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life and society with which we are as yet acquainted, we are invested with influence over others, over one another, of which we cannot divest ourselves, which we cannot help feeling, and cannot help using, ill or well. Mr. Mill is the last man to take mere abstract views of society. He must take things as he finds them, as they really exist-not as they would be under other imaginable circumstances, or as it might be supposed that they ought to be, under the supposition of man being a reasonable and responsible being. If he had stated the limits between the two principles, which often come into conflict,-the right of the individual to look after his own good, and the right and duty of others and of society to do so too,-he would have done good service; but to leave one out in theory is not to abolish it in nature, and to make a theory with one only, omitting the other as having no existence, is not to give us a sufficient philosophy. A theory of freedom, without also a theory of mutual action and influence, is but a theory of part of the social relations of men. He has told us a great deal about man, conceived as moving among others alone as an individual: he has not told us about man as a link in the network of society, necessarily acting as others, and acted on by them. People who are content with a vigorous, one-sided statement about liberty, may think that Mr. Mill has done enough. People who think that there is another side to the matter, besides individual liberty, will wish that it had been fairly dealt with by so powerful a mind, and will be of opinion that there is something still to be said and cleared up on the subject. We want those whose love of liberty is beyond suspicion to tell us the limits and benefits of custom and control; as we want those who do not undervalue authority to speak honestly and heartily of the claims and necessity of liberty.
HE 'battle of the styles'-as it has been called-has been fought and won, not only in this country but in our colonies and in the United States, and even in a large part of Northern Europe, so far as concerns the ecclesiastical branch of architecture. Among ourselves it is quite an exception to see a new church or even a new meeting-house in any but one of the Pointed styles. Mr. Tite, indeed, has lately built a church at Gerrard's Cross after so hideous and anomalous a fashionof which it is perhaps only safe to predicate that it is at least not Gothic-that some have supposed this gentleman to be a friend in disguise, and to have intended to show experimentally that no sane person, with the least love for the beautiful, ought to wish for the perpetuation of any variety of the classical style for sacred buildings. We consider it a matter for congratulation that this has been demonstrated under such favourable circumstances. In every point of view it is far better that the partisans of the bastard Italian styles now going out of favour should do their best, or their worst, before the tribunal of public taste, than that they should be condemned, as it were, without a hearing. Let them be beaten, if beaten they are to be, in an open field. The rival schools of ecclesiastical architects must be judged by their works; and we could desire nothing better than that it were possible to place side by side, after the fashion of the plates in Pugin's Contrasts, the last Pointed church and the last Classical church of any consequence that have been consecrated. Take, for instance, St. James's, Gerrard's Cross, and All Souls, Halifax. The munificence of the respective founders of these churches
*1. Some Account of Domestic Architecture in England, from the Conquest to Henry VIII.: with numerous Illustrations of existing Remains, from original drawings. By T. Hudson Turner and the Editor of the Glossary of Architecture. 4 vols. Oxford and London: J. H. and J. Parker, 1851-1859.
2. Remarks on Secular and Domestic Architecture, Present and Future. By George Gilbert Scott, A.R.A. London: Murray, 1857.
3. An Analysis of Ancient Domestic Architecture, exhibiting the best existing Examples in Great Britain, from drawings and measurements taken on the spot. By F. T. Dollman and J. R. Jobbins. London: Masters, 1859.
4. Dictionnaire Raisonné du Mobilier Français de l'Epoque Carlovingienne à la Renaissance. Par M. Viollet Le Duc, Architecte. Paris: Bance, 1858.
is equal, and we have reason to think that the cost, in proportion to the size, is about the same; but we doubt much whether there would be found one person in a hundred to dispute that, for beauty and dignity and fitness for its purpose, Mr. Scott's noble Pointed building is unapproachably superior to the ambiguous structure designed by the senatorial architect of the Royal Exchange. No one will be found to dispute, we believe, that for buildings devoted to exclusively religious purposes the Pointed, or as it has been significantly but inappropriately called the Ecclesiastical, style has the vantage ground of present possession, so far, at least, as concerns the National Church. Even Mr. Petit, with all his ability and his zeal as a renegade from the Gothic school, finds no audience when he pleads for a fresh attempt to develop a religious architecture that shall not be Pointed from the crude elements of the Romanesque. Again, it is a curious circumstance, but one which affords an important testimony to the strength of the current now setting towards the exclusive adoption of the Gothic style for religious purposes, that the dissenting communities are generally following in the wake of the Church of England. The same manufacturing town, Halifax, in which Mr. Akroyd's splendid church has just been finished, is conspicuous for a Congregationalist meeting-house of unusual pretensions, and very unusual merit, designed by Mr. James in the same architectural style; and other examples might be cited, such as Barnsley and Liverpool. The Wesleyan Methodists, whose places of worship, at least in country villages, have been for the most part of the most base and unsubstantial kind, have of late not unfrequently affected the architectural forms of the Romanesque and successive Pointed styles; while in the very head-quarters of the Ranters, in the district where the sect of the Primitive Methodists had its origin, we have seen with our own eyes buildings, resembling Early English' chapels, devoted to their ministrations. Mr. Spurgeon, on the other hand, though not from any fear of æstheticism, holds aloof from the movement altogether. Indeed, in issuing the conditions of the competition for his new Tabernacle near the Elephant and Castle, he expressly declared that no Gothic designs would be admissible. And some of the public journals of the time said that he went further, even to asserting that in his opinion Satan himself was the first inventor of a style which, from its constructional peculiarities, must necessarily hide a preacher by its columns and arches from a large proportion of his audience. It is curious, as was somewhere observed, that by this absurd prohibition of the Pointed style a rare
opportunity was lost of clothing, perhaps for the first time, in suitable architectural forms the two predominant ideas of the Anabaptist denomination-namely, a font and an auditorium. For these it is obvious that a circular or octagonal building, covered by a dome, after the type of the great baptisteries of Italy, would have been most appropriate. And such a structure, on a vast scale, and with adequate ornamentation, could scarcely have failed to be dignified and effective; which is much more than can be said of the design selected by Mr. Spurgeon and his deacons, and now in course of erection-at least if we may judge it from the published drawings.
Not to speak more largely of the dealings of English dissenters with the Pointed style in their meeting-houses and even colleges, as at Richmond, and at Springhill, near Birmingham, we may pass on to the Free Kirk of Scotland. This communion, having had occasion since its secession to build a vast number of chapels, has almost universally adopted the Gothic style; not very intelligently indeed, and without sufficient variety of design, but still consistently enough to become a link in our present argument. The Scotch Establishment, on the other hand, having experienced contraction rather than expansion, has not of late required much church building; but the new church built at Glasgow for Mr. Caird is a conspicuous example of well-meant, if not of very successful, Gothic.
Among the Roman Catholics, although the prevailing practice is in favour of Pointed architecture, yet not unnaturallyconsidering their Italian sympathies and the style of the chief temple of their worship, St. Peter's at Rome-there has always been a theory, held by a large minority, in favour of Renaissance design. A controversy ran its course in this communion a few months since, in which somebody, writing under the nom de plume of Romanus, took the Italian side against all the partisans of the national style, from Father Thomas to Mr. Wigley; and Dr. Newman, who had himself rejected Gothic in the chapel which he built for the Catholic University in Dublin, avowed his sentimental preference for the style of the Vatican while arguing that the whole question was a matter of indifference, each side being equally in the right. Meanwhile the English Passionists have actually ventured upon a Gothic church in Rome itself-the first building wholly in that style that has been founded in the Eternal City since the evil days when the Pagan Renaissance fairly set in.
In the British colonies the preference for Pointed architecture for sacred purposes is not less marked than at home.
Three at least of the North American dioceses-Newfoundland, Fredericton, and Montreal-boast of Gothic cathedrals. So, too, with Sydney and Adelaide, Colombo and Calcutta. A large collection of sketches of Australian churches which we lately saw contained but one pseudo-classical design. And the illustrative woodcuts of the Quarterly Paper of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel show that Pointed churches, more or less adapted to the climate, are built by our emigrated countrymen in whatever part of the world they go to. It is another link with their old home, when their sacred buildings recall the familiar aspect of an English village church.
Nor is the case much otherwise in the United States. The Episcopal communion there exhibits a strong and growing predilection for the Pointed style. Several architects of considerable merit practise in this style, and all the new churches of any importance of which accounts reach us seem to be of Gothic design. And the same rule seems to hold in the other
On the continent of Europe remarkable examples of recent Gothic churches will occur to every one. In Paris, Sainte Clotilde and Sainte Eugène; at Rouen, N. D. de Bon Secours; at Munich, the Aukirche; at Vienna, the Votive Church of the Immaculate Conception; another of the same dedication at Aix-la-Chapelle; St. Bartholomew's in Berlin; St. Nicholas at Hamburg-designed by an English architect and a large church at Alkmaar, in Holland, may be mentioned as examples in various countries. And the names of Lassus, Viollet Le Duc, Statz, Zwirner, Cuypers, and Firstl may be said to be of European fame. All these gentlemen belong to the Gothic school, and the controversy between the two styles, though perhaps at a less-advanced stage than with us, is even now in progress in more than one European capital.
But if the victory, so far as concerns ecclesiastical architecture, has been thus substantially won by the Gothic style, the case is by no means so certain in its secular application. As to civil or domestic architecture, the war is still waging, with varied fortune, though, as we think, with every prospect of a right conclusion. It may be too much indeed to expect, with some enthusiasts, that the day will come when the national Pointed style, or some development from it, will supplant all others for the uses of common life. This degree of uniformity is scarcely to be looked for in the present age, characterized as it is by such-we will not say, lawlessless, but such-independence of thought and action. But the least that is to be hoped for, in our judgment, is that the present supremacy of