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under that terrible sun, without a friend near | main end; yet if, without any sacrifice of its him. He pines for the consolations of that re- efficiency for that end, it can promote any ligion which, neglected perhaps in the season other good end, it ought to do so. Thus, the of health and vigour, now comes back to his end for which an hospital is built is the relief mind, associated with all the overpowering of the sick, not the beautifying of the street. recollections of his earlier days, and of the To sacrifice the health of the sick to splenhome which he is never to see again. And dour of architectural effect-to place the buildbecause the state for which he dies sends a ing in a bad air only that it may present a more priest of his own faith to stand at his bedside, commanding front to a great public place-to and to tell him, in language which at once com- make the wards hotter or cooler than they mands his love and confidence, of the common ought to be, in order that the columns and Father, of the common Redeemer, of the com- windows of the exterior may please the passmon hope of immortality,-because the state ers-by, would be monstrous. But if, without for which he dies does not abandon him in his any sacrifice of the chief object, the hospital last moments to the care of heathen attendants, can be made an ornament to the metropolis, it or employ a chaplain of a different creed to would be absurd not to make it so. vex his departing spirit with a controversy about the Council of Trent,-Mr. Gladstone finds that India presents a "melancholy picture," and that there is "a large allowance of false principle" in the system pursued there. Most earnestly do we hope that our remarks may induce Mr. Gladstone to reconsider this part of his work, and may prevent him from expressing in that high assembly in which he must always be heard with attention, opinions so unworthy of his character.
We have now said almost all that we think it necessary to say respecting Mr. Gladstone's theory. And perhaps it would be safest for us to stop here. It is much easier to pull down than to build up. Yet, that we may give Mr. Gladstone his revenge, we will state concisely our own views respecting the alliance of Church and State.
In the same manner, if a government can, without any sacrifice of its main end, promote any other good end, it ought to do so. The encouragement of the fine arts, for example, is by no means the main end of government; and it would be absurd, in constituting a government, to bestow a thought on the question, whether it would be a government likely to train Ra phaels and Domenichinos. But it by no means follows that it is improper for a government to form a national gallery of pictures. The same may be said of patronage bestowed on learned men-of the publication of archives of the collecting of libraries, menageries, plants, fossils, antiques-of journeys and voyages for purposes of geographical discovery or astronomical observation. It is not for these ends that government is constituted. But it may well happen that a government may have at its command resources which will enable it, without any injury to its main end, to serve these collateral ends far more effectually than any individual or any voluntary association could do. If so, government ought to serve these collateral ends.
We set out in company with Warburton, and remain with him pretty sociably till we come to his contract, a contract which Mr. Gladstone very properly designates as a fiction. We consider the primary end of government as a purely temporal end-the protection of the persons and property of then.
It is still more evidently the duty of govern We think that government, like every other ment to promote-always in subordination to contrivance of human wisdom, from the high- its main end-every thing which is useful as a est to the lowest, is likely to answer its main means for the attaining of that main end. The end best when it is constructed with a single improvement of steam navigation, for example, view to that end. Mr. Gladstone, who loves is by no means a primary object of govern Plato, will not quarrel with us for illustrating ment. But as steam-vessels are useful for the our proposition, after Plato's fashion, from the purpose of national defence, and for the purmost familiar objects. Take cutlery, for ex-pose of facilitating intercourse between distant ample. A blade which is designed both to provinces, and thereby consolidating the force shave and to carve will certainly not shave so of the empire, it may be the bounden duty of well as a razor or carve so well as a carving- government to encourage ingenious men to knife. An academy of painting, which should perfect an invention which so directly tends to also be a bank, would, in all probability, ex- make the state more efficient for its great pri hibit very bad pictures and discount very bad mary end. bills. A gas company, which should also be an infant school society, would, we apprehend, light the streets ill, and teach the children ill. On this principle, we think that government should be organized solely with a view to its main end; and that no part of its efficiency for that end should be sacrificed in order to promote any other end however excellent.
Now, on both these grounds, the instruction of the people may with propriety engage the care of the government. That the people should be well educated is in itself a good thing; and the state ought therefore to promote this object, if it can do so without any sacrifice of its primary object. The education of the people, conducted on those principles of mo rality which are common to all the forms of Christianity, is highly valuable as a means o promoting the main end for which governmen! exists; and is on this ground an object well deserving the attention of rulers. We will not
But does it follow from hence that governments ought never to promote any other end than their main end? In no wise. Though it is desirable that every institution should have a main end, and should be so formed as
to be in the highest degree efficient for that | at present go into the general question of evlu
cation, but will confine our remarks to the subject which is more immediately before us, namely, the religious instruction of the people. We may illustrate our view of the policy which governments ought to pursue with respect to religious instruction, by recurring to the analogy of an hospital. Religious instruction is not the main end for which an hospital is built; and to introduce into an hospital any regulations prejudicial to the health of the patients, on the plea of promoting their spiritual improvement to send a ranting preacher to a man who has just been ordered by the physician to lie quiet and try to get a little sleep-to impose a strict observance of Lent on a convalescent who has been advised to eat heartily of nourishing food-to direct, as the bigoted Pius the Fifth actually did, that no medical assistance should be given to any person who declined spiritual attendance-would be the most extravagant folly. Yet it by no means follows that it would not be right to have a chaplain to attend the sick, and to pay such a chaplain out of the hospital funds. Whether it will be pro- Again, on our principles, no government per to have such a chaplain at all, and of what ought to press on the people religious instrucreligious persuasion such a chaplain ought to tion, however sound, in such a manner as to be, must depend on circumstances. There excite among them discontents dangerous to may be a town in which it would be impossible public order. For here again government to set up a good hospital without the help of would sacrifice its primary end, to an end inpeople of different opinions. And religious trinsically indeed of the highest importance, parties may run so high that, though people of but still only a secondary end of government, different opinions are willing to contribute for as government. This rule at once disposes of the relief of the sick, they will not concur in the difficulty about India-a difficulty of which the choice of any one chaplain. The High Mr. Gladstone can get rid only by putting in an Churchmen insist that, if there is a paid chap-imaginary discharge in order to set aside an lain, he shall be a High Churchman. The imaginary obligation. There is assuredly no Evangelicals stickle for an Evangelical. Here country where it is more desirable that Chrisit would evidently be absurd and cruel to let a tianity should be propagated. But there is no useful and humane design, about which all are country in which the government is so comagreed, fall to the ground, because all cannot pletely disqualified for the task. By using agree about something else. The governors our power in order to make proselytes, we must either appoint two chaplains, and pay should produce the dissolution of society, and them both, or they must appoint none; and bring utter ruin on all those interests for the every one of them must, in his individual ca- protection of which government exists. Here pacity, do what he can for the purpose of pro- the secondary end is, at present, inconsistent viding the sick with such religious instruction with the primary end, and must therefore be and consolation as will, in his opinion, be most abandoned. Christian instruction given by useful to them. individuals and voluntary societies may do much good. Given by the government, it would do unmixed harm. At the same time, we quite agree with Mr. Gladstone in thinking that the English authorities in India ought not to participate in any idolatrous rite; and indeed we are fully satisfied, that all such participation is not only unchristian, but also unwise and most undignified.
We should say the same of government. Government is not an institution for the propagation of religion, any more than St. George's Hospital is an institution for the propagation of religion. And the most absurd and pernicious consequences would follow, if government should pursue, as its primary end, that which can never be more than its secondary end; though intrinsically more important than its primary end. But a government which considers the religious instruction of the people as a secondary end, and follows out that principle faithfully, will, we think, be likely to do much good, and little harm.
We will rapidly run over some of the consequences to which this principle leads, and point out how it solves some problems which, on Mr. Gladstone's hypothesis, admit of no satisfactory solution.
All persecution directed against the persons or property of men is, on our principle, obviasiy indefensible. For the ection of the
persons and property of men being the primary end of government, and religious instruction only a secondary end, to secure the people from heresy by making their lives, their limbs, or their estates insecure, would be to sacrifice the primary end to the secondary end. It would be as absurd as it would be in the governors of an hospital to direct that the wounds of all Arian and Socinian patients should be dressed in such a way as to make them fester.
Again, on our principles, all civil disabilities on account of religious opinions are indefensible. For all such disabilities make government less efficient for its main end: they limit its choice of able men for the administration and defence of the state: they alienate from it the hearts of the sufferers; they deprive it of a part of its effective strength in all contests with foreign nations. Such a course is as absurd as it would be in the governors of an hospital to reject an able surgeon because he is a Universal Restitutionist, and to send a bungler to operate because he is perfectly orthodox.
Supposing the circumstances of a country to be such, that the government may with propriety, on our principles, give religious instruc tion to a people: the next question is, what religion shall be taught? Bishop Warburton answers, the religion of the majority. And we so far agree with him, that we can scarcely conceive any circumstances in which it would be proper to establish, as the one exclusive religion of the state, the religion of the minority. Such a preference could hardly be given without exciting most serious discontent, and endangering those interests the protection of which is the first object of government. Bu
we never can admit that a ruler can be justi- does not know whether that succession may fied in assisting to spread a system of opinions not be altogether a fable. He cannot defend solely because that system is pleasing to the her on the ground of her unity; for he knows majority. On the other hand, we cannot agree that her frontier sects are much more remote with Mr. Gladstone, who would of course from each other, than one frontier is from the answer that the only religion which a ruler Church of Rome, or the other from the Church ought to propagate, is the religion of his own of Geneva. But he may think that she teaches conscience. In truth, this is an impossibility. more truth with less alloy of error than would And, as we have shown, Mr. Gladstone himself, be taught by those who, if she were swept whenever he supports a grant of money to the away, would occupy the vacant space. He Church of England, is really assisting to pro- may think that the effect produced by her pagate, not the precise religion of his own beautiful services and by her pulpits on the conscience, but some one or more, he knows national mind, is, on the whole, highly benefi not how many or which, of the innumerable cial. He may think that her civilizing inreligions which lie between the confines of fluence is usefully felt in remote districts. He Pelagianism and those of Antinomianism, and may think that, if she were destroyed, a large between the confines of Popery and those of portion of those who now compose her conPresbyterianism. In our opinion, that reli- gregations would neglect all religious duties; gious instruction which the ruler ought, in his and that a still larger part would fall under the public capacity, to patronise, is the instruction influence of spiritual mountebanks, hungry for from which he, in his conscience, believes that gain, or drunk with fanaticism. While he the people will learn most good with the small- would with pleasure admit that all the quali est mixture of evil. And thus it is not neces- ties of Christian pastors are to be found in sarily his own religion that he will select. He large measure within the existing body of diswill, of course, believe that his own religion is senting ministers, he would perhaps be inclined unmixedly good. But the question which he to think that the standard of intellectual and has to consider is, not how much good his reli- moral character among that exemplary class gion contains, but how much good the people of men may have been raised to its present will learn, if instruction is given them in that hight point and maintained there by the indirect religion. He may prefer the doctrines and influence of the Establishment. And he may government of the Church of England to those be by no means satisfied that, if the Church of the Church of Scotland. But if he knows were at once swept away, the place of our that a Scotch congregation will listen with deep Sumners and Whateley would be supplied by attention and respect while an Erskine or a Doddridges and Halls. He may think that the Chalmers set before them the fundamental doc-advantages which we have described are b trines of Christianity, and that the glimpse of a tained, or might, if the existing system were cassock or a single line of a liturgy would be slightly modified, be obtained, without any sathe signal for hooting and riot, and would pro- crifice of the paramount objects which all bably bring stools and brick-bats about the ears governments ought to have chiefly in view. of the minister; he acts wisely if he conveys Nay, he may be of opinion that an institution religious knowledge to the Scotch rather by so deeply fixed in the hearts and minds of mil means of that imperfect Church, as he may lions, could not be subverted without loosening think it, from which they will learn much, than and shaking all the foundations of civil society by means of that perfect Church, from which With at least equal ease he would find reason they will learn nothing. The only end of for supporting the Church of Scotland. Nor teaching is, that men may learn; and it is idle would he be under the necessity of resorting to talk of the duty of teaching truth in ways to any contract to justify the connection of which only cause men to cling more firmly to two religious establishments with one govern falsehood. ment. He would think scruples on that head frivolous in any person who is zealous for a Church, of which both Dr. Herbert Marsh and Dr. Daniel Wilson are bishops. Indeed, he would gladly follow out his principles much further. He would have been willing to vote in 1825 for Lord Francis Egerton's resolution, that it is expedient to give a public maintenance to the Catholic clergy of Ireland; and he would deeply regret that no such measure was adopted in 1829.
On these principles we conceive that a statesman, who might be far, indeed, from regarding the Church of England with the reverence which Mr. Gladstone feels for her, might yet firmly oppose all attempts to destroy her. Such a statesman may be far too well acquainted with her origin to look upon her with superstitious awe. He may know that she sprang from a compromise huddled up between the eager zeal of reformers and the selfishness ef greedy, ambitious, and time-serving politicians. He may find in every page of her annals ample cause for censure. He may feel that he could not, with ease to his conscience, subscribe to all her articles. He may regret that all the attempts which have been made to open her gates to large classes of nonconformists should have failed. Her episcopal polity he may consider as of purely human institution. He cannot defend her on the ground that she posserses the apostolical succession; for he
In this way, we conceive, a statesman might, on our principles, satisfy himself that it would be in the highest degree inexpedient to abolish the Church, either of England or of Scotland.
But, if there were, in any part of the world, a national church regarded as heretical by four. fifths of the nation committed to its care-a church established and maintained by the sword-a church producing twice as many riots as conversions-a church which, though
possessing great wealth and power, and though long backed by persecuting laws, had, in the course of many generations, been found unable to propagate its doctrines, and barely able to maintain its ground-a church so odious, that fraud and violence, when used against its clear rights of property, were generally regarded as fair play-a church, whose ministers were preaching to desolate walls, and with difficulty obtaining their lawful subsistence by the help of bayonets-such a church, on our principles, could not, we must own, be defended. We should say that the state which allied itself with such a church, postponed the primary end of government to the secondary; and that the consequences had been such as any sagacious observer would have predicted. Neither the primary nor the secondary end is attained. The temporal and spiritual interests of the people suffer alike. The minds of men, instead of being drawn to the church, are alienated from the state. The magistrate, after sacrificing order, peace, union, all the interests which it is his first duty to protect, for the purpose of promoting pure religion, is forced, after the experience of centuries, to admit that he has really been promoting error. The sounder the doctrines of such a church-the more absurd and noxious the superstition by which those doctrines are opposed-the stronger are
the arguments against the policy which has deprived a good cause of its natural advantages. Those who preach to rulers the duty of employing power to propagate truth would do well to remember that falsehood, though no match for truth alone, has often been found more than a match for truth and power together.
A statesman, judging on our principles, would pronounce without hesitation, that a church, such as we have last described, never ought to have been set up. Further than this we will not venture to speak for him. He would doubtless remember that the world is full of institutions which, though they never ought to have been set up, yet having been set up, ought not to be rudely pulled down; and that it is often wise in practice to be content with the mitigation of an abuse which, looking at it in the abstract, we might feel impatient to destroy.
We have done; and nothing remains but that we part from Mr. Gladstone with the cour tesy of antagonists who bear no malice. We dissent from his opinions, but we admire his talents; we respect his integrity and benevo lence; and we hope that he will not suffer political avocations so entirely to engross Irim, as to leave him no leisure for literature and philosophy.
RANKE'S HISTORY OF THE POPES.*
[EDINBURGH REVIEW, OCTOBER, 1840.]
still sending forth to the furthest ends of the world missionaries as zealous as those who landed in Kent with Augustin; and still con fronting hostile kings with the same spirit with which she confronted Attila. The number of her children is greater than in any former age. Her acquisitions in the New World have more than compensated her for what she has lost in the Old. Her spiritual ascendency extend over the vast countries which lie between the plains of the Missouri and Cape Horn-countries which, a century hence, may not improbably contain a population as large as that which now inhabits Europe. The members of her community are certainly not fewer than a hundred and fifty millions; and it will be difficult to show that all the other Christian sects united amount to a hundred and twenty millions. Nor do we see any sign which indicates that the term of her long dominion is approaching. She saw the commencement of all the governments, and of all the ecclesiastical establishments, that now exist in the world; and we feel no assurance that she is not destined to see the end of them all. She was great and respected before the Saxon had set foot on Britain-before the Frank had passed the Rhine-when Grecian eloquence still flou rished at Antioch-when idols were still worshipped in the temple of Mecca. And she may still exist in undiminished vigour when some There is not, and there never was, on this traveller from New Zealand shall, in the midst earth, a work of human policy so well deserv-of a vast solitude, take his stand on a broken ing of examination as the Roman Catholic arch of London Bridge to sketch the ruins of Church. The history of that Church joins to- St. Paul's. gether the two great ages of human civiliza- We often hear it said that the world is con tion. No other institution is left standing stantly becoming more and more enlightened, which carries the mind back to the times when and that this enlightening must be favourable the smoke of sacrifice rose from the Pantheon, to Protestantism, and unfavourable to Catho and when camelopards and tigers bounded inlicism. We wish that we could think so. But the Flavian amphitheatre. The proudest royal we see great reason to doubt whether this be houses are but of yesterday, when compared well-founded expectation. We see that during with the line of the Supreme Pontiffs. That the last two hundred and fifty years, the human line we trace back in an unbroken series, from mind has been in the highest degree activethe Pope who crowned Napoleon in the nine- that it has made great advances in every teenth century, to the Pope who crowned Pepin branch of natural philosophy-that it has pro in the eighth; and far beyond the time of Pepin duced innumerable inventions tending to prothe august dynasty extends, till it is lost in the mote the convenience of life-that medicine, twilight of fable. The republic of Venice came surgery, chemistry, engineering, have been next in antiquity. But the republic of Venice very greatly improved-that government, po was modern when compared with the Papacy; lice, and law have been improved, though not and the republic of Venice is gone, and the quite to the same extent. Yet we see that Papacy remains. The Papacy remains, not during these two hundred and fifty years, Pro in decay, not a mere antique; but full of inte testantism has made no conquests worth speak and youthful vigour. The Catholic Church is ing of. Nay, we believe that, as far as there has been a change, that change has been in favour of the Church of Rome. We cannot, therefore, feel confident that the progress of knowledge will necessarily be fatal to a sy tem which has, to say the least, stood its
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It is hardly necessary for us to say, that this is an excellent book excellently translated. The original work of Professor Ranke is known and esteemed wherever German literature is studied; and has been found interesting even in a most inaccurate and dishonest French version. It is, indeed, the work of a mind fitted both for minute researches and for large speculations. It is written also in an admirable spirit, equally remote from levity and bigotry; serious and earnest, yet tolerant and impartial. It is, therefore, with the greatest pleasure that we now see it take its place among the English classics. Of the translation we need only say, that it is such as might be expected from the skill, the taste, and the scrupulous integrity of the accomplished lady, who, as an interpreter between the mind of Germany and the mind of Britain, has already deserved so well of both countries.
The subject of this book has always appeared to us singularly interesting. How it was that Protestanism did so much, yet did no more-how it was that the Church of Rome, having lost a large part of Europe, not only ceased to lose, but actually regained nearly half of what she had lost-is certainly a most curious and important question; and on this question Professor Ranke has thrown far more light than any other person who has written on it.
The Ecclesiastical and Political History of the Popes of Rome, during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. By LEOPOLD RANKE, Professor in the University of
Berlin: Translated from the German, by SARAH AUS-