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RULES OF SYNTAX, AND MODELS
ANALYZING AND TRANSPOSING,
SELECTIONS OF PROSE AND POETRY
FROM WRITERS OF STANDARD AUTHORITY.
BY ALLEN H. WELD, A. M.,
AUTHOR OF LATIN LESSONS AND READER, AND AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR,
PUBLISHED BY PHINNEY & CO
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY HARVARD
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1847, by ALLEN H. WELD, in the Clerk's office of the District Court of Maine.
SYNOPSIS OF GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS.
MODIFIERS OF THE SUBJECT.
The PREDICATE of a
The SUBJECT of a sentence
I The Subject, whose meaning is modified by one or more words, is called the MODIFIED (or logical) SUBJECT.
The MODIFIERS of the subject may be a noun in apposition; an adjective; a preposition with its object (adjunct); a participle; a verb in the infinitive; a relative clause; and rarean adverb.
That you have wronged me
The Predicate, whose meaning is modified by one or more words is called the MODIFIED (or logical) гREDICATE.
MODIFIERS OF THE PREDICATE. The MODIFIERS of the predicate may be a noun in the objective case, (if the verb is transitive); a verb in the infinitive; an adverb; a preposition with its object (adjunct); a clauses and rarely an adjective.
is the privilege
may wither and fade may expect
MODIFIERS OF THE PRED.
from your own admission.
to be accommodated.
MODIFICATION OF WORDS
VERB OR PARTICIPLE.
A verb or participle may be mod-
An adjective may be
1. By an adverb; as, Very
6. By a relative clause; as, I, who speak 4. with you.
7. Rarely by an adverb; as, Not my feet 5. only.
A Compound Sentence is made up of two or more
Nouns which have no grammatical connection with the subject or predicate of a sentence, are said to be independent: as, O virtue!
ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.
A Sentence may be analyzed by dividing it into the parts of which it is composed, and explaining their relations.
viz: the Subject or Modified Subject, the Predicate 1. Divide the sentence into its two general parts, or Modi Predicate.
2. Explain the mutual relations, and point out the office of every word which has any modifying influence.
THE selections which compose the body of the following work are so arranged as to constitute a gradual course of Exercises in Analyzing and Parsing.
The Rules of Syntax are taken from WELD'S ENGLISH GRAM MAR by permission of the Publishers, and to these rules, and also to the Grammar from which they are taken, references are occasionally made, to assist the learner in explaining idiomatic or difficult passages.
As the extracts are from some of the most accomplished and approved writers, the Ornaments of Style, Figures of Rhetoric, and Scanning, may be profitably attended to by advanced classes.
The book may be used by learners in almost any stage of at tainment, after the elementary principles of Grammar are under stood. The work is designed to take the place of Pope's Essay, Thomson's Seasons, Young's Night Thoughts, and other entire poems, which are used as parsing books in Schools. variety in the selections, it is believed, will be more profitable and interesting to the learner, than any single work can be, which exhibits no gradation in style, and the peculiarities of one writer only.
A. H. W.
RULES OF SYNTAX.
1. SYNTAX treats of sentences, and teaches the proper construction of words in forming them.
CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES.
Sentences are of four kinds, declaratory, imperative, interrogative, and conditional.
A declaratory sentence is one in which any thing is simply affirmed or denied of a subject; as, Time flies; He will not understand.
An imperative sentence is one in which a command is expressed; as, Buy the truth, and sell it not.
An interrogative sentence is one in which a question is asked; as, Who hath believed our report?
A conditional sentence is one in which something contingent or hypothetical is expressed; as, If it rains; Though he slay me.
Sentences are either simple or compound. A simple sentence consists of but one proposition; a compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences.
The simple propositions which make up a compound sentence, are called clauses or members.
The leading clause is one on which the other members depend.
A dependent clause is one which makes complete sense only in connection with another clause.
A simple sentence contains only one subject or nominative, and one predicate.