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given in the proper tone the same dog will obey "go on," "come in," and charge," just as readily as he will respond to “get away,” "heel" or "drop." Put a well-broken dog in the field with a man who has the right tone of command-it will make but little difference what words he uses. The best handlers are the quietest; not because they confine themselves to a certain few words of command, but because they realize that nothing is to be gained by talking to their dogs. Some old handlers have the bad habit of keeping up a running stream of remarks to their dogs. But the dog is seldom, if ever, influenced by these remarks. When the influence is apparent it is not because of the words that are spoken, but, I must repeat, it is on account of the tone used. Of equal importance with the tone is the gesture; a great deal might be said on this phase of the subject alone. But I will merely mention one very common and important order which can never be properly conveyed to the dog by word of mouth. I refer to changing a dog's course in the field. He may be a quarter of a mile away, or perhaps within a few rods of you; but if you want him to make a cast off to the left or to search out a corner to the right, you can order him to do so only by indicating the direction with 2 wave of the hand.
There seems to be an impression that in order to control a dog it is simply necessary to be certain just what words have been used in educating him. The man who receives a supposedly broken dog from a trainer must, to a certain degree, become acquainted with the dog before expecting thorough obedience. Take, for instance, the case of an owner who has just received his dog from the trainer's hands. He does not know what terms have been used in breaking, but if he has any judgment, or the faculty for handling, the dog will obey him as soon as he becomes accustomed to his voice. On the other hand, if he lacks that faculty for handling, that peculiar ability to control, the fact of his knowing each word to which the dog has been accustomed, will be of no service whatever.
In conclusion, let me say that I do not wish to be understood as denying to the dog the ability to distinguish between differently worded commands. What I claim is: that when in the field he is influenced by the command conveyed in tone rather than in articulation. This fact, of course, does not interfere with the practicability of a uniform set of commands. It simply indicates that the advantage gained is of a very doubtful quantity, particularly when the difficulty
of bringing about such a change is taken into consideration. It is really a case of "What is the use?" Under present conditions the dog has a real good excuse for not obeying, the handler has a reasonable excuse for not breaking, and the owner has a plausible excuse for not being able to handle his own dog. William Tallman.
There can be little doubt in anyone's mind that Adirondack Murray was one of our pioneer apostles of out-of-door life, and, when we pick up the little volume by our young friend, Harry V. Radford, giving a biographical sketch of Murray, the old English ballad comes to our mind, "Lythe and listin, gentilmen, That be of freborn blood, I shall you tel of a gode yeman, His name was Robyn Hode."
Not that Mr. Murray was in any sense an outlaw, like the celebrated English bowman, but both Robin Hood and Murray loved the free life of the green woods, Murray being as good a shot with his rifle as "Robyn Hode" was with his long bow and just as genial a "yeman."
The book, "Adirondack Murray," termed a "Biographical Appreciation" by its author, is a tribute to the father of the Adirondacks from a young man who evidently looks upon Mr. Murray as his patron saint.
One might easily have a worse patron saint than the famous preacher, who made our New York wilderness famous. Published by Broadway Publishing Co. Price, 50 cents.
The New York Zoological Society is issuing four nature series. Number one is a book called "Sea-Shore Life," by Alfred Goldborough Mayer, Director of the Marine Biological Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution at Tortugas, Florida, which is a splendid volume and tells exactly the things which any person, visiting the seashore, wants to know. There have been occasions when we would gladly have traded the clothes from our back for such a book. It is written in every-day English, that kind which most of us understand and speak, and it is not loaded up with words with meanings only known to a few scientists. It is designed to be of use to the beginners, and, like all common-sense books of this sort, it will be of use to everybody whose interest in the seashore extends beyond the veranda of a summer hotel and a bathing suit. The book is a gift to the New York Zoological Society and the proceeds of its sale are to be devoted to the increase of the collections of the Aquarium.
AS IT SHOULD BE
Some readers seem to have taken our words last month to heart, and consequently we have a number of questions on various subjects which we have been called upon to answer. This is just what we desire. We want to make this department an open exchange of ideas. We, on our side, will answer your questions and help you out of your difficulties, while you can help us by suggesting topics you wish to know more about, and occasionally sending in a few notes yourself on the way you do things. You may be making bromide enlargements, for instance, a little better or a little differently than others, and we would like to know your method. Or your tank developer formula may be a specially good one of your own. Let our other readers share in your good fortune.
A reader writes for information as how to make enlargements from engravings and drawings. He states he remembers seeing some method described in which reflectors are used, evidently with the idea of doing away with a negative of the print. How this could be done, we are quite unable to say, never having heard of the arrangement. The simplest way is to make a negative of the print, from which, then, any size enlargement can be made. Any one with a camera and a room with a window in it at his disposal can make enlargements, and a method of using the ordinary camera at the window for this purpose was described and illustrated in these pages some five or six months ago.
If the print or engraving is small and has no printing on the other side, a negative can be made by contact. If the picture to be enlarged is in a book, it is best to place a sheet of glass tightly over the page, so as to hold it in position and smooth.
Will you please tell me what exposure and what size stops to use in my camera in order to take successful snow pictures?
Not an unusual question at this time of the year. Snow pictures are by no means the easiest to take, and the average snow picture has as much resemblance to the real thing as a camera has to a rifle. Over-exposure is only too easy with brilliantly lit snow land
scapes, but yet the general fault is underexposure, giving nothing but harsh contrasts of black, formless trees and white snow without any idea of those soft half-tones which are so necessary. When the sun is shining and the snow lies heavily on everything, a very short exposure must be given. It is frequently advised to use the smallest stop of your lens and to run the shutter to its top speed. This generally results in underexposing the shadows, making them hard and lifeless in the picture. It is better to use a slow plate and preferably a non-halation orthochromatic plate. Seed makes a good one which, if used with a very weak yellow rayscreen, will give fine results. Snow pictures should be taken in the morning hours, or when the sun is setting, casting long, transparent shadows on the snow. Development should not be too strong. A thin plate will give a better print, with more atmosphere and half-tone quality in it than one which has been developed until the high lights are as hard as rocks and the shadows so black that they seem fit to write with.
REDUCING A NEGATIVE.
In answer to a couple of inquiries, I would say that generally I use just plain ferricyanide of potash when I want to reduce a negative. I make a very weak solution, just a small crystal or two in four ounces of water, and after bathing the negative in a hypo solution I place it in the ferricyanide. The action can be stopped by bathing in water, or can be repeated as often as wanted. This is called Farmer's Reducer. Some of the patent reducers are all right, but the old Farmer's is usually good enough, and its action pretty certain.
Have my readers ever tried tank development when they have had a bunch of negatives to finish off? I tell you, it is a great institution. You can make a tank for yourself, with grooves down the side to hold the plates, if you are of a mechanical turn of mind; but here is one tank on the market now, called the Auto-Tank, which is a tremendous time-saver. A slow-acting developer, usually compounded with glycin, which does not stain, is used in a tank and the plates can be dropped in and the tank covered up while you go out of the dark-room and attend to other business. According to the
strength of the solution, you look at the plates every fifteen minutes or half-hour until they are done. You may not believe it, but you will get far finer average results from your negatives than by the old method of tray development. The negatives will be cleaner, crisper and not so dense as you are apt to get them when developing by hand.
Two or three months ago, I wrote about a color-printing process which had been put on the market and which gave really interesting results with very little labor. There is now another simple color process at the disposal of the amateur, which, if correctly worked, will give very nearly true reproductions of color. This process, which is now being exploited, is called "Solgram" by the inventor. and a little explanation of its working will probably interest. Strictly speaking, it is a three-negative process, but two negatives can be used, or even one, though with one negative the results are not so perfect as to color, but the manipulation is, of course, easier. We will suppose you are using one negative only. This should be made on an orthochromatic plate. The printing paper, as bought, is coated with a red solution, on which the first print is made. The print can be examined from time to time during exposure, and when a faint image appears it is removed from the frame and washed with cold water, a piece of cotton soaked in water being used to rub the surface of the paper and remove the color. This first print will give you a brilliant red image which must be thoroughly dried first, before proceeding to the next step. When dry, the paper is coated with a solution of a blue print powder which comes with the paper. The solution is brushed lightly over the red image and the paper allowed to dry. The print is then placed on the negative a second time, care being taken to register the image over the negative. This can be done easily, as the red image is quite visible through the blue coating. Print as before and then wash in cold water for five or ten minutes, dry and coat the paper again with a solution of the yellow powder accompanying the paper. After drying, you print behind the negative for a third time, allowing the print to become well tanned, and then wash again in cold water, and your print in colors is finished. Simple, is it not?
The finest results are obtained with the use of three negatives of the subject, which should be made with a green filter before the lens for the first or red coating, a red filter for the second or blue coating and a violet filter for the third or yellow coating. It would take too long and be somewhat too technical to describe the reasons for using
these filters, but for those who have patience and use infinite care this last method will be an interesting study.
LOADING PLATE HOLDERS
I see in a recent issue of your magazine an article in regard to loading plate holders in the dark, in which you state that all plate makers pack the dry plates film side to film. I have been using the "New Record" plates, and they are all packed with the film side up; that is, all that I have used. My method of loading dry plates without a ruby light is as follows: Take a pin or needle, or other sharp-pointed instrument, and make a short scratch near the edge of the plate, say one-sixteenth of an inch from the edge. Try both sides of the plate; on the film side it will stick, but on the glass side will slip off very easy. The scratch will not hurt the negative in any way if made near the end or side of plate, as the printing frame takes off a margin of about one-eighth of an inch. If this method is of any use to you you may publish it.
Rannie Smith, Preston, Minn.
A DEVELOPER FOR SOLIO
Could you kindly let me know a good developer and fixing solution for solio paper. I like this paper, as I have had better luck with it than with others, and always used a combination fixing and developing solution put up by a large photo supply company in Nassau street, but the pictures I took two years ago, and of which I think a great deal, are fading. I keep moving the prints until they are a deep chestnut-brown and then put them in a vessel large enough so they do not lay in one heap and let a small stream of water run on them for one hour. Then I dry them and mount them. Should I get other paper (or some other brand) and a different solution, or is there something I can put into the solio combination to keep pictures from fading? I always use fresh paper and solution. Will send some pictures to Recreation shortly. Hoping you can help me out, and thanking you in advance, I am,
Edwin Hauck, New York City.
NOW, YOUR TURN
A Wisconsin man has invented a rat killer made of 76 per cent, corn meal, 19 per cent, dynamite and 5 per cent. of glue. The mixture is rolled into balls and a little cayenne pepper placed in the centre of it; when the rat sneezes he is blown to pieces. This mixture is not effective on mice because they do not sneeze hard enough. Such genius is worthy of a native son of Kansas.
FROM FIELD AND FOREST
There seems to be a great difference of opinion as to the value of the present game laws in the State of Michigan. The Times, of Monroe, Wisconsin, says:
"A noticeable decrease is shown in the number of deer killed and shipped out of the state by non-residents. While there was a greater number of nonresidents hunting in Wisconsin this year than last, they did not fare so well as the home hunters or as the non-residents of a year ago.
"The deputies will be kept in the deer counties for some time in order to prevent so far as possible the local people there going out after the game in the absence of the authorities. Reports from the deer counties are to the effect that while there was a great killing of deer this season, great numbers lived through the season, and the game will be doubtless more plentiful next season."
Chief Game Warden Swenholt thinks:
"It has been a fine season. The deputy wardens report that thousands of deer have been killed, but that the woods are full of them still. On a rough estimate I would say that there have been between 5,000 and 6,000 deer killed within the past fifteen days. The game laws of Wisconsin must be beneficial if this number can be killed off every year and still thousands more remain running at large in the woods."
The Racine Times states:
"The game wardens are not seen very often. The region through which the deer roam is so vast that the men now employed by the state are insufficient in number to cover it in anywhere near the manner in which it should be. Then again, it is said that the wardens, in many instances, favor the natives who look upon the deer much as does the moonshiner in the South the illicit whisky business.
"The natives can be likened to the moonshiner in another sense, it being one of their rules to never give evidence should one of their number by chance be arrested for shooting game out of season.
"The man who goes into the woods in the northern part of the state sworn to do his duty as a protector of game does so at the peril of his life. Little is known in this section of the state as regards the feeling which exists between the natives and the state's officers. The woods are so dense that it would be an easy task for a native to pick off a warden with his rifle without fear of being discovered. While cases of this kind are very rare the risk nevertheless is ever present and the work of a game warden in the woods is, using a slang expression, not the sine. cure it is cracked up to be."
One fact may be gained from these varying statements and that is that there is still a very considerable amount of game in the State of Wisconsin.
The National Association of Audubon Societies is to be congratulated upon its action in placing wardens in charge of the three reservations set aside by the President last autumn. They are as follows:
"The 'Siskiwit Islands reservation,' embracing all of the unsurveyed islands of the Siskiwit Menagerie group of islands at the mouth of Siskiwit Bay, on the south of Isle Royal, in Lake Superior, Mich. This reservation embraces sections 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 33, 34 and 35, in township 64 north, range 36 west. Upon these islands between 6,000 and 10,000 herring gulls breed annually, besides a number of other species not nearly so numerous. It is the largest and most important herring gull colony within the limits of the United States.
"The 'Huron Islands reservation,' embracing Huron Islands group lying near the south shore of Lake Superior and embracing sections 26, 27, 34 and 35, in township 53 north, range 29 west, Michigan. Some 1,500 gulls, together with a number of other water birds, breed upon these islands annually.
"The 'Passage Key reservation,' embracing an island near the mouth of Tampa Bay, on the west coast of Florida, known as Passage Key, and situated in section 6, township 34 south, range 16 east. Thousands of handsome terns have bred upon this little key annually ever since the Florida coast was first explored, but during the past year the egg hunters made regular trips to the island, and each time not only plundered the nests of the fresh eggs, but also destroyed all eggs partially incubated and unfit for use. This action promised annihliation of At the time the the colony within a year or two.
egg hunting was most active other parties inaugurated a movement to secure title to the island for resort purposes. This effort, if it had been successful, would have resulted in a destruction of the breeding colony, as complete and almost as soon as the egg hunters would have accomplished that end, so that the creation of the reservation is said to be extremely opportune.
"The National Association of Audubon Societies has placed wardens in charge of each of these reservations, and the slaughter of the birds and plundering of their nests has been stopped."
For two years Dr. Clifton F. Hodge, of Clark University, Worcester, Mass., has been engaged in raising partridges to get photographs with which to settle the much-discussed question as to how partridges made their distinctive whirring noise.
Dr. Hodge did not care to have his neighbors' cats destroy his partridges, reared with so much difficulty, so he caught large numbers of cats in a trap and chloroformed them. For that reason some unknown person threw acorns filled with arsenic into the cage of the partridges. Now Mr. Hodge is without partridges, and to pursue his investigations further he will be obliged to begin all over again.
Ohio State Game and Fish Commissioner Paul North will make two important recommendations to the State Legislature for the improvement of the game laws. The most important of these recommendations will apply to the laws governing the fishing for