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by him, and it was at his hands that the gov ernor received the perfected measure, and cordially gave it his approval as executive. White was a member of the Senate for four years. If he entered that body with political ambitions, he abandoned them that he might accept Mr. Cornell's urgent appeal to him to organize the university and to become its president. As president he opened the university in 1867.
By one master stroke he gave the university international renown, for he called to his faculty as lecturers some of the world's preeminent scholars. When it was announced that PresiIdent White had secured one of Oxford's most distinguished sons, Professor Goldwin Smith, as a lecturer upon history, the announcement was one of the chief topics of the day. That one selection identified Cornell with the aims of the highest scholarship and the most competent instruction. The announcement was followed by
others of like nature, telling of the coming of James Russell Lowell and Professor Agassiz, George William Curtis, and others. In this and other ways, too recent not to be familiar to every one, President White not only brought Cornell to an early maturity, but he illustrated a personality which explains in part much that has been successful in his career; for he is a man utterly free from that demoralizing and incapacitating taint that is the contamination of so many brilliant natures,--the fear of rivalry, the jealousy of personal consequence and authority, the overshadowing of one's reputation.
BEGINNINGS OF A DIPLOMATIC CAREER.
During President White's administration of Cornell there were several incidental distractions entailing temporary absence. They were due to the recognition of his ability, and especially of the tact, the intuitive and accurate judg
ment, that capacity that is vaguely called common sense, which, combined with experience, scholarship, and a profound understanding of human nature, qualifies one for the higher services of diplomacy. General Grant nominated him as a special San Domingan commissioner. Dr. White's report,-exhaustive, profound, and peculiarly illuminating in its statement of conditions characteristic of the tropical islands of the Caribbean Sea,-became an authority, and will be in any future relations that may be established between the United States and any of these islands the basis of preliminary and, in fact, final negotiation. Upon this report the administration of President Grant justified the treaty, which, had the Senate seen fit to ratify it, would, thirty years before Porto Rico became our own, have given us one of the larger islands of the West Indian archipelago. Again, in 1878, President White was temporarily diverted from his work at Cornell through his appointment as United States commissioner to the Paris Exposition. He was not permitted, after his return from France, a long period of exclusive attention to his duties as university president, for, in 1879, President Hayes nominated him to the Senate as minister from the United States at Berlin, a nomination that was speedily and unanimously confirmed.
DR. WHITE AS AN AUTHOR.
He had done a considerable amount of miscellaneous writing before he accepted the mission to Germany. His historical studies justified the publication, in 1861, of the outlines of a course of lectures on history, supplemented by another work of the same character published fourteen years later, and by other works that were accepted as proofs of high scholarship, all bearing upon historical subjects or treatment. But the literary work by which Dr. White will be chiefly remembered was published in 1893, entitled, "The Warfare of Science and Theology." It was professedly a historical contribution setting forth the world-stirring clashes between the theories deduced from scientific investigation and the established dogmas of theology. The work attracted attention not only in the English-speaking nations, but in other countries, having been translated and widely circulated throughout Europe. It was not as many, upon superficial information, believed to be the case, a defense of science and a criticism of religion. It was exactly what its title signifies, a statement of the conflict or warfare between science and theology. It revealed profound learning, its style was peculiarly appropriate to the subject, being lucid, simple, dignified and
often vigorous, and it stands to-day one of the standard histories describing the progress of certain world-moving events.
Dr. White's interest in historical subjects was manifested in another way than through writing, for he established, soon after his resignation as president of Cornell, the department of Historical and Political Science, and endowed it with his historical library,—a collection that was very valuable both in a money sense and in its facilities for research.
SERVICE AT ST. PETERSBURG AND BERLIN.
His resignation as president of Cornell was due to his conviction that the personal work that he was called upon there to do had been done, and that he was justified in looking for that abundant leisure which would enable him to complete several literary and scholarly undertakings which he had in mind. He was, however, not to be permitted long to enjoy his leisure. In 1892, President Harrison nominated him as minister to St. Petersburg, where, forty years before, he had served as an attaché. When, by reason of a change of administration at Washington, a successor as minister to Russia was named, Dr. White again contemplated with content a period of privacy; but he was named by President Cleveland a member of the Venezuela Commission, and upon the meeting of the Senate, after President McKinley's inauguration, he was nominated to that body as ambassador to Germany, a nomination which met with unanimous approval, for it was looked upon as the one preeminently appropriate to make.
Upon his return to the German court, Dr. White was received with courtesies and cordiality that must have reminded him of the gratification that was felt throughout Germany when he became, seventeen years earlier, minister from the United States to Berlin. Congress had since that earlier service raised the mission in rank, so that its head was recognized as ambassador from the United States. Dr. White was especially a persona grata to that most powerful of all the aristocracies of Germany, that which controls university life. Intellectual power, scholarship, and the utilization of that scholarship to the well-being of mankind are the influences that are all powerful in Germany, And when to qualities of that kind there are added a singu lar personal charm, a tact that is often the diplo mat's most potent ally, a firmness that is not obstinacy, and a capacity to speak fluently the language of those about a diplomat, then the ideal ambassador is discovered. Dr. White's intimates at Berlin were men who were the intellectual authorities of that empire, as well as
its political and military rulers. The Emperors William I. and William II., Bismarck and Moltke, Virchow, Helmholz, the faculties of the universities, the men who are compassing the great achievements of scientific investigation, were the companions, both social and official, of Dr. White during his term as minister and his later term as ambassador. They chose him a member of the Berlin Academy, an honor never before conferred upon an ambassador. It was through an influence and a recognition of this character that Dr. White, as ambassador, has been enabled, with a success that is conspicuous among the achievements of diplomatists, to obtain and maintain relations between Germany and the United States that have been of utmost consequence. It was, doubtless, in recognition of the high character of his achievements as ambassador and diplomatist, and also because of the peculiarly cordial relations established by Dr. White at Berlin, that he was chosen as the chairman of the American delegation to the conference at The Hague.
THE HAGUE CONFERENCE.
At the Hague Conference that distinctive quality of Dr. White, his utter freedom from any jealous sense of authority, and his willingness and wish to be associated with men of preëminent reputation, were finely illustrated. The American delegation at the Hague Conference determined that, so far as the United States was concerned, this conference should be taken seriously; that there should be some permanent advantage following the deliberations, and that these should be embodied in a formal and binding agreement. This result, which was to be obtained almost at any cost, was the creation of a permanent international court of arbitration, depending, indeed, upon voluntary submission of controversies, but ever ready, and commanding greater respect than would be given to particular arbitrators chosen from time to time. The American delegation, feeling that the time had come when the United States might share in world affairs of universal interest, determined, through the exercise of tact, of kindly consideration, and with the utmost frankness, together with moral pressure wherever necessary, to secure at least this one commanding result.
Another triumph for the American representatives was that in the adoption of the treaty for the peaceful adjustment of international difficul ties there was a specific reservation of the Monroe Doctrine, a reservation which is noted in Mr. White's handwriting above the signatures to the treaty, the first formal acknowledgment of that doctrine Europe had ever made.
DR. WHITE AT THE TOMB OF GROTIUS.
It may not be too much to say that the climax of Dr. White's career was reached upon July 4, 1899, when there was formal, dignified, and appropriate acknowledgment, at the tomb of Grotius, of what the world owes to that first of the expounders of the policy of conciliation, the first of the formulators of rules of international con
duct in wars and peace. It had occurred to Dr. White that there would be special appropriateness if there were, upon July 4, a memorial celebration in the Oude Kerke in Delft, and that upon that occasion, in the presence of the tombs of William the Silent and of Grotius, a silver wreath be placed upon the tomb of the great father of international law. This happy concep tion was most cordially accepted by the delegates of every nation. There assembled in this Oude Kerke of Delft upon that day the representatives of the civilized world who had met in behalf of international justice, peace, and good will. To them Dr. White spoke as an American and as a member of the human family that looks forward to the coming of the day when there may be peaceful and kindly methods of composing differences. In speaking on behalf of the newest of the acknowledged world' powers, Dr. White said, in a closing apostrophe :
From this tomb of Grotius I seem to hear a voice which says to us as the delegates of the nations, "Go on with your mighty work; avoid as you would the germs of pestilence those exhalations of international hatred which take shape in monstrous fallacies and morbid fictions regarding alleged antagonistic interests. Guard well the treasures of civilization with which each of you is intrusted; but bear in mind that you hold a mandate from humanity. Go on with your work. Pseudo-philosophers will prophesy malignantly against you; pessimists will laugh you to scorn; cynics will sneer at you; zealots will abuse you for what you have not done; sublimely unpractical thinkers will revile you for what you have done; ephemeral critics will ridicule you as dupes; enthusiasts, blind to the difficulties in your path, and to everything outside their little circumscribed fields, will denounce you as traitors to humanity. Heed them not; go on with your work. Heed not the clamor of zealots or cynics, or pessimists or pseudophilosophers, or enthusiasts or fault finders. Go on with the work of strengthening peace and humanizing war; give greater scope and strength to provisions which will make war less cruel; perfect those laws of war which diminish the unmerited suffering of popula tions; and, above all, give to the world at least a beginning of an effective practicable scheme of arbitration."
And in this sublime apostrophe to Grotius' memory, in imagination the message of Grotius to the world to-day, may be discovered the real character, the high ambition, and the true achievements of Andrew Dickson White.
I. THE PLAN AND ITS MERITS.
BY FRANK NELSON.
(Superintendent of Public Instruction, Kansas.)
OR some years there has been a great deal of discussion on the subject of graded schools for rural and village communities. While the cities have been perfecting the organization of their graded school systems, the villages and rural districts have been unable to make much advancement along this line. One, or even two, teachers cannot carry on a well-graded school on account of the large number of classes which thorough gradation makes necessary. It is almost a physical impossibility for one or two teachers to conduct the large number of classes made necessary by dividing the school into eight separate grades.
Under our present educational system, it has become necessary for the farmer to leave the farm and move into the city to secure the advantages for his children of graded schools. The problem for our rural communities is how best to secure the benefits of a graded school system so as to enable the farmer to give his children instruction in the higher branches of learning without being obliged to leave the farm. It is found that many farmers are not able, or do not find it desirable, to change their place of residence, and consequently the larger educational privileges are limited to a very few of the boys and girls upon the farm.
It is thought that the consolidation of rural schools will solve the problem. This plan of school organization contemplates the disorganization of small districts and uniting them into one good, strong, well-graded school. Consolidation can, in some cases, be made with adjoining rural schools, and in others with the schools of a village, where, in many cases, the nucleus of a graded school exists.
The statutes in most States have been framed to meet the needs of a one-room school district, and before the change to a consolidated school could be made existing laws had to be amended. Legislative bodies move slowly, especially in school affairs; but, after years of persistent effort, the leaders of educational thought have at last succeeded in making some impression in school legislation, and our lawmakers are beginning to realize that the education of our youth is a State and not a local matter. Consolidation is to-day proving a success in a great many of the States
of the Union, notably Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Min nota, Nebraska, and Kansas.
PUPILS CARRIED IN PUBLIC WAGONS.
In each case, where consolidation has been effected, provision has been made for the transportation of pupils to and from school by means of wagons prepared for this purpose. The wagons go over a specified route, collecting all the children living on that route, conveying them to school with a promptness which cannot be secured under the old system. In most cases the wagon is scheduled to arrive at the schoolhouse ten minutes before the opening of school. At the hour of dismissal the wagons are in waiting and take the children to their homes without delay.
The location of routes and the residences of families upon them should be given careful attention. Routes should be laid out so as to minimize travel. After the plan has been in operation for a short time a regular time schedule can be arranged for each route, so that the pupiis may know the exact hour of the arrival and departure of the wagon. The wagon should have a seating capacity of at least twenty pupils. It should be well constructed, with due regard to light and ventilation. During the winter season it should be enclosed, and provided with lap-robes and means of heating.
The contract for each route is let by the school board to the lowest responsible bidder. The driver should be required to give a bond for the faithful performance of his work. The board should exercise great care in the selection of a driver for the wagon. In fact, the driver should be a man of good moral character, and his personal influence in his association with the pupils should be in perfect accord with the teachings and precepts of the school-room.
ADVANTAGES OF THE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM.
The transportation of pupils has many advantages, both to the pupils and patrons of the school. It is conceded that this method of transporting the pupils is conducive to the physical and moral development of the child. transportation to and from the central school there are no wet feet and clothing, no frozen toes and fingers, and the children are much bet
ter cared for while the roads are bad and in stormy weather. Experience demonstrates that in the consolidated schools there is a much smaller percentage of colds and sickness among the pupils than in the one-district school, where the pupils are obliged to walk to and from school in all kinds of weather. In several places where the plan has been in operation for many years it has been found that a more rugged generation is produced by reason of the fact that the physical and moral qualities are carefully preserved and developed. This in itself is a serious argument in favor of this plan of school administration.
CONVEYANCE USED FOR TRANSPORTING THE SCHOOL CHILDREN OF STEPHENSON TOWNSHIP, MENOMINEE COUNTY, MICH. (This township, in the upper peninsula of Michigan, now employs two wagons of this type, each of which carries twentyfive pupils. The plan meets with such favor that more wagons will be employed next year.)
It should also be observed that the moral atmosphere of the wagon is clean and vigorous at all times, thus doing away with the fighting and vulgar language which, unfortunately, is too often a part of the child life on the way to and from school under the old plan. We have long been wondering how to close the gap between the school and the home. Through this gap, many of the demoralizing influences of life enter and poison the lives of the boys and girls while passing to and from school. It is believed that this gap can be closed under the plan of consolidation, because the intellectual and moral atmosphere of the wagon is in perfect line with that of
the school and the home. The older pupils learn to protect and assist the younger ones, and the younger ones are taught to respect those more advanced in age and scholarship. Thus the finer qualities of the lady and gentleman are developed early in the child life. More than this, a friendly and sympathetic relation is developed between the home and the school, and the influence of both of these institutions is solidified and made a positive force in the growing life of the child.
ONE GRADED SCHOOL IN EACH TOWNSHIP.
By consolidation all the children of a large territosy, usually a whole township, can be brought together in one school building, thus giving them the benefit of a graded school and the inspiration that comes from numbers. In many of our smaller schools the classes range from two to three pupils. Under such conditions it is impossible for the teacher to create or maintain enthusiasm and interest. There is no incentive for the pupils to put forth their best efforts, because, with the small attendance, the work is necessarily tiresome and monotonous. In a consolidated school, however, large classes thoroughly graded can be organized, thus calling forth the best efforts of all the members of the school. Longer