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Exercise on Nouns in the Plural Number.

These prizes will be the rewards of successful competitors at examinations.-Monarchs and monarchies might be swept away, soldiers might fall in battle, or sink exhausted on marches: he cared little, tranquilly devouring his two basinfuls of soup and potatos.*-He is about to mortgage his territories; this will alienate the heathen over whom he reigns.

'At the head of forces always numerically far inferior to the armies with which Napoleon deluged the Peninsula; thwarted by jealous and incompetent allies; ill-supported by friends, and assailed by factious enemies at home, Wellington maintained the war for seven years, unstained by any serious reverse, and marked by victory in thirteen pitched battles.'-Popular ideas about the three presidencies are erroneous.

* Or potatoes.

Case is the position in which a noun is placed in relation to some verb, preposition, pronoun, or to some other noun in the

same sentence.

Nouns have three casess-the Nominative; the Possessive, or Genitive; and the Objective, or Accusative.

The nominative case expresses the name of a person or persons, or of a thing or things, the subject of a verb; as, the child runs.'

The possessive expresses possession of, or property in, a thing or things; as, my friend's child.'

The objective expresses the object of an action; as, 'wear

this hat.'

Of these cases the possessive alone offers any orthographical difficulty.

The possessive case is usually formed by adding an s to the noun, and placing an apostrophe above, dividing this addition from the original word; as, 'my aunt's baby;' 'baby's hat.'

In most cases where the noun ends with ss, and in some instances where it ends with one s, or with nce, the apostrophe only is needed to form the possessive case; as, 'for righteousness' sake;' seated on high Olympus' top;' for conscience' sake.'

When a noun ends with s in the plural, the apostrophe alone is sufficient to form the possessive case; as, the artists'

fund.'

Exercise.-Nouns in the Possessive Case.

His cousin's arm is broken; and his dog tore those ladies' dresses.-Light a fire in baby's nursery; the babies' dinners are to be served there. The lady's horse is ready. The soldiers' rations were spoiled.—That grammarian's book is in the twelfth edition; I do not remember the publisher's name.

ADJECTIVES.

Adjectives are subject to a variation in forming degrees of comparison the positive becomes comparative by the addition of r, or er; and superlative by the addition of st, or est; as, dear, dearer, dearest.

Adjectives ending with y preceded by a consonant usually change y into i on the addition of er, or est; but if the y follows a vowel, it is generally retained (see Rules 13, 14, and 15).

Adjectives ending with a consonant, preceded by a diphthong, keep the consonant single on the addition of er, est, or ish; if the final consonant be preceded by a single vowel, it must be doubled (see Rules 3, 4, 5, and 6.)

VERBS.

A student who knows how to conjugate the verbs, will find most of the tenses easy to spell, but the participles are rather troublesome.

The participle is a form of the verb having the properties of the verb, the adjective, and the noun. The present participle ends with ing, and the past, or perfect (if the verb be regular), with ed.

Monosyllables, and words of more than one syllable, if accented on the last syllable, ending with one consonant, preceded by one vowel, double the final consonant on the addition of ed or ing.

Words of more than one syllable accented on any syllable but the last, words ending with two consonants, or with one consonant preceded by two vowels, do not double the final consonant on the addition of ed or ing.

Words ending with a silent e omit the e on taking ing; there are few exceptions to this rule. In words ending with ie, the ie is changed to y on taking ing.

Words ending with y preceded by a vowel, retain the y on taking ing or ed; those ending with y, preceded by a consonant, usually change the y to i on the addition of ed, and retain it on taking ing.

Words ending with a, o, w, or a double letter, retain such letter or letters, on the addition of ed or ing (see Rules 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, and 15.)

An irregular verb does not form its in perfect tense, and its past or perfect participle, by the addition of d or ed to the verb. LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS.

Those marked with R admit the regular termination.

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