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Greece from the slavery and degradation of two thousand years, and which, from one end of Europe to the other, have kindled an unquenchable fire in the hearts of the oppressed, and loosed the knees of the oppressors with a strange and unwonted fear!

Of those principles, then struggling for their infant existence, Milton was the most devoted and eloquent literary champion. We need not say how much we admire his public conduct. But we cannot disguise from ourselves, that a large portion of his countrymen still think it unjustifiable. The civil war, indeed, has been more discussed, and is less understood, than any event in English history. The Roundheads laboured under the disadvantage of which the lion in the fable complained so bitterly. Though they were the conquerors, their enemies were the painters. As a body, they had done their utmost to decry and ruin literature; and literature was even with them, as, in the long run, it always is with its enemies. The best book, on their side of the question, is the charming memoir of Mrs. Hutchinson. May's History of the Parliament is good; but it breaks off at the most interesting crisis of the struggle. The performance of Ludlow is very foolish and violent; and most of the later writers who have espoused the same cause, Oldmixon, for instance, and Catherine Macaulay, have, to say the least, been more distinguished by zeal than either by candour or by skill. On the other side are the most authoritative and the most popular historical works in our language, that of Clarendon, and that of Hume. The former is not only ably written and full of valuable information, but has also an air of dignity and sincerity which makes even the prejudices and errors with which it abounds respectable. Hame, from whose fascinating narrative the great mass of the reading public are still contented to take their opinions, hated religion so much, that he hated liberty for having been allied with religion-and has pleaded the cause of tyranny with the dexterity of an advocate, while affecting the impartiality of a judge.

The public conduct of Milton must be approved or condemned, according as the resistance of the people to Charles I. shall appear to be justifiable or criminal. We shall therefore make no apology for dedicating a few pages to the dis

cussion of that interesting and most important question. We shall not argue it on general grounds, we shall not recur to those primary principles from which the claim of any government to the obedience of its subjects is to be deduced; it is a vantage-ground to which we are entitled; but we will relinquish it. We are, on this point, so confident of superiority, that we have no objection to imitate the ostentatious generosity of those ancient knights, who vowed to joust without helmet or shield against all enemies, and to give their antagonist the advantage of sun and wind. We will take the naked, constitutional question. We confidently affirm, that every reason, which can be urged in favour of the Revolution of 1688, may be urged with at least equal force in favour of what is called the Great Rebellion.

In one respect only, we think, can the warmest admirers of Charles venture to say that he was a better sovereign than his son. He was not, in name and profession, a papist; we say in name and profession, because both Charles himself and his miserable creature, Laud, while they abjured/ the innocent badges of popery, retained all its worst vices, a complete subjection of reason to authority, a weak prefer ence of form to substance, a childish passion for mummeries, an idolatrous veneration for the priestly character, and, above all, a stupid and ferocious intolerance. This, however, we waive. We will concede that Charles was a good protestant; but we say that his protestantism does not make the slightest distinction between his case and that of James. The principles of the Revolution have often been grossly misrepresented, and never more than in the course of the present year. There is a certain class of men, who, while they profess to hold in reverence the great names and great actions of former times, never look at them for any other purpose than in order to find in them some excuse for existing abuses. In every venerable precedent, they pass by what is essential, and take only what is accidental: they keep out of sight what is beneficial, and hold up to public imitation all that is defective. If, in any part of any great example, there be any thing unsound, these flesh-flies detect it with an unerring instinct, and dart upon it with a ravenous delight. They cannot always prevent the advocates of a good measure from compassing their end; but they feel, with their prototype, that

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"Their labours must be to pervert that end,
And out of good still to find means of evil.”

To the blessings which England has derived from the
Revolution these people are utterly insensible. The ex-
pulsion of a tyrant, the solemn recognition of popalar rights,
liberty, security, toleration, all go for nothing with them.
One sect there was, which, from unfortunate temporary
causes, it was thought necessary to keep under close re
straint. One part of the empire there was so unhappily
circumstanced, that at that time its misery was necessary to
our happiness, and its slavery to our freedom! These are
the parts of the Revolution which the politicians of whom
we speak love to contemplate, and which seem to them, not
indeed to vindicate, but in some degree to palliate the good
which it has produced. Talk to them of Naples, of Spain,
or of South America. They stand forth, zealots for the
doctrine of Divine Right, which has now come back to us,
like a thief from transportation, under the alias of Legiti-
macy. But mention the miseries of Ireland! Then Wil-
liam is a hero. Then Somers and Shrewsbury are great
Then the Revolution is a glorious era! The very
same persons, who, in this country, never omit an oppor-
tunity of reviving every wretched Jacobite slander respect-
ing the whigs of that period, have no sooner crossed St.
George's channel, than they begin to fill their bumpers to
the glorious and immortal memory. They may truly boast
that they look not at men, but measures. So that evil be
done, they care not who does it-the arbitrary Charles or
the liberal William, Ferdinand the catholic or Frederick
the protestant! On such occasions their deadliest oppo-
nents may reckon upon their candid construction. The
bold assertions of these people have of late impressed a
large portion of the public with an opinion that James II.
was expelled simply because he was a catholic, and that the
Revolution was essentially a protestant revolution.
But this certainly was not the case, Nor can any person,
who has acquired more knowledge of the history of those
times than is to be found in Goldsmith's Abridgment, be-
lieve that, if James had held his own religious opinions
without wishing to make proselytes; or if, wishing even to

make proselytes, he had contented himself with exerting
only his constitutional influence for that purpose, the Prince
of Orange would ever have been invited over.
Our an-
cestors, we suppose, knew their own meaning. And, if we
may believe them, their hostility was primarily not to
popery, but to tyranny. They did not drive out a tyrant
because he was a catholic; but they excluded catholics from
the crown, because they thought them likely to be tyrants,
The ground on which they, in their famous resolution,
declared the throne vacant, was this, "that James had
broken the fundamental laws of the kingdom." Every
man, therefore, who approves of the Revolution of 1688,
must hold that the breach of fundamental laws on the part
of the sovereign justifies resistance. The question then is
this: Had Charles I. broken the fundamental laws of

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No person can answer in the negative, unless he refuses credit, not merely to all the accusations brought against Charles by his opponents, but to the narratives of the warmest royalists, and to the confessions of the king himself. If there be any historian of any party who has related the events of that reign, the conduct of Charles, from his accession to the meeting of the Long Parliament, had been a continued course of oppression and treachery. Let those who applaud the Revolution and condemn the rebellion, mention one act of James II. to which a parallel is not to be found in the history of his father. Let them lay their fingers on a single article in the Declaration of Right, presented by the two Houses to William and Mary, which Charles is not acknowledged to have violated. He had, Chavies I according to the testimony of his own friends, usurped the functions of the legislature, raised taxes without the consent of parliament, and quartered troops on the people in the most illegal and vexatious manner. Not a single session of parliament had passed without some unconstitutional attack on the freedom of debate. The right of petition was grossly violated, Arbitrary judgments, exorbitant fines, and unwarranted imprisonments, were grievances of daily and hourly occurrence. If these things do not justify resistance, the Revolution was treason; if they do, the Gr Rebellion was laudable.

VOL. L.-4



But, it is said, why not adopt milder measures? Why, after the king had consented to so many reforms, and renounced so many oppressive prerogatives, did the parliament continue to rise in their demands, at the risk of provoking a civil war? The ship-money had been given up. The star-chamber had been abolished. Provision had been made for the frequent convocation and secure deliberation of parliaments. Why not pursue an end confessedly good, by peaceable and regular means? We recur again to the analogy of the Revolution. Why was James driven from the throne? Why was he not retained upon conditions? He too had offered to call a free parliament, and to submit to its decision all the matters in dispute. Yet we praise our forefathers, who preferred a revolution, a disputed succession, a dynasty of strangers, twenty years of foreign and intestine war, a standing army, and a national debt, to the rule, however restricted, of a tried and proved tyrant. The Long Parliament acted on the same principle, and is entitled to the same praise. They could not trust the king. He had no doubt passed salutary laws. But what assurance had they that he would not break them? He had renounced oppressive prerogatives. But where was the security that he would not resume them? They had to deal with a man whom no tie could bind, a man who made and broke promises with equal facility, a man whose honour had been a hundred times pawned-and never redeemed.

Here, indeed, the Long Parliament stands on still stronger ground than the Convention of 1688. No action of James can be compared for wickedness and impudence to the conduct of Charles with respect to the Petition of Right. The lords and commons present him with a bill in which the constitutional limits of his power are marked out. He hesitates; he evades; at last he bargains to give his assent, for five subsidies. The bill receives his solemn assent. The subsidies are voted. But no sooner is the tyrant 1clieved, than he returns at once to all the arbitrary measures which he had bound himself to abandon, and violates all the clauses of the very act which he had been paid to pass. For more than ten years, the people had seen the rights, which were theirs by a double claim, by immemorial inheritance and by recent purchase, infringed by the perfidious

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