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and brutal. War robs commercial, industrial and agricultural pursuits of men, and means ultimately waste and loss. The result of industrial commerce is growth, permanent gain and prosperity.

It may be lamentably true that almost all of the great modern wars have been chargeable to commercial aggression, or shall I say aggressiveness or greed. Undoubtedly some have been promoted, if not incited, by these. It is not necessary to instance any of these wars, for doubtless they will suggest themselves to you; but this being so, there is, as I have said, a justice in the idea that organizations representing commerce should now unite their efforts in behalf of Peace. We hope, as we believe, that such wars would be impossible to-day, though in our own time we have seen, through strenuous insistence on "the open door" by some nations, conditions brought into sight that were threatening and ominous, but which, fortunately, passed away. It is true that such wars could not occur to-day; that is, in a great degree at least, due to the spread and progress of this agitation for World Peace begun in Boston in 1815 and since consistently followed and urged by our own and other peoples.

That the program of the movement is logical, practical and hopeful, its history up to date gives evidence. At the recent Industrial Peace Conference, held at the home of our honored Chairman, Mr. Carnegie, Dr. Lyman Abbott, in his forceful and eloquent words, well stated the method to be, as I recollect him: "To organize the world, hitherto disorganized, politically and industrially." By this, in brief summary, we understand the object to be the bringing together of the nations of the world, for one thing, through accredited and authorized representatives who shall compose a duly organized body, meeting regularly to confer on such political and industrial questions as concern their relations. This body might in due time lead to an International Parliament, with such powers as could be wisely committed to it for the common good; in the meantime it could promote such congresses as the present by the Peace Societies, and especially through the Hague International Conference, the co-operation of the nations in securing Permanent Peace and the general welfare of their peoples. Surely, a magnificent and noble end!

Of course it is implied and would be understood that underlying such organization, as the basis of full success, there must be, at least on the part of the leaders, a sense of community of

interest, a sentiment of one-world relationship of men. That is best expressed in the higher term of fraternity, toward which, may we not say, we are visibly moving.

Political and industrial bonds may be much of themselves, but they would be weak indeed in the face of provocation, were there not the fraternal desire and spirit which makes for Peace. Commerce is at once a promoter and a beneficiary of this sentiment, which is an outgrowth of the intercourse of peoples. When we speak of commerce, we naturally think of it as a great mechanical movement in exchange of commodities. It is impersonal to our thought; but in analysis we see that there are in it moral and individual aspects and relationships which cannot be lost in the vast aggregate. These count and reach in influence to an extent we cannot measure.

Commerce is the work of persons. Its operations should be conducted by those engaged in them with a moral regard for mutual interests and welfare. If it were so, there would be an end to unjust claims of territory, of concessions or privileges such as have been oftentimes urged to the point of war on weaker nations or their citizens by a stronger. The ties of business would be cemented by respect and friendliness. With the growth and expansion of commerce, the whole world would be bound together by interests far more potent for peace and progress than those of financial investments or considerations, of magnitude however great, though these interests would themselves be the outgrowth of, and cultivated by, commerce. I would not be understood as meaning that commerce is the sole force working to this end; but it is powerful, if not chief. The full fruition, doubtless, will require a long period, but that need not prevent, indeed it should stimulate, our effort to hasten the day devoutly to be wished.

The same principles suggested by what I have said regarding commerce, particularly international commerce, would also be applicable to industrial relations everywhere, and produce a like peace. These principles constitute the spirit of the "organization of the hitherto unorganized world." These are the times of organization. By all means let us have this supreme organism-— the body-with this spirit which should vitalize it. Let it grow and develop into fullness of power and beneficence.

There are many phases of this very large subject of the com

mercial, industrial and agricultural aspects of the Peace Movement, such as their economic and sociological bearings, and we have been interested in the discussion of some of them. But there is only time for me to add a word indicating the important part that may be taken in this movement by commercial and similar organizations, and the method and extent of their influence. This is three-fold. In the first place, it touches the individual members whose attention is attracted by the presentation for consideration of a given subject-let us say this great subject-International Arbitration and Peace. Their interest is aroused. They are stimulated to effort, which, in the second place, reaches out into the connections and operations of such individuals. Each thus becomes a center touching others in turn. In the third place, though not the least important, the organization exerts its influence as a body, according to its importance, on the community and especially on those whose interest or action it aims to secure for its ends, and it thus furthers and carries out its objects. As such a body, the New York Board of Trade and Transportation gives its hearty adherence to the program of this movement as representing the interest of commerce, and beyond and above that, on behalf of the progress of humanity and civilization, through the establishment of peace and good-will among





Tuesday Afternoon, April Sixteenth, at 4



In accordance with the time-honored custom of the New York public schools, this meeting will be opened by the reading of a passage of Scripture. These words are found in the book of the Prophet Isaiah:

"And it shall come to pass in the last days that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills: and all nations shall flow unto it.

"And many people shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths; for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.

"And he shall judge among the nations and shall rebuke many people; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more."

Isaiah 2: 2, 3, 4.

"The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid: and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.

"They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea."

Isaiah 11: 6, 9.

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