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FORTY-SEVENTH EDITION.

In preparing the present edition of Dr. Sullivan's wellknown book, the plan of the author has been faithfully adhered to, and the alterations made in the substance of the book are those only which were required by the progress of Geographical discovery and knowledge. In Chapter V., which is written expressly for this work by the present Editor, the reader will find an introduction to the principles of Physical Geography, which are developed in detail in the subsequent chapters up to XVI. inclusive. It is hoped that this introductory sketch will aid the learner in the perusal of the portions of Dr. Sullivan's book which treat of the physical aspects of Geography. Some useful additions have been made in the description of the mode of finding the latitude, classification of towns by means of river basins, description of mountains in relation to their chains of elevation, and other matters required by modern methods of teaching Geography; and every effort has been made by the Editor and by the Publishers, in the matter of statistics and political boundaries, to render the present edition a trustworthy book of teaching and reference in modern Geography. SAMUEL HAUGHTON.

TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN, 15th June, 1874.

SIXTY-FIRST EDITION.

This edition has been thoroughly revised and corrected. The divisions of the Animal Kingdom and list of Exports of the different countries have been re-written. Tables have been given showing the principal rivers in the various continents and in the British Islands, with the towns situated on or near them. Brief descriptions of the countries in South America, and of the principal cities in the United States and the Dominion of Canada have been inserted. The accounts of the continent of Australia and the colony of Tasmania have been expanded. It is hoped that these alterations and additions will still further increase the usefulness of the book.

1st May, 1880.

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CONTENTS.

MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

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POLITICAL AND LOCAL GEOGRAPHY.

Page

7

15

23

38

Geography of Europe-General Divisions-Political Divisions
-Classification of the States of Europe-Forms of Govern-
ment-Races of Men--Religions-Physical or Natural

Features-Surface-Climate-Minerals-Animals,

Geography of the British Empire,

England and Wales,

Scotland,

Ireland,

Historical Sketch of Great Britain and Ireland,
France-Geography of-Historical Sketch of,
Russia-Geography of-Historical Sketch of,
Austria-Hungary-Geography of-Historical Sketch of,
German Empire-Geography of-Historical Sketch of, .
Prussia--Geography of-Historical Sketch of,
Sweden-Norway-Geography of-Historical Sketch of,

Lapland,

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Denmark-Geography of Historical Sketch of,
Holland-Geography of-Historical Sketch of,
Belgium-Geography of Historical Sketch of,
Spain-Geography of-Historical Sketch of,
Portugal-Geography of-Historical Sketch of,
Italy-Geography of--Historical Sketch of,
Switzerland-Geography of--Historical Sketch of,
Greece-Geography of--Historical Sketch of,
Turkey-Geography of-Historical Sketch of,
Asia-Its Grand Divisions, Countries, Chief Towns, &c.
Africa-Its Grand Divisions, Countries, Chief Towns, &c.
America-Its Grand Divisions-North America-South
America--Central America-Countries, Chief Towns, &c. .

The West India Islands,

Oceania (Australia, &c.),

Antarctica,

Generalization of the Climates and Productions of the Earth-

Animals-Vegetables-Minerals,

Exports of the Principal Countries in the World,

Sacred Geography,

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METHOD OF TEACHING GEOGRAPHY

[The following ARTICLE is taken from the OUTLINE drawn up by the author for the use of the Teachers in Training in the Normal School of the Commissioners of National Education It, of course, contains his ideas upon a most important part of Geography-THE METHOD OF TEACHING IT. It also contains a great number of important facts connected with Geography, and a general view of the whole subject.]

BEFORE Commencing Geography, the pupils should be made acquainted with at least the four cardinal or principal points of the heavens. This may be done in a few minutes. Take them out at mid-day, or in other words, at twelve o'clock, and tell them that if they look towards the sun, their faces will be in the direction of the south, their backs towards the north, their right sides to the west, and their left towards the east; and that this is the case every day in the year at twelve o'clock. Or lead them to connect the east and west points of the horizon with that part or quarter of the heavens in which the sun rises or sets."

Having fixed these points in their minds, let them return to the school-room, and begin their first lesson on geography with it. In which side or wall of the room is the principal entrance? may be asked; and the answer will be, in the south. Why? Because it is in the direction of the sun at twelve o'clock. In which side is the rostrum, or master's desk? In the north. Why? Because that is the side opposite to the south. The east and west sides of the room will be as easily pointed out; and from the school-room the question may be extended to the play-ground, and to the entire premises. The pupils will readily name the streets that run along or enclose the Education Grounds, on the south, north, east, and west. These streets, they should be told, are the southern, northern, eastern, and western boundaries of the premises. The question may then be extended to the city generally; as, on which side of the city is Merrion or Mount

• During the equinoxes only, the sun rises and sets in the east and west points of the horizon. Between the vernal and autumnal equinoxes, the sun rises and sets northward of the east and west points of the horizon; and between the autumnal and vernal equinoxes propor tionally southward.

joy-square? Which side of these squares is nearest or farthest from us? In what direction is Sackville-street from Marlborough-street? Do they cross at right angles, incline, or run parallel to each other? In what direction from Dublin does Kingstown, Lucan, or Ashbourne lie? Similar questions should be put regarding the counties bordering upon Dublin; and thus geography is commenced, as it should be, with TOPOGRAPHY.

The pupils should then be directed to draw a ground-plan of the school-room on their slates. The dimensions should be stated to them, or, which is preferable, they should be made to measure it themselves. As it is eighty feet in length, by fifty in breadth, they will see the necessity for reducing its dimensions, or for drawing it on a small scale. If the scale be an inch for every ten feet, the drawing will be eight inches by five. If reduced to a smaller scale, the drawing will, of course, be smaller in proportion. If the plan is to be on an inch for ten feet, let a line an inch long be drawn in a corner of it for the scale by which the dimensions of the desks, &c., are to be measured and laid down. The desks, which are sixteen in number, and about thirty feet long each, may be represented by parallel lines, three inches long, and one-tenth of an inch broad; and the platform on which the master's rostrum stands, by a parallelogram, two inches by one and a half inch; and in its proper position in the school-room.

*

This is a rude representation of the school-room, as it would appear to a person looking down from the ceiling-or, in other words, it is a map of the school-room. The pupils may now be introduced to a map of the world, and they will readily conceive that it is intended to represent the earth, as it would appear to the eye of a spectator raised at an immense distance above it. But as children naturally fall into the mistake of considering the eastern and western hemispheres, as plane and unconnected surfaces, they should be told that they are intended to represent a globe, divided into two equal parts, and placed beside each other on a flat surface, or, as the term hemisphere denotes, half globes. A familiar idea of this may be given to them by dividing an orange, or an apple, into two equal parts, and by placing them on a table, or any flat surface, with their edges in contact. Having formed a correct and clear idea of the map of the world, they will easily conceive that the map of Europe, Ireland, or of any particular country, is intended to represent a portion cut, as it were, out of the general map of the world.a A small globe, divided into two

a In using a map for the first time, it should be laid upon the floor or upon a table, with the top in the direction of the north side of the school-room. In this way the learner will get a clear idea of what the map is intended to convey. It is only for convenience that a map is hung up against a wall; and when it is in this position, it should be

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