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the merchant, the banker, leaseholder, or tradesman; mete out to either of these classes the immunity for roguery conferred upon the turf and its transactions, and how long would they hesitate to take advantage of it? Would their forbearance equal that of those whom they are ever ready to traduce and sneer at ?-would they reject the tempting fruit, sever the moral from the legal stain, adopt the code of conscience and the court of honour?-throw back the lie into the law's face, by the fulfilment of their obligations? My knowledge of the world writes 'No!"

Here the tones of the Leg's voice had reached the pitch of one giving the order to reef topsails in a gale of wind, through a speaking trumpet.

"Don't make such a row," I observed, meekly, "unless you want the police to walk up stairs: bring your logic to an end; I'm weary." "Here's the wind-up," he replied, looking to the bottom of the sheet :

"The gist of this my summary of our theme, Turf-law and Turfmorality, lies in the position-the turf-law being altogether wanting, turf-morality takes the higher ground, and, I am prepared distinctly to assert, surpasses the morality of every other."

The reader ceased; and laying down the journal, demanded with the manner of a man who has you between the horns of a dilemma: "There it's for you; that's something like coming out. Now, what do you say to it?"

"I have only to remark," I replied, "that if the philosopher intends introducing his principle into general society, I should suggest to him the convenience of soaping his nose."

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That mankind espoused the cause of this noble animal in bygone days, must be clear from the lines of Virgil

66 quæ prima malorum

Causa fuit, belloque animos accendet agrestes,

Cervus erat, forma præstanti."

Thus far, Mr. Editor, had I dipped into legendary lore, and was about to proceed to give the natural history of the antlered monarch, when a merry Christmas party of young uncaged urchins from school rushed into my room, upset my ink, threw the Eneid under the grate, and told me not to sap during so joyous a time.

"But," I replied, "what will the editor of the Sporting Review and Magazine say, if I fail to send them my monthly contribution?" "Bosh!" responded a young hobbledehoy, who had been studying some work upon the East. "Bosh!"-Anglicè, humbug. "But

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what? have you written Cervus erat'- Oh! you're in the railway line! Pray, continue. A song upon stagging' would just suit your holiday readers and don't forget the lines upon Cyparissus :

"Dear to the nymphs who haunt Carthæa's wood,

An immense stag famed for his beauty stood;
High branching horns adorn his noble head,
His antlers tipt with gold.

Don't forget to tip him with gold!"

Upon this hint, and surrounded by some half-dozen school-boys, who amused themselves with pulling my hair, pinching my arms, tickling my cheek with a paper-allumet, I produced the following lines, which, as Christmas comes but once a-year, may not be unwelcome :


"Litera scripta manet."

To the Air of" Bow, now, wow.”

Oh! have you heard the news of late, how all the world were stagging it?

The money flowed so plenteously that all the folks were bagging it; Patrician lords of high degree were mixing with the rabble,

For where's the man "wot" can be found that don't in railways dabble? Stag! stag! stag!

Among the herd you'll find divines, knights, lawyers, soldiers, sailors, With outlaw'd gents, sweeps, K.C.B.s, cads, black-legs, tinkers,


And Melton men, who quit the chace, and take to stags for sporting, And lots of London pretty deers, who go a Capel-court-ing!

Stag! stag! stag!

The soldier quits the warlike line, for civil engineering;
Across the equinoctial line no more the sailor's veering;
In Hudson's bay he anchors now: alas! deluded ninny!
He finds his locker full of scrip; his purse without a guinea.
Stag! stag! stag!

Retaining fees to peers are sent, to soften opposition;
And e'en high dames for railway scrip will on their knees petition;
And members of the Lower House, who their constituents cozen,
Will feather well their nests, then sit, and hatch schemes by the
Stag! stag! stag!

Provisional committee-men, with "Lawyers Quirk and Gammon,"
Have pocketed some paltry pelf by yielding thus to Mammon.
Stag-nations come at last, 'tis said; the shareholders look daggers;
John Doe and Roe will end the game, the stags have got the
Stag! stag! stag!

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To resume my own narrative. After viewing the market at Birkenhead, the park, and new docks, over which we were escorted by Mr. Jackson, one of the spirited individuals who, magician-like, have raised this new city to its present importance, we proceeded to Liskard Hall, the seat of Harold Littledale, Esq. The model-farm of this gentleman is unquestionably one of the greatest "lions" of the day, as is proved by its being almost daily visited by every one who takes an interest in agriculture. No expense has been spared; and, as the whole arrangements have been made under the direction of one of the best practical farmers of the day, Mr. Torr, of Lincolnshire, the result has been, as might be expected, most satisfactory. The veriest detractor in the world could scarcely detect a flaw in the whole system. Every modern invention of merit, every scientific improvement, are here concentrated; and we will venture to affirm that, however great the outlay may have been at first, that it will eventually repay the spirited owner. The farm consists of 440 acres of arable land, with the model buildings, of which we will give our readers a slight sketch. They consist of a very neat, picturesque brick house for the bailiff, a dairy, four cottages for the labourers, stabling, cow-sheds, rickyard, and every other requisite convenience. There are one hundred stalls for cows, as well ventilated as Her Majesty's stables at Windsor Castle or Buckingham Palace, independent of the proper buildings for calves. There are piggeries, with Torr's patent troughs, one of the neatest and most useful inventions ever made. There is a poultry-yard, with as fine a specimen of the feathered creation as any in existence; among which shines pre-eminently forth, at least in size, a huge American cock, of the Pennsylvanian buck breed. He really reminds one of the Brobdignag bird that was introduced in one of the most popular pantomimes of the day, and upon whose appearance Grimaldi was wont to pour forth the ditty

"This whacking bird must be a cassowary."

If Pennsylvanian bonds are below par, this splendid specimen of the gallinaceous breed is quite at a premium. The dairy which is attached to the bailiff's house is a very neat building; it contains a marble fountain, which would put to shame those exquisite specimens of national taste lately erected in Trafalgar Square. We never pass


these without thinking of the old story when Langham Church with its extraordinary spire was first built: "What order of architecture do you call that?" enquired a connoisseur from one of the building committee. "Oh!" replied the other, "that is Mr. Nash's particular order." But to the dairy: The walls are made hollow, so as to keep out the summer's heat. Attached to the dairy is a small room, where, upon a sultry day, strawberries and cream and fresh syllabubs may be enjoyed. Among the farm offices are-a place for smoking hams, one for curing bacon, a slaughter-house, a smithy, compost sheds, manure tanks, while a large pond supplies a tank which extends over the whole of one of the buildings, and supplies the horses and cattle with water. At this model farm the old saying is realized"A place for everything, and everything in its place.' Among the modern inventions is a steam-engine, which, unlike many "Jacks of all Trades," is, really, master of all; for it thrashes the corn, divides the grain with the same operation into three qualities, No. 1, 2, and 3, grinds the corn into flour, cuts dry and green food for the cattle, conveys it to the steaming-house, steams it, supplies a drying-kiln, for taking the moisture out of damp corn, crushes beans and oats, mixes food for the pigs, and churns the butter. If some of our revered ancestors-the gentlemen farmers of a hundred years agocould rise from their graves, and see this leviathan engine at work, doing the labour of some dozen hands by machinery, they would indeed be scared out of their senses. The buildings of which we have given so faint an account were erected by Messrs. Holmes and Son, of Liverpool, and add laurels to their former reputation. In conclusion, Mr. Littledale's bailiff is a most civil and intelligent man, ready at all times to conduct those who, privileged by his master's order, apply to see the farm. Liskard Hall is in every respect a most comfortable mansion, well built, thoroughly warmed and ventilated, the cellars not to be equalled, and the artist who presides over the culinary department one of the best specimens of native talent that I almost ever met with. As the domestic circle whose hospitality I enjoyed are those who "doing good by stealth, would blush to find it fame," I shall merely say that a more united or happier ménage never existed. It is a gratifying sight to witness the aged grandfather who has already passed, by many winters, the period usually allotted to man of threescore years and ten-surrounded by his wife, his children, and their youthful progeny, hims self enjoying robust and vigorous health both in mind and body, and delighting by the soundness of his judgment and clearness of his intellect the troops of friends" that congregate round the hospitable board at Liskard. Long life and happiness, say we, to the rooftree, and its branches. From Liskard I made sundry excursions, and among others to New Brighton, a thriving and most delightful watering-place, situated on the sea-coast near the Lighthouse and Fort Rock. Here, again, I was reminded of what energy and enterprise can accomplish. Not many years ago, the present site of this picturesque watering-place was uninhabited: it consisted of nothing but sand banks; when two spirited individuals, foreseeing that the population of Liverpool must yearly increase, and that a spot free


from the smoke and turmoil of a large city was a grand desideratum to its inhabitants, bought up the land, and sold portions of it on building leases. Hence the most beautiful marine residences have sprung up, which, not having the pen of the great George Robins, we will not attempt to describe. Mr. Rowson, one of the projectors of the undertaking, has cultivated this formerly sandy desert, and produced as good a garden as it is possible to imagine: his house, stables, conservatories, and green-houses are admirable specimens of good workmanship and taste. New Brighton will, we have no doubt, become in time one of the most popular watering-places in England. There is everything to recommend it-fine sea views, with constant shipping passing, excellent sands, a first-rate hotel, comfortable lodging-houses, perfect quiet, the rides and drives about it extremely good, and within ten minutes of that most important and populous city, Liverpool. Steamers ply from the pier to Liverpool every half-hour throughout the day. Upon the New Brighton side of the Mersey is quiet, retirement, calmness, and peace; while upon the other, bustle, activity, and all the turmoils of the busy world, are in constant operation. We must now proceed to this great mart of commerce; and, in so doing, call to our aid portions of the guide to which we were indebted for having lionized us through this important city.

"The metropolis, being the centre of arts, science, and luxury, has not been inaptly called the Modern Babylon; Edinburgh, from being the seat of so much learning and wisdom, has been termed the Modern Athens; while Liverpool, from its immense commerce and mercantile connections, has received the name of Modern Tyre."So says the guide: and there are few who now witness its spacious docks, its noble public buildings, its handsome squares, its costly shops, its broad streets, can bring themselves to believe that within little more than a century this leviathan city has sprung from an insignificant fishing village. In 1736 the population of Liverpool was 19,396: in 1841, taken in its suburbs, it amounted to 286,487, exclusive of at least 12,000 seamen belonging to the port; and we have every reason to believe that before another census is taken, a consider able increase will have taken place. Among the principal sights worthy the stranger's attention are the Exchange, Custom-House, Post-Office, and last not least-the Docks. The latter are certainly the wonder of the world, and deserve our first attention. The principal ones are the Prince's, Waterloo, Victoria, Trafalgar, and Clarence. Here may be seen miles of forest of masts and spars: we speak within compass-for they occupy from the extreme south to the furthermost northern point-a distance of four miles. In the river may be seen a flotilla of merchantmen, while the rapidly passing steam-boats are flitting about like so many fire-flies. An American liner is at anchor, with the "star-spangled" banner of the new world, awaiting a favouring breeze. The government steam-vessel is at her moorings; whilst Spanish, Norwegian, Portuguese, Swedish, Dutch, Danish, and Indian vessels, dressed in their gayest colours, are hourly arriving from foreign parts; the flags, banners, and standards of all nations are fluttering gaily in the winds, while the

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