society founded by George Fox, the contemporary of Bunyan and Milton. We have as our first speaker, Mrs. Elizabeth Powell Bond, of New Jersey, the late Dean of Swarthmore College, and she comes representing the Society of Friends which has done so much for the cause of Peace-Mrs. Bond.

Friends as Promoters of Peace


Any statement of the work of the Religious Society of Friends in behalf of Peace, is of necessity in some measure a history of the Society itself. The convictions of George Fox concerning war, so clearly in accord with the teachings of the New Testament, placed him at variance both with the commander of the Puritan army, and with the 37th Article of Religion agreed upon in the Convocation of the Clergy of the Church of England that "It is lawful for Christian men, at the commandment of the magistrate, to wear weapons, and to serve in the wars." (Thomas Hodgkin's "George Fox," p. 41.) George Fox had pressed upon him a captaincy in the army of Oliver Cromwell, of which he says, "I told him I knew whence all wars arose, even from the lusts, according to James' doctrine; and that I live in the virtue of that life and power that took away the occasion of all war." (Rufus M. Jones' "Journal of George Fox," p. 128.) Later, when imprisoned in Lancaster on the charge of endeavoring "to raise insurrections to embroil the nation in blood'' he

declared "my weapons are spiritual, which take away the occasion of war, and lead into Peace. . I was never an enemy to the King, nor to any man's person upon the earth. I am in the love that fulfils the law, which thinks no evil, but loves even enemies." (Rufus M. Jones, p. 348.) During his years of imprisonment in English jails, when he was almost wholly cut off from those in sympathy with his teachings, it is evident that he pondered deeply upon the very practical question of making most effectual the revelations to him of truth.

The plan of organization, formulated in the Rules of Discipline and Advices, reached every individual member within the fold, and established an unbroken chain of fellowship, of responsibility for one another, and of teaching concerning the fundamental principles of the Society. Thus it is that the message of George Fox to Cromwell's soldiers reached from the center to the circumference of the Society, permeating all its membership. In the several yearly meetings of the present day in which are met together the chosen representatives of all the subordinate meetings, there is always read this query whose answer literally takes cognizance of every individual member-"Do you maintain a faithful testimony in favor of Peace and Arbitration, and against war and the preparations for and excitements to it?" (Discipline of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, 1894.)

There is not only this direct appeal concerning military service, but the teaching goes still deeper-to the very root of the matter. In a manuscript copy of the "Rules and Discipline" of 1676, possibly from the hand of George Fox himself, it is "Advised that Friends be tender to the Principle of God in All, and shun the occasion of vain Disputes and Janglings, both among themselves and Others; for that many times is like a blustering Wind, that hurts and bruises the tender Buds and Plants." In the latest issue of the Discipline of the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of Friends (1894) there is detailed advice concerning the duties of arbitrators when differences arise between any of its members about property. "It is further earnestly advised that Friends do not go to law, particularly with one another. If, for any reason, one should think himself under necessity to bring an action against a fellow-member, let him consult the overseers or other judicious Friends before proceeding." Nor does the care of the meeting end here. In

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