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order of chapters is planless and unnatural; and in one charitable excuse for this, namely, that the work, being largely a collection of review-articles, could not be expected to show as much system as a treatise cast in a single mould. Both the reproach and the excuse misapprehend the facts of the case. The order of composition is doubtless unshapely, or it would not be found so by so many. But planless it is not, for I deliberately followed what seemed to me a good pedagogic order, in proceeding from the more concrete mental aspects with which we are best acquainted to the so-called elements which we naturally come to know later by way of abstraction. The opposite order, of building-up' the mind out of its units of composition,' has the merit of expository elegance, and gives a neatly subdivided table of contents; but it often purchases these advantages at the cost of reality and truth. I admit that my 'synthetic' order was stumblingly carried out; but this again was in consequence of what I thought were pedagogic necessities. On the whole, in spite of my critics, I venture still to think that the 'unsystematic' form charged upon the book is more apparent than profound, and that we really gain a more living understanding of the mind by keeping our attention as long as possible upon our entire conscious states as they are concretely given to us, than by the post-mortem study of their comminuted 'elements.' This last is the study of artificial abstractions, not of natural things.*
*In the present volume I have given so much extension to the details of 'Sensation' that I have obeyed custom and put that subject first, although by no means persuaded that such order intrinsically is the best. I feel now (when it is too late for the change to be made) that the chapters on the Production of Motion, on Instinct, and on Emotion ought, for purposes of teaching, to follow immediately upon that on Habit, and that the chapter on Reasoning ought to come in very early, perhaps immediately after that upon the Self. I advise teachers to adopt this modified order, in spite of the fact that with the change of place of 'Reasoning there ought properly to go a slight amount of re-writing.
But whether the critics are right, or I am, on this first point, the critics are wrong about the relation of the magazine-articles to the book. With a single exception all the chapters were written for the book; and then by an afterthought some of them were sent to magazines, because the completion of the whole work seemed so distant. My lack of capacity has doubtless been great, but the charge of not having taken the utmost pains, according to my lights, in the composition of the volumes, cannot justly be laid at my door.
Psychology defined; psychology as a natural science, its
data, 1. The human mind and its environment, 3. The pos-
tulate that all consciousness has cerebral activity for its condi-
Incoming nerve-currents, 9. Terminal organs, 10. 'Spe-
cific energies,' 11. Sensations cognize qualities, 13. Knowl-
edge of acquaintance and knowledge-about, 14. Objects of
sensation appear in space, 15. The intensity of sensations, 16.
Weber's law, 17. Fechner's law, 21. Sensations are not
psychic compounds, 23. The law of relativity. 24. Effects
Accommodation, 32. Convergence, binocular
vision, 33. Double images, 36. Distance, 39. Size, color
bre,' 45. Analysis of compound air-waves, 56. No fusion of
elementary sensations of sound, 57. Harmony and discord, 58.
TOUCH, THE TEMPERATURE SENSE, THE MUSCULAR SENSE,
End-organs in the skin, 60. Touch, sense of pressure, 60.
Localization, 61. Sensibility to temperature, 63. The muscu
The feeling of motion over surfaces, 70. Feelings in joints,
74. The sense of translation, the sensibility of the semicircu
General idea of nervous function, 91.
centres, 92. The pigeon's nerve-centres, 96.
of functions, 104. Brain and mind have analogous 'elements,'
reactions, 122. Complicated reactions, 124. The summation