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ascendency was not an ascendency of ribands, enclosures raised throughout the kingdom, and fiddles, and statues, and processions. He purchases made by one from another at very would never have dreamed of abolishing penal valuable rates, and jointures made upon marlaws against the Irish Catholics, and withhold-riages, and all other conveyances and settleing from them the elective franchise-of giving ments executed, as in a kingdom at peace withthem the elective franchise, and excluding them in itself, and where no doubt could be made from Parliament-of admitting them to Parlia- of the validity of titles." ment, and refusing to them a full and equal participation in all the blessings of society and government. The thing most alien from his clear intellect and his commanding spirit was petty persecution. He knew how to tolerate, and he knew how to destroy. His administration in Ireland was an administration on what are now called Orange principles,-followed out most ably, most steadily and undauntedly, most unrelentingly, to every extreine consequence to which those principles lead; and it would, if continued, inevitably have produced the effect which he contemplated,-an entire decomposition and reconstruction of society. He had a great and definite object in view,-to make Ireland thoroughly English-to make it another Yorkshire or Norfolk. Thinly peopled as Ireland then was, this end was not unattainable; and there is every reason to believe that if his policy had been followed during fifty years this end would have been attained. Instead of an emigration, such as we now see from Ireland to England, there was, under his government, a constant and large emigration from England to Ireland. This tide of population ran almost In 1660 he made his first appearance in pubas strongly as that which now runs from Massachusetts and Connecticut to the states behind lic life. He sat in the Convention which, in the Ohio. The native race was driven back the midst of the general confusion that pro before the advancing van of the Anglo-Saxon ceded the Restoration, was summoned by the population, as the American Indians or the chiefs of the army of Ireland to meet in Dubtribes of Southern Africa are now driven back lin. After the king's return, an Irish Parlia before the white settlers. Those fearful phe-ment was regularly convoked, in which Temnomena which have almost invariably attended ple represented the county of Carlow. The the planting of civilized colonies in uncivilized details of his conduct in this situation are not But we are told in general countries, and which had been known to the known to us. nations of Europe only by distant and ques- terms, and can easily believe, that he showed tionable rumour, were now publicly exhibited great moderation and great aptitude for busiIt is probable that he also distinguished in their sight. The words, "extirpation," ness. "eradication," were often in the mouths of the himself in debate; for many years afterwards English back-settlers of Leinster and Munster he remarked, that "his friends in Ireland used -cruel words-yet, in their cruelty, containing to think that, if he had any talent at all, it lay more mercy than much softer expressions in that way." which have since been sanctioned by universities, and cheered by Parliaments. For it is in truth more merciful to extirpate a hundred thousand people at once, and to fill the void with a well-governed population, than to mis-sufficient for the wants of a family mixing in govern millions through a long succession of fashionable circles. He passed two years in generations. We can much more easily par- London, where he seems to have led that easy, don tremendous severities inflicted for a great lounging life which was best suited to his object, than an endless series of paltry vexa- temper. tions and oppressions inflicted for no rational object at all.
All Temple's feelings about Irish questions were those of a colonist and a member of the dominant caste. He troubled himself as little about the welfare of the remains of the old Celtic population as an English farmer on the Swan river troubles himself about the New Hollanders, or a Dutch boor at the Cape about the Caffres. The years which he passed in Ireland while the Cromwellian system was in full operation he always described as "years of great satisfaction." Farming, gardening, county business, and studies rather entertaining than profound, occupied his time. In politics he took no part, and many years after he attributed this inac tion to his love of the ancient constitution, which, he said, "would not suffer him to enter into public affairs till the way was plain for the king's happy restoration." It does not appear, indeed, that any offer of employment was made to him. If he really did refuse any preferment, we may, without much breach of charity, attribute the refusal rather to the caution which, during his whole life, prevented him from running any risk than to the fervour of his loyalty.
In May, 1663, the Irish Parliament was prorogued, and Temple repaired to England with his wife. His income amounted to about five hundred pounds a year, a sum which was then
He was not, however, unmindful of his interest. He had brought with him letters of introduction from the Duke of Ormond, the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, to Clarendon, and to Henry Bennet, Lord Arlington, who was Secretary of State. Clarendon was at the head
Ireland was fast becoming English. CiviliLation and wealth were making rapid progress in almost every part of the island. The effects of that iron despotism are described to us by a hostile witness in very remarkable language. of affairs. But his power was visibly decur "Which is more wonderful," says Lord Cla-ing, and was certain to decline more and more rendon, "all this was done and settled within every day. An observer much less discerning little more than two years, to that degree of than Temple might easily perceive that the perfection that there were many buildings Chancellor was a man who belonged to a by raised for beauty as well as use, orderly and gone world;-a representative of a past age, regular plai tations of trees, and fences and of obsolete modes of thinking, of unfashion
one for Charles, who thought that the greatest service which could be rendered to a prince was to amuse him. Yet both these were masks, which he laid aside when they had served their turn. Long after, when he had retired to his deer-park and fish-ponds in Suffolk, and had no motive to act the part either of the hidalgo or of the buffoon, Evelyn, who was neither an unpractised nor an undiscerning judge, con versed much with him, and pronounced him to be a man of singularly polished manners, and of great colloquial powers.
Clarendon, proud and imperious by nature, soured by age and disease, and relying on his great talents and services, sought out no new allies. He seems to have taken a sort of morose pleasure in slighting and provoking all the rising talent of the kingdom. His connections were almost entirely confined to the small circle, every day becoming smaller, of old Cavaliers who had been friends of his youth or Temple, whose great maxim was to offend companions of his exile. Arlington, on the no party, was not likely to cling to the falling other hand, beat up everywhere for recruits. fortunes of a minister the study of whose life No man had a greater personal following, and was to offend all parties. Arlington, whose no man exerted himself more to serve his adinfluence was gradually rising as that of Cla-herents. It was a kind of habit with him to rendon diminished, was the most useful patron push up his dependants to his own level, and to whom a young adventurer could attach him- then to complain bitterly of their ingratitude self. This statesman, without virtue, wisdom, because they did not choose to be his dependor strength of mind, had raised himself to ants any longer. It was thus that he quarrelled greatness by superficial qualities, and was the with two successive Treasurers, Clifford and mere creature of the time, the circumstances, Danly. To Arlington, Temple attached himand the company. The dignified reserve of self, and was not sparing of warm professions manners which he had acquired during a resi- of affection, or even, we grieve to say, of gross dence in Spain provoked the ridicule of those and almost profane adulation. In no long who considered the usages of the French court time he obtained his reward. as the only standard of good breeding, but England was in a very different situation, served to impress the crowd with a favourable with respect to foreign powers, from that which opinion of his sagacity and gravity. In situa- she had occupied during the splendid adminis tions where the solemnity of the Escurial tration of the Protector. She was engaged in would have been out of place, he threw it aside war with the United Provinces, then governed without difficulty, and conversed with great with almost regal power by the Grand Penhumour and vivacity. While the multitude sionary, John De Witt; and though no war had were talking of "Bennet's grave looks," his ever cost the kingdom so much, none had mirth made his presence always welcome in ever been more feebly and meanly conducted. the royal closet. While in the antechamber France had espoused the interest of the StatesBuckingham was mimicking the pompous General. Denmark seemed likely to take the Castilian strut of the Secretary for the diver- same side. Spain, indignant at the close polision of Mistress Stuart, this stately Don was tical and matrimonial alliance which Charles ridiculing Clarendon's sober counsels to the had formed with the house of Braganza, was king within, till his majesty cried with laugh- not disposed to lend him any assistance. The ter and the Chancellor with vexation. There Great Plague of London had suspended trade, perhaps never was a man whose outward de- had scattered the ministers and nobles, had meanour made such different impressions on paralyzed every department of the public ser different people. Count Hamilton, for exam-vice, and had increased the gloomy discontent ple, describes him as a stupid formalist, who which misgovernment had begun to excite had been made Secretary solely on account throughout the nation. One continental ally of his mysterious and important looks. Cla- England possessed-the Bishop of Munster; a rendon, on the other hand, represents him as a restless and ambitious prelate, bred a soldier, man whose "best faculty was raillery," and and still a soldier in all his passions. He hated who was, "for his pleasant and agreeable hu- the Dutch, who had interfered in the affairs of mour, acceptable unto the king." The truth his see, and declared himself willing to risk seems to be that, destitute as he was of all the his little dominions for the chance of revenge. higher qualifications of a minister, he had a He sent, accordingly, a strange kind of ambas wonderful talent for becoming, in outward sador to London-a Benedictine monk, who semblance, all things to all men. He had two spake bad English, and looked, says Lord Cla aspects, a busy and serious one for the public, rendon, "like a carter." This person brought whom he wished to awe into respect, and a gay a letter from the Bishop offering to make an attack by land on the Dutch territory. The English ministers eagerly caught at the pro posal, and promised a subsidy of 500,000 r 2G 2
able vices, and of more unfashionable virtues. His long exile had made him a stranger in the country of his birth. His mind, heated by conflict and by personal suffering, was far more set against popular and tolerant courses than it had been at the time of the breaking out of the Civil War. He pined for the decorous tyranny of the Old Whitehall; for the days of that sainted king who deprived the people of their money and their ears, but let their wives and their daughters alone; and could scarcely reconcile himself to a court with a mistress and without a Star-Chamber. By taking this course he made himself every day more odious, both to the sovereign, who loved pleasure much more than prerogative, and to the people, who dreaded royal prerogative much more than royal pleasures; and was at last more detested by the court than any chief of the Opposition, and more detested by the Parliament than any pander of the court.
"Bennet's grave looks were a pretence," is a line In one of the best political poems of that age. VOL. III.-45
dollars to their new ally. It was determined to send an English agent to Munster; and Arlington, to whose department the business belonged, fixed on Temple for this post.
armies, and covered the British seas with its sails, was at the mercy of every spoiler; and Europe saw with dismay the rapid growth of a new and more formidable power. Men looked to Spain, and saw only weakness disguised and increased by pride,-dominions of vast bulk and little strength, tempting, unwieldy, and defenceless,--an empty treasury,—a haughty, sullen, and torpid nation,-a child on the throne,--factions in the council,-ministers who served only themselves, and soldiers who were terrible only to their countrymen. Men looked to France, and saw a large and com pact territory,—a rich soil,—a central situation,
a bold, alert, and ingenious people,-large revenues,-numerous and discip.ined troops,
Temple accepted the commission, and acquitted himself to the satisfaction of his employers, though the whole plan ended in nothing; and the Bishop, after pocketing an instalment of his subsidy, made haste to conclude a separate peace. Temple, at a later period, looked back with no great satisfaction to this part of his life; and excused himself for undertaking a negotiation from which little good could result, by saying that he was then young and In truth, he could very new in business. hardly have been placed in a situation where the eminent diplomatic talents which he pos---an active and ambitious prince, in the flower sessed could have appeared to less advantage. of his age, surrounded by generals of unrivalled He could not bear much wine; and none but skill. The projects of Louis could be countera hard drinker had any chance of success in acted only by ability, vigour, and union on the Westphalian society. Under all these disad- part of his neighbours. Ability and vigour vantages, however, he gave so much satisfac- had hitherto been found in the councils of tion that he was created a baronet, and ap- Holland alone, and of union there was no appointed resident at the viceregal court of pearance in Europe. The question of Portuguese independence separated England from Brussels. Spain. Old grudges, recent hostilities, maritime pretensions, commercial competition, separated England as widely from the United Provinces.
Brussels suited Temple far better than the palaces of the boar-hunting and wine-bibbing princes of Germany. He now occupied the most important post of observation in which a diplomatist could be stationed. He was placed in the territory of a great neutral power, between the territories of the two great powers which were at war with England. From this excellent school he soon came forth the most accomplished negotiator of his age.
The great object of Louis, from the beginning to the end of his reign, was the acquisition of those large and valuable provinces of the Spanish monarchy which lay contiguous to the eastern frontier of France. Already, before the conclusion of the treaty of Breda, he had inIn the mean time the government of Charles vaded those provinces. He now pushed on his had suffered a succession of humiliating disas- conquests with scarcely any resistance. Fortters. The extravagance of the court had dis-ress after fortress was taken. Brussels itself sipated all the means which Parliament had was in danger; and Temple thought it wise to supplied for the purpose of carrying on offen- send his wife and children to England. But sive hostilities. It was determined to wage his sister, Lady Giffard, who had been some only a defensive war; and even for defensive time his inmate, and who seems to have been war the vast resources of England, managed a more important personage in his family than y triflers and public robbers, were found in- his wife, still remained with him. sufficient. The Dutch insulted the British coasts, sailed up the Thames, took Sheerness, and carried their ravages to Chatham. The blaze of the ships burning in the river was seen at London; it was rumoured that a foreign army had landed at Gravesend; and military men seriously proposed to abandon the Tower. To such a depth of infamy had maladministration reduced that proud and victorious nation which a few years before had dictated its pleasure to Mazarin, to the States-General, and to the Vatican. Humbled by the events of the war, and dreading the just anger of Parliament, the English Ministry hastened to huddle up a peace with France and Holland at Breda. But a new scene was now about to open. It had already been for some time apparent to discerning observers, that England and Holland were threatened by a common danger, much more formidable than any which they had reason to apprehend from each other. The old enemy of their independence and of their religion was no longer to be dreaded. The sceptre had passed away from Spain. That mighty empire, on which the sun never set, which had crushed the liberties of Italy and Germany, which had occupied Paris with its
De Witt saw the progress of the French arms with painful anxiety. But it was not in the power of Holland alone to save Flanders; and the difficulty of forming an extensive coalition for that purpose appeared almost insuperable. Louis, indeed, affected moderation. But these offers were He declared himself willing to agree to a compromise with Spain. undoubtedly mere professions, intended to quiet the apprehensions of the neighbouring powers; and, as his position became every day more and more advantageous, it was to be expected that he would rise in his demands.
Such was the state of affairs when Temple obtained from the English Ministry permission to make a tour in Holland incognito. In company with Lady Giffard he arrived at the Hague. He was not charged with any public commission, but he availed himself of this opportunity of introducing himself to De Witt. "My only business, sir," he said, "is to see the things which are most considerable in your country, and I should execute my design very imperfectly if I went away without seeing you." De Witt, who, from report, had formed a high opinion of Temple, was pleased by the compliment, and replied with a frankness and
Cordiality which at once led to intimacy. The | tions of the Lower House against Clarendon two statesmen talked calmly over the causes could be understood only as a censure of the which had estranged England from Holland, foreign policy of the government, as too fa congratulated each other on the peace, and then vourable to France. To these events chiefly began to discuss the new dangers which me- we are inclined to attribute the change which naced Europe. Temple, who had no authority at this crisis took place in the measures of to say any thing on behalf of the English go- England. The Ministry seem to have felt that, vernment, expressed himself very guardedly. if they wished to derive any advantage from De Witt, who was himself the Dutch govern- Clarendon's downfall, it was necessary for ment, had no reason to be reserved. He openly them to abandon what was supposed to be declared that his wish was to see a general Clarendon's system; and by some splendid and coalition formed for the preservation of Flan-popular measure to win the confidence of the ters. His simplicity and openness amazed nation. Accordingly, in December, 1667, TemTemple, who had been accustomed to the af-ple received a despatch containing instructions fected solemnity of his patron, the Secretary, of the highest importance. The plan which he and to the eternal doublings and evasions had so strongly recommended was approved; which passed for great feats of statesmanship and he was directed to visit De Witt as among the Spanish politicians at Brussels. speedily as possible, and to ascertain whether Whoever," he wrote to Arlington, deals the States were willing to enter into an offenwith M. De Witt must go the same plain way sive and defensive league with England against that he pretends to in his negotiations, without the projects of France. Temple, accompanied refining or colouring, or offering shadow for by his sister, instantly set out for the Hague, substance." He was scarcely less struck by and laid the propositions of the English gothe modest dwelling and frugal table of the vernment before the Grand Pensionary. The first citizen of the richest state in the world. Dutch statesman answered with his characterWhile Clarendon was amazing London with a istic straightforwardness, that he was fully dwelling more sumptuous than the palace of ready to agree to a defensive alliance, but that his master, while Arlington was lavishing his it was the fundamental principle of the foreign ill-gotten wealth on the decoys and orange-policy of the States to make no offensive league gardens and interminable conservatories of under any circumstances whatsoever. With Euston, the great statesman who had frus- this answer Temple hastened from the Hague trated all their plans of conquest, and the roar to London, had an audience of the king, reof whose guns they had heard with terror even lated what had passed between himself and in the galleries of Whitehall, kept only a single De Witt, exerted himself to remove the unfaservant, walked about the streets in the plain-vourable opinion which had been conceived est garb, and never used a coach except for of the Grand Pensionary at the English court, visits of ceremony. and had the satisfaction of succeeding in all his objects. On the evening of the 1st of January, 1668, a council was held, at which Charles declared his resolution to unite with the Dutch on their own terms. Temple and his indefatigable sister immediately sailed again for the Hague, and, after weathering a violent storm in which they were very nearly lost, arrived in safety at the place of their destination.
On this occasion, as on every other, the dealings between Temple and De Witt were singularly fair and open. When they met, Temple began by recapitulating what had passed at their last interview. De Witt, who was as little given to lying with his face as with his tongue, marked his assent by his looks while the recapitulation proceeded; and when it was concluded, answered that Temple's memory was perfectly correct, and thanked him for proceeding in so exact and sincere a manner. Temple then informed the Grand Pensionary that the King of England had determined to close with the proposal of a defensive alliance. De Witt had not expected so speedy a resolu tion, and his countenance indicated surprise as well as pleasure. But he did not retract; and it was speedily arranged that England and Holland should unite for the purpose of compelling Louis to abide by the compromise which he had formerly offered. The next object of the two statesmen was to induce another govern ment to become a party to their league. The victories of Gustavus and Torstenson, and the political talents of Oxenstiern, had ob
Temple sent a full account of his interview with De Witt to Arlington, who, in consequence of the fall of the Chancellor, now shared with the Duke of Buckingham the principal direction of affairs. Arlington showed no disposition to meet the advances of the Dutch minister. Indeed, as was amply proved a few years later, both he and his master were perfectly willing to purchase the means of misgoverning England by giving up, not only Flanders, but the whole Continent to France. Temple, who distinctly saw that a moment had arrived at which it was possible to reconcile his country with Holland, -to reconcile Charles with the Parliament, to bridle the power of Louis,--to efface the shame of the late ignominious war,--to restore England to the same place in Europe which she had occupied under Cromwell, became more and more urgent in his representations. Arlington's replies were for some time couched in cold and ambiguous terms. But the events which followed the meeting of the Parliament, in the autumn of 1667, appear to have produced an entire change in his views. The discontent of the nation was deep and general. The administration was attacked in all its parts. The king and the ministers laboured, not unsuccessfully, to throw on Clarendon the blame of past miscarriages; but though the Commons were resolved that the late Chancellor should be the first victim, it was by no means clear that he would be the last. The Secretary was personally attacked with great bitterness in the course of the debates. One of the resolu
tained for Sweden a consideration in Europe disproportioned to her real power. The Princes of Northern Germany stood in great The reasoning of Dr. Lingard is simply this. awe of her. And De Witt and Temple The Triple Alliance only compelled Louis agreed that if she could be induced to accede to make peace on the terms on which, before to the league, "it would be too strong a bar for the alliance was formed, he had offered to France to venture on." Temple went that make peace. How can it then be said that same evening to Count Dona, the Swedish this alliance arrested his career, and preserved minister at the Hague; took a seat in the most Europe from his ambition? Now, this reason. unceremonious manner; and, with that air of ing is evidently of no force at all, except on frankness and good-will by which he often suc- the supposition that Louis would have heid ceeded in rendering his diplomatic overtures himself bound by his former offers, if the alli. acceptable, explained the scheme which was ance had not been formed: and if Dr. Lingard in agitation. Dona was greatly pleased and thinks this a reasonable supposition, we should flattered. He had not powers which would be disposed to say to him, in the words of that authorize him to conclude a treaty of such great politician, Mrs. Western-"Indeed, broimportance. But he strongly advised Temple ther, you would make a fine plenipo to ne and De Witt to do their part without delay, and gotiate with the French. They would soon seemed confident that Sweden would accede. persuade you that they take towns out of mere The ordinary course of public business in Hol- defensive principles." Our own impression land was too slow for the present emergency; is, that Louis made his offer only in order to and De Witt appeared to have some scruples avert some such measure as the Triple Alli about breaking through the established forms. ance, and adhered to it only in consequence But the urgency and dexterity of Temple pre- of that alliance. He had refused to consent to vailed. The States-General took the responsi- an armistice. He had made all his arrangebility of executing the treaty with a celerity ments for a winter campaign. In the very unprecedented in the annals of the federation, week in which Temple and the States con and indeed inconsistent with its fundamental cluded their agreement at the Hague, Franche laws. The state of public feeling was, how-Comté was attacked by the French armies; ever, such in all the provinces, that this irregu- and in three weeks the whole province was larity was not merely pardoned but applauded. conquered. This prey Louis was compelled When the instrument had been formally signed, to disgorge. And what compelled him? Did the Dutch commissioners embraced the Eng- the object seem to him small or contemptible? lish plenipotentiary with the warmest expres- On the contrary, the annexation of Franche sions of kindness and confidence. "At Breda," Comté to his kingdom was one of the favourite exclaimed Temple, "we embraced as friends- projects of his life. Was he withheld by rehere as brothers." gard for his word? Did he, who never in any other transaction of his reign showed the smallest respect for the most solemn obligations of public faith,-who violated the Treaty of the Pyrenees, who violated the Treaty of Aix, who violated the Treaty of Nimeguen, who violated the Partition Treaty, who violated the Treaty of Utrecht,-feel himself restrained by his word on this single occasion? Can any person who is acquainted with his charac ter, and with his whole policy, doubt, that, if the neighbouring powers would have looked quietly on, he would instantly have risen in his demands? How then stands the case? He wished to keep Franche Comté. It was not from regard to his word that he ce ied Franche Comté. Why, then, did he code Franche Comté? We answer, as all Europe answered at the time, from fear of the Triple Alliance.
The Triple Alliance may be viewed in two lights-as a measure of foreign policy, and as a measure of domestic policy-and under both aspects it seems to us deserving of all the praise which has been bestowed upon it.
But grant that Louis was not really stopped in his progress by this famous league, still it is certain that the world then, and long after, believed that he was so stopped; and this was the prevailing impression in France as well as in other countries. Temple, therefore, at the very least, succeeded in raising the credit of Dr. Lingard, who is undoubtedly a very able his country, and lowering the credit of a rival and well-informed writer, but whose great fun- power. Here there is no room for controdamental rule of judging seems to be that the versy. No grubbing among old state-papers popular opinion on an historical question can- will ever bring to light any document which not possibly be correct, speaks very slightingly will shake these facts-that Europe believed of that celebrated treaty; and Mr. Courtenay, the ambition of France to have been curbed who by no means regards Temple with that by the three powers; that England, a few profound veneration which is generally found months before the least among the nations,
This memoral le negotiation occupied only five days. De Witt complimented Temple in high terms on having effected in so short a time what must, under other management, have been the work of months; and Temple, in his despatches, spoke in equally high terms of De Witt. "I must add these words to do M. de Witt right, that I found him as plain, as direct and square in the course of this business as any man could be, though often stiff in points where he thought any advantage could accrue to his country; and have all the reason in the world to be satisfied with him; and for his industry, no inan had ever more I am sure. For these five days at least, neither of us spent any idle hours, neither day nor night." Sweden willingly acceded to the league, which is known in history by the name of the Triple Alliance; and after some signs of illhumour on the part of France, a general pacification was the result.
in biographers, has conceded, in cur opinion, far too much to Dr. Lingard.