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THE BATTLE OF THE LAKE REGILLUS.

THE following poem is supposed to have zeen produced ninety years after the lay of Horatius. Some persons mentioned in the lay of Horatius make their appearance again, and some appellations and epithets used in the lay of Horatius have been purposely repeated; for, in an age of ballad-poetry, it scarcely ever fails to happen, that certain phrases come to be appropriated to certain men and things, and are regularly applied to those men and things by every minstrel. Thus we find both in the Homeric poems and in Hesiod, Bin 'Hgaκληείη, περικλύτες Αμφιγυήεις, διάκτορος Αργειφόντης, Επτάπυλος Θήβη, Ἑλένης ένεκ' ηυκόμοιο. Thus, too, in our own national songs, Douglas is almost always the doughty Douglas: England is merry England: all the gold is red; and all the ladies are gay.

Porsena nothing seems to be borrowed from foreign sources. The villany of Sextus, the suicide of his victim, the revolution, the death of the sons of Brutus, the defence of the bridge, Mucius burning his hand, Clelia swimming through Tiber, seem to be all strictly Roman. But when we have done with the Tuscan war, and enter upon the war with the Latines, we are again struck by the Greek air of the story. The Battle of the Lake Regillus is in all respects a Homeric battle, except that the combatants ride astride on their horses, instead of driving chariots. The mass of Aghting men is hardly mentioned. The leaders single each other out, and engage hand to hand. The great object of the warriors on both sides is, as in the Iliad, to obtain possession of the spoils and bodies of the slain; and several circumstances are related which forcibly remind us of the great slaughter round the corpses of Sarpedon and Patroclus.

Τρωσὶν μὲν προμάχιζεν 'Αλέξανδρος θεοειδής,

The principal distinction between the lay of Horatius and the lay of the Lake Regillus is, that the former is meant to be purely Roman, while the latter, though national in its general But there is one circumstance which despirit, has a slight tincture of Greek learning serves especial notice. Both the war of Troy and of Greek superstition. The story of the and the war of Regillus were caused by the Tarquins, as it has come down to us, appears licentious passions of young princes, who were to have been compiled from the works of seve-therefore peculiarly bound not to be sparing of ral popular poets; and one, at least, of those their own persons in the day of battle. Now poets appears to have visited the Greek colo- the conduct of Sextus at Regillus, as described nies in Italy, if not Greece itself, and to have by Livy, so exactly resembles that of Paris, as had some acquaintance with the works of Ho-described at the beginning of the third book of mer and Herodotus. Many of the most strik- the Iliad, that it is difficult to believe the reing adventures of the house of Tarquin, till semblance accidental. Paris appears before Lucretia makes her appearance, have a Greek the Trojan ranks, defying the bravest Greek to character. The Tarquins themselves are re-encounter him: presented as Corinthian nobles of the great house of the Bacchiadæ, driven from their country by the tyranny of that Cypselus, the tale of whose strange escape Herodotus has related with incomparable simplicity and liveliness. Livy and Dionysius tell us that, when Tarquin the Proud was asked what was the best mode of governing a conquered city, he replied only by beating down with his staff all the tallest poppies in his garden.t This is exactly what Herodotus, in the passage to which reference has already been made, relates of the counsel given to Periander, the son of Cypselus. The stratagem by which the town of Gabii is brought under the power of the Tarquins is, again, obviously copied from Herodotus.+ The embassy of the young Tarquins to the oracle at Delphi is just such a story as would be told by a poet whose head was full of the Greek mythology; and the ambiguous answer returned by Apollo is in the exact style of the prophecies which, according to Herodotus, lured Croesus to destruction. Then the character of the narrative changes. From the first mention of Lucretia to the retreat of

Herodotus, v. 92. Livy, i. 34. Dionysius, iii. 46. + Livy, i. 54. Dionysius, iv. 56. Herudotus, iii. 154. Livy, i. 53.

'Αργείων προκαλίζετο πάντας αρίστους, ἀντίβιον μαχέσασθαι ἐν αἰνῇ δηϊοτῆτι. Livy introduces Sextus in a similar manner: "Ferocem juvenem Tarquinium, ostentantem se in primâ exsulum acie." Menelaus rushes to meet Paris. A Roman noble, eager for vengeance, spurs his horse towards Sextus. Both the guilty princes are instantly terrorstricken:

Τὸν δ' ὡς οὖν ἐνόησεν 'Αλέξανδρος θεοειδής, ἐν προμάχοισι φανέντα, κατεπλήγη φίλον ήτορ, ἂψ δ' ἑτάρων εἰς ἔθνος ἐχάζετο κῆς ἀλεείνων. «Tarquinius," says Livy, "retro in agmen suorum infenso cessit hosti." If this be a fortuitous coincidence, it is one of the most extraordinary in literature.

In the following poem, therefore, images and incidents have been borrowed, not merely without scruple, but on principle, from the in comparable battle-pieces of Homer.

M. de Pouilly attempted, a hundred and twenty years ago, to prove that the story of Mucius was of Greek origin; but he was signally confuted by the Abbé Sallier. See the Mémoires de l'Académie des Inscrietions, vi. 27, 66.

The popular belief at Rome, from an early period, seems to have been that the event of the great day of Regillus was decided by supernatural agency. Castor and Pollux, it was said, had fought, armed and mounted, at the head of the legions of the commonwealth, and had afterwards carried the news of the victory with incredible speed to the city. The well in the Forum at which they had alighted was pointed out. Near the well rose their ancient temple. A great festival was kept to their honour on the Ides of Quintilis, supposed to be the anniversary of the battle; and on that day sumptuous sacrifices were offered to them at the public charge. One spot on the margin of Lake Regillus was regarded during many ages with superstitious awe. A mark, resembling in shape a horse's hoof, was discernible in the volcanic rock; and this mark was believed to have been made by one of the celestial chargers.

the celestial horsemen bear the tidings of vic tory to Rome.

Many years after the temple of the Twin Gods had been built in the Forum, an import ant addition was made to the ceremonial by which the state annually testified its gratitude for their protection. Quintus Fabius and Publius Decius were elected Censors at a momentous crisis. It had become absolutely necessary that the classification of the citizens should be revised. On that classification depended the distribution of political power. Party spirit ran high; and the republic seemed to be in danger of falling under the dominion either of a narrow oligarchy or of an ignorant and headstrong rabble. Under such circumstances, the most illustrious patrician and the most illustrious plebeian of the age were intrusted with the office of arbitrating between the angry factions; and they performed their arduous task to the satisfaction of all honest and reasonable men.

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How the legend originated, cannot now be ascertained: but we may easily imagine seve- One of their reforms was a remodelling of ral ways in which it might have originated: the equestrian order; and, having effected this nor is it at all necessary to suppose, with Julius reform, they determined to give to their work Frontinus, that two young men were dressed up a sanction derived from religion. In the chiby the Dictator to personate the sons of Leda. valrous societies of modern times, societies It is probable that Livy is correct when he says which have much more than may at first sight that the Roman general, in the hour of peril, appear in common with the equestrian order vowed a temple to Castor. If so, nothing of Rome, it has been usual to invoke the special could be more natural than that the multitude protection of some Saint, and to observe his should ascribe the victory to the favour of the day with peculiar solemnity. Thus the ComTwin Gods. When such was the prevailing panions of the Garter wear the image of St. sentiment, any man who chose to declare that, George depending from their collars, and meet, in the midst of the confusion and slaughter, he on great occasions, in St. George's Chapel. had seen two godlike forms on white horses Thus, when Louis the Fourteenth instituted a scattering the Latines, would find ready cre- new order of chivalry for the rewarding of midence. We know, indeed, that, in modern litary merit, he commended it to the favour of times, a very similar story actually found cre- his own glorified ancestor and patron, and dence among a people much more civilized decreed that all the members of the fraternity than the Romans of the fifth century before should meet at the royal palace on the Feast Christ. A chaplain .of Cortes, writing about of St. Louis, should attend the king to chapel, thirty years after the conquest of Mexico, in should hear mass, and should subsequently an age of printing-presses, libraries, universi- hold their great annual assembly. There is a ties, scholars, logicians, jurists, and statesmen, considerable resemblance between this rule of had the face to assert that, in one engagement the Order of St. Louis and the rule which Faagainst the Indians, St. James had appeared | bius and Decius made respecting the Roman on a gray horse at the head of the Castilian knights. It was ordained that a grand muster adventurers. Many of these adventurers were and inspection of the equestrian body should iving when this lie was printed. One of them, be part of the ceremonial performed, on the nonest Bernal Diaz, wrote an account of the anniversary of the battle of Regillus, in honour expedition. He had the evidence of his own of Castor and Pollux, the two equestrian Gods. senses against the chaplain's legend; but he All the knights, clad in purple and crowned seems to have distrusted even the evidence of with olive, were to meet at a temple of Mars in his own senses. He says that he was in the the suburbs. Thence they were to ride in state battle, and that he saw a gray horse with a to the Forum, where the temple of the Twins man on his back, but that the man was, to his stood. This pageant was, during several centhinking, Francesco de Morla, and not the ever- turies, considered as one of the most splendid blessed apostle St. James. "Nevertheless," sights of Rome. In the time of Dionysius the he adds, "it may be that the person on the gray cavalcade sometimes consisted of five thou horse was the glorious apostle St. James, and sand horsemen, all persons of fair repute and that I, sinner that I am, was unworthy to see easy fortune.* him." The Romans of the age of Cincinnatus were probably quite as credulous as the Spanish subjects of Charles the Fifth. It is therefore conceivable that the appearance of Castor and Pollux may have become an article of fait before the generation which had fought at Regillus had passed away. Nor could any thing he more natural than that the poets of the next age should embellish this story, and make

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public worship belonged; and it is probable | holy Pontiff enjoining the magnificent ceremo
hat those high religious functionaries were, nial which, after a long interval, had at length
as usual, fortunate enough to find in their been adopted. If the poem succeeded, many
books or traditions some warrant for the inno- persons would commit it to memory. Parts of
vation.
it would be sung to the pipe at banquets. It
would be peculiarly interesting to the great
Posthumian house, which numbered among
its many images that of the Dictator Aulus, the
hero of Regillus. The orator who, in the fol-
lowing generation, pronounced the funeral
panegyric over the remains of Lucius Posthu.
mius Megellus, thrice Consul, would borrow
largely from the lay; and thus some passages,
much disfigured, would probably find their
way into the chronicles which were afterwards
in the hands of Dionysius and Livy.

The following poem is supposed to have
been made for this great occasion. Songs, we
know, were chanted at the religious festivals
of Rome from an early period, indeed from so
carly a period that some of the sacred verses
were popularly ascribed to Numa, and were
utterly unintelligible in the age of Augustus.
In the Second Punic War a great feast was
held in honour of Juno, and a song was sung
in her praise. This song was extant when
Livy wrote; and, though exceedingly rugged
and uncouth, seemed to him not wholly desti-
tute of merit.* A song, as we learn from Ho-
race, was part of the established ritual at the
great Secular Jubilee. It is therefore likely
that the Censors and Pontiffs, when they had
resolved to add a grand procession of knights
to the other solemnities annually performed on
As to the details of the battle, it has not been
the Ides of Quintilis, would call in the aid of a thought desirable to adhere minutely to the ac-
poet. Such a poet would naturally take for counts which have come down to us. Those
his subject the battle of Regillus, the appear-accounts, indeed, differ widely from each other,
ance of the Twin Gods, and the institution of and, in all probability, differ as widely from the
their festival. He would find abundant mate- ancient poem from which they were originally
rials in the ballads of his predecessors; and he derived.
would make free use of the scanty stock of
Greek learning which he had himself acquired.
He would probably introduce some wise and

Antiquaries differ widely as to the situation of the field of battle. The opinion of those who suppose that the armies met near Cornufelle, between Frascati and the Monte Porzio, is, at least, plausible, and has been followed in the poem.

It is unnecessary to point out the obvious imitations of the Iliad, which have been pur posely introduced.

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THE

BATTLE OF THE LAKE REGILLUS.

LAY SUNG at the FEAST OF CASTOR AND POLLUX ON THE IDES OF QUINTILIS, IN THE YEAR

1.

Ho, trumpets, sound a war-note!

Ho, lictors, clear the way!

OF THE CITY CCCCLI.

The Knights will ride, in all their pride,
Along the streets to-day.
To-day the doors and windows
Are hung with garlands all,
From Castor in the Forum,

To Mars without the wall.
Each Knight is robed in purple,
With olive each is crown'd;
A gallant war-horse under each
Paws haughtily the ground.
While flows the Yellow River,

While stands the Sacred Hill,
The proud Ides of Quintilis

Shall have such honour still.
Gay are the Martian Kalends:

December's Nones are gay..
But the proud Ides, when the
Shall be Rome's whitest day.

2.

Unto the Great Twin Brethren
We keep this solemn feast.

Lávy, xxvii. 37.

frides,

squadron

+ Hor. Carmen Seculare.

Swift, swift, the Great Twin Brethren
Came spurring from the east.

They came o'er wild Parthenius
Tossing in waves of pine,

O'er Cirrha's dome, o'er Adria's foam,
O'er purple Apennine,

From where with flutes and dances
Their ancient mansion rings,

In lordly Lacedæmon,

The City of two kings,
To where, by Lake Regillus,

Under the Porcian height,
All in the lands of Tusculum,
Was fought the glorious fight.

3.

Now on the place of slaughter

Are cots and sheepfolds seen,

And rows of vines, and fields of wheat
And apple-orchards green.

The swine crush the big acorns

That fall from Corne's oaks:
Upon the turf by the Fair Fount
The reaper's pottage smokes.
The fisher baits his angle;

The hunter twangs his bow,

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