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rous and important improvements that have been introduced into this edition, and the great pains that have been taken to secure that indispensable requisite, typographical accuracy. The numbers in the references of former editions were full of errors that had been suffered to pass, or had accumulated, in the successive reprints. The minute labour that it has cost the Reviser of this edition to verify and correct these references, must have been immense. If only an author knows ' an author's pains', equally true is it, that only an editor of similar works can estimate the trouble, patience, and toil that the simple revision of such a world of words must have cost. Every quotation important either for sense or for expression, has, we are assured, been carefully searched out, and the true reference inserted. But in the table of Proper Names, in which Ainsworth's original work was lamentably defective and erroneous, the improvements have been especially numerous and important. So numerous were the errors, that the present Editor says: We are almost inclined to believe that Ainsworth knew little of history or geography himself, but compiled this part of his work hastily from indexes and compendiaries.' For instance, Methone was described as lying on the road from Venice to Jerusalem'; Armene in Paphlagonia was made a town of Greece; Sophene, a district of Armenia, was assigned to Phoenicia; and the hills of Epirus', as he terms the Acroceraunian range, were treated as a part of the chain of Taurus! These are not the worst specimens that might be adduced. Besides correcting these palpable errors, many new articles have been added to both the historical and the geographical names. So far as we have examined this part of the volume, we have found it far more correct than any similar work that has fallen under our notice; and the inaccuracies that we have detected are trivial. Memphis is described as standing in the isle Delta'. Londinum is absurdly derived from llan Dian, e. g. fanum Dianæ. Antilibanus is vaguely described as a mountain opposite to Libanus', and the latter is said to be on the north the boundary of the holy land':—that it forms the northern boundary, must be meant. The provincial subdivisions of Macedonia ought to have been mentioned; also, those of Media. Under the word Lusitania, we have Tarracon for Tarraconensis, and Arnas for Anas; for the third part of ancient Spain composing' &c., read the third province of ancient Spain 'comprising the whole of Portugal and Algarve with Leon and part of Estremadura.' Emerita (Merida) should have been mentioned as the capital of Lusitania. The article India required to be both corrected and extended. The country of the Insubres included only a district of Lombardy, between the Ticinus and the Adda, Mediolanum being nearly in the centre. Messene is given, but Messenia is omitted. The Alps, putting aside the erroneous etymology, ought to have been more distinctly described; and Hannibal's making his way through 'these hills into Italy with vinegar', required a somewhat different comment Alexandria was the name of seventeen or eighteen ancient cities, of which three only are mentioned. Alexandria Troas ought not to have been omitted under this word. The Egyptian city is not near the Nile', but on the Mediterranean. Dacia is imperfectly and inaccurately defined. Syrophoenix is given, but not Syro-Phœ

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nicia; nor Syro-Media. Syrtis is very inaccurately explained. And so, perhaps, we might go on, finding fault at our ease; but we can assure the pains-taking Editor, that we have no wish to depreciate his labours. Weighed against what he has done, the little that he has left undone affords no reasonable ground for withholding our approbation and thanks, but only indicates the wretched state in which this part of the work was left by his predecessors. The whole dictionary is very greatly improved, and appears to us as correctly, as it is clearly printed, and does high credit to the stereotypographic press of Messrs. Childs of Bungay.

To the same press we are indebted for this handsome and accurately printed edition of Cruden's invaluable Concordance, to which is prefixed a brief sketch of the life and character of the eccentric Author. To those who have hitherto known him only by his great work and his portrait the quaint, quiet, reverend effigy in the knot-shaped wig, -this biographical sketch will afford no small surprise and entertainment, not unmingled with tenderer sentiment. Poor Alexander the Corrector's story may well class under the Calamities of Authors'. The first edition of his Concordance was published in 1737; the second in 1761. At the time that he was engaged upon this new edition, Mr. Cruden was corrector of the press to Mr. Woodfall, in the publication of the Public Advertiser. Here', we are told, he had full occupation. At one o'clock in the morning, he finished the la'bours of the office; and at six, he was turning over his Bible with 'the most careful attention, for the correction of his Concordance. In 'the evening, he again returned to the printing-office, near to which he lodged, at the Flatting Mill, over against the Ship, in Ivy Lane. In this round of public and private duty, he passed his time tranquilly and happily, embracing every opportunity of performing acts of benevolence to his fellow-creatures.' His death was enviable. No illness or decay had indicated his approaching dissolution, although he was in his seventieth year, when, one morning, he was found by his maid-servant, kneeling in his closet against a chair, in the attitude of prayer, in which his spirit had passed away.

Dwight's Theology has received, in the second series of our Journal, so full a review, and stands so little in need of any reiteration of our strong recommendation, that we need only congratulate the theological student, and the religious public generally, on having the whole work offered to them in this cheap and convenient form. For our opinion of the merits of the work, we may refer our readers to Vol. XVI. of our Second Series (Aug. and Sept. 1821). It is certainly, as a body of divinity, one of the most valuable works of the kind in the language, but might be rendered still more so by the notes of a judicious editor.

Art. VIII-1. The Shaking of the Nations; and the Corresponding Duties of Christians. A Sermon preached at Craven Chapel, Regent Street, Nov. 13, 1831. By J. Leifchild. With an Appendix, containing an Account of some extraordinary Instances of

Enthusiasm and Fanaticism in different Ages of the Church. 8vo, pp. 66. Price 1s. 6d. London, 1832.

2. The Miraculous Gifts of the Primitive Churches and Modern Pretensions to their Exercise: a Discourse delivered at Stepney Meeting, Nov. 27, 1831. By Joseph Fletcher, D.D. pp. 62. London,


3. The Self-existence of Jehovah pledged for the ultimate Revelation of his Glory to all Nations. A Sermon preached before the London Missionary Society, May 9, 1832. By John Morison, D.D. 8vo, pp. 49. London, 1832.

It is almost a rule with us, not to notice single sermons, as it is wholly impossible to notice all that might justly be commended, and to select a few, exposes us to the imputation of partiality. We cannot, however, refrain from noticing these, which, from the peculiar interest attaching to their respective subjects, not less than from their intrinsic merit as judicious discourses, invite and will amply repay the public attention. The pretensions to miraculous gifts are not new. The Rev. Thomas Boys, of Jewish Expositor celebrity, affirms, that 'miraculous powers have never entirely ceased in the church';-' that there have always been some claims of miraculous power, or some allegations of miracles performed by believers, not only before, but 'since the Reformation. He is partly right. Prior to the Reformation, the Lives of the Saints abound with miracles; nor has the Church of Rome ever withdrawn its pretensions. And the facts collected by Mr. Leifchild in his Appendix, will shew, that allegations of miracles performed by believers' have at successive periods been put forth among Protestants. Nay, a standing claim to miraculous powers, it seems, is maintained by the Shakers of Lebanon, in New York, who appear to have received the spirit from the French Prophets of the seventeenth century, and whom Dr. Dwight describes as singing in an unknown tongue, which one of the sisterhood was inclined to believe to be the Hotmatot'. We should not be at all surprised if a regular succession-we do not say an apostolic, or even an episcopal one-might be made out, of fanatical pretenders to miraculous endowments, from Montanus down to Prince Hohenlohe and Mr. Bulteel. Every age has exhibited these specimens of extravagance. And although, as Mr. Leifchild justly remarks, it would be improper to class all enthusiasts under the same description of moral character, the 'tragical ends of most fanatics and visionaries are sufficient intimations of the jealousy of the Holy Spirit respecting the honour of his former miraculous deeds, and the glory of his divine and sovereign agency. For himself', Mr. L. is free to confess, that the practice of deliberately and positively asserting the Divine Spirit to be the immediate agent in certain extravagant emotions, expressions, or actions of a religious kind, where but the possibility of mistake exists, wears an aspect so fearful and dangerous as to make him shudder at the thought of approaching it.' But this unhallowed rashness is sure to entail its own punishment; and the sin and the punishment seem connected in the words of St. Paul (2 Tim. iii. 13.)," deceiving

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and being deceived:" of whom it is predicted, that they shall “ worse and worse".


Mr. Leifchild's sermon treats more especially of the right interpretation and proper use of the prophetic intimations of Scripture in reference to events yet future; and by connecting these with the signs of the times, the Preacher deduces motives to a more diligent performance of the duties appropriate to the peculiar circumstances in which Christians are placed at the present crisis. Dr. Fletcher's discourse is an argumentative exposure of the fallacy of modern pretensions to miraculous gifts, preceded by a luminous exposition of the ends for which they were bestowed upon the first Christians. Dr. Morison's is a glowing and animating view of the vast and glorious prospect which is unfolding itself to the expectations of Christians, in connexion with the Divine pledge and decree that the whole world shall be filled with the Glory of the Lord. Although a Sermon of that cast which must gain much from an impressive delivery, making a direct appeal to the feelings, it will stand the test of perusal. We cordially recommend the three Sermons to the attention of our readers.

Art. IX. The present State of the Established Church, an Apology for Secession from its Communion. By a Seceding Clergyman. 8vo. PP. 65. Price 2s. London, 1832.

DURING nearly twenty years, the Author of this pamphlet laboured in the ministry of the Gospel in the Established Church. As a young man fresh from the University, he was a conscientious Churchman, and published largely in its favour. Subsequent reflection and consideration, however, excited doubt as to the soundness of his own principles; and so strong were his convictions of the anti-Scripturality of many parts of the constitution, doctrine, and discipline of the Established Church, that he was obliged to relinquish the offer and hope of preferment, through inability conscientiously to make the necessary subscription of his unfeigned belief and approbation of "all things contained and prescribed in and by the book of Common Prayer." As he could not make the required subscriptions without traitorous perjury, so he found it impossible to remain nominally a Churchman without base hypocrisy. The path of duty thus became plain; and the Author only waited a favourable moment to avow his determination, when unexpected circumstances afforded the long desired opportunity.' We have transcribed this statement as placing in the strongest light the Author's claim to a respectful hearing on the part of his brethren and the public at large; a claim resting upon the competent information, the tried integrity, and the honourable conduct of the witness. To Dissenters, the Apology will neither be necessary, nor will it convey any novel disclosures. But those persons who affect to have forsaken the ranks of orthodox Dissent, and to have embraced with the indiscriminate zeal of a convert the all and every thing in the Establishment from conviction,-might do well to read, mark, and digest this afflicting exposure of the evils and abuses under which the truly

pious clergy are inwardly groaning. Addressing the friend to whom the Apology is inscribed, the Writer says: From your extensive intercourse with your clerical brethren, you must be fully aware, that very many amongst the most devoted and pious of them, begin to feel deeply that, unless some change takes place, (the spes vana of lingering attachment,) they cannot long continue the discharge of their ministry in the Established Church. Have we not lately seen the near relative of a most respectable dignitary resigning his preferment, and abandoning his reasonable hopes and bright prospects of future advancement for conscience sake? And can you, or can the world, be so blinded to the real state of things among us, as to conceive this to be a solitary instance of conscientious dissatisfaction with the present system? Do you not know, do we not both know, young men of family and fortune, yet at the university, who more than hesitate to seek ordination ?'

These facts speak prophecy, and their import cannot be mistaken. Whatever be the evils of Dissent, real or imaginary,-let the ingenuity of inveterate bigotry exaggerate them to the utmost, and, by garbled quotations, seek to extort from the writings of Dissenters a confession of their being indeed of serious magnitude,-still, whatever be the evils attaching to the Dissenting system, they will no longer avail as an argument for blind adherence to the Church. The time for the dirty policy of recrimination is gone by. The Christian Remembrancer and the British Magazine, may go on as long as they please, pandering to the intolerance of the ignorant, by their invectives and misrepresentations respecting the sectaries. What purpose do these writers think to subserve? They cannot hope to deceive, they do not affect to conciliate, Dissenters of any class. And will the pious Churchman be deterred from examining into the abuses of his own Church, by having the caricature effigy of Independency paraded before him, crowned with a cap painted with demons, like that which the victims of an auto da fe were made to wear? Will the mistakes of Dissenters reconcile any men of common sense to the corruptions of the Church? Fond notion! Mr. Rose and his brother Editors would do well to leave the Dissenters alone. They will soon have work enough on their hands in defending their own entrenchments. Mr. Acaster, Mr. Hurn, Mr. Ryland, Mr. Berens, Mr. Cox, Mr. Tiptaft, and the present Writer require to be met in a very different manner; and church reform must come, or woe to the Church!


Nearly ready, The Christian Warfare illustrated. By the Rev. Robert Vaughan, Author of the "Life and Opinions of Wycliffe ", &c. In one volume 8vo. This volume will include preliminary chapters on Human Depravity, Justification, and Spiritual Influence, and a View of the Christian Warfare as connected with Believing, Repentance, Private Devotion, Public Duty, Persecution, Religious Declension, Despondency, Occupation, Retirement, Prosperity, Adversity, and the Fear of Death; Conclusion-the Claims of the Christian Warfare.

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