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an area of 30,

000 square miles, belches forth every minute into Lake Michigan from 3,600,000 to 7,000,000 cubic feet of water. This overflow, rushing through a channel a half-mile long and a half-mile wide, with a fall of 20 feet, makes the Sault Rapids; and the Sault has a minimum force of 130,000 and a maximum force of 260,000 horse power.

Seven years ago the Canadian village of Sault Ste. Marie "Sosantmary" as they hurriedly pronounce it here, was dead. A young engineer had longed to use this mighty power of the Sault, digged a canal, broke the town and his own heart, and sat brooding on the bank of a big ditch that was no good to anybody. An explorer in search of water power stumbled over the engineer. "Let me take your ditch," said the stranger; "I'll dredge it and deepen it, sell. power to the town, and to others who will rush in to build shops and mills here on the great rapids, come, you shall help me."

But when the canal had been completed nobody came to rent the power, so the fortune-hunter organized the Consolidated Lake Superior Company, built a pulp mill, and began making ground wood pulp. Immediately those who thought they controlled the pulp market of the world put the price down 25 per cent. The pulp made here and elsewhere at that time contained over 40 per cent. of water, so it could not be exported.

Instead of a misfortune, this temporary embarrassment proved a blessing to the Sault company, for the president, having gathered about him by this time a number of skilled men,experts in chemistry and other lines, set to work

on a machine to make dry pulp. They succeeded in doing this, but it was now so nearly like paper that they were unable to export it as raw pulp. Then they painted little red spots on the great rollers over which the pulp in sheet form is rolled in the drying process. The pulp would not stick to the paint spot, and the result was a row of half-inch holes right across the sheet at regular intervals, and these holes let it pass to the export market free of duty, for nobody would buy "paper" full of holes.

The next achievement, or invention, was a chemical pulp plant. It was a success from the beginning, but the sulphur necessary for the successful operation of this plant had to be brought from Sicily.

Mechanical and chemical wood pulp are both made from spruce. Mechanical, or ground wood pulp, is made by simply holding a stick of spruce sidewise to a grindstone, by means of hydraulic pressure. The whole stick is ground


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up, including all the resinous matter, and one ton of ground wood pulp requires about one cord of spruce wood.

Chemical pulp is made by first chipping up the spruce, and in a steel digester, lined with bricks to prevent corrosion of the shell, it is "cooked" by steam and an acid hereafter mentioned. The acid dissolves the resinous matter in the spruce and leaves only the long wood fiber, which is, therefore, much stronger than the fiber produced by grinding the wood, and is, of course, much more costly. One ton of

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made the finest nickel steel, for which they find a ready market.

Well, this thing has gone on,-the actual fast building, developing, and inventing,-until today the Canadian side of the Sault looks like a world's fair, and a walk through it is simply bewildering. There is nearly a square mile of mammoth mills, machine shops, smelters, and factories, and a half-mile of ore docks. These industries, that five years ago employed less than five hundred men have nearly five thousand upon their pay roll to-day, and this does not include men indirectly employed by contractors. Twice as many people draw pay to-day from the big Sault company as lived here when the explorer came and waked the sleeping village. The best generalview photograph obtainable shows not much more than half the building on the Canadian side alone. The new steel plant and the big battery of blast furnaces that stand by the ore docks, the car shops, the veneering plant, the sawmill, and great charcoal ovens, - where

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everything but the smoke is saved,-have all been added since the latest photographs were made.

One is amazed that so much could be accomplished with no revenue coming in, and, again, that it could be accomplished in so short a time. Thousands upon thousands of dollars have been spent upon experiments alone. The sewage system alone cost $100,000 before they could begin to build.

A railway, the Algoma Central & Hudson



Bay, is building north to Hudson Bay, 480
miles. Eighty miles of the main line have been
graded, and 50 miles, laid with 80-lb. steel rails,
are in operation, with nearly thirty miles of ter-
A branch line is being built
minals at the Sault.
to Michipicoten harbor. At Sudbury the com-
pany has 12 miles more in operation, and along
this short line they have four copper mines that
produce 1,000 tons of ore daily.

Ten miles out the main-line locomotive plunges
into the forest, and there is tall timber as far
north as the engineers have surveyed. Naturally,
there must be a great temptation to seize the
best of the timber and look after the little trees
later; but the men who direct the work up here
seem to count it wicked to waste anything.
Every tree in the forest is used,the spruce, of
course, for pulp, the hard wood for furniture and
veneering, and the roughest for charcoal.
white birch is made into spools.

At Goulais, 30 miles from the Sault, are mills manufacturing lumber, lath, and shingles. Another mill at Sault Ste. Marie has a capacity of 125,000 feet per day. At Wilde, 25 miles out, there is a nest of 16 charcoal kilns, at Goulais 20, These are to supply charand at Bellevue 20.

coal for the smelters and steel works.

At the Sault an immense charcoal plant has been constructed which will consume 200 cords of wood a day. At this plant all the by-products, such as acetic acid, will be preserved, rectified, and marketed. These charcoal kilns alone will consume 625 cords of wood a day. Twenty-five acres of land must be cleared daily to supply these furnaces; and, when these people pass over it, it is cleared. To watch them at work reminds one of a harvest scene, so completely do they clear the ground. Here is the stubble, and there the waving grain. Three hundred farms of 25 acres each will thus be opened annually, and 300 families can make a living here growing truck for the market.

Beside the wood consumed by the charcoal kilns, the sawmills must be supplied, and the veneering plant, which will eat up 40,000 feet per day; counting trainmen, teamsters, inspectors, and all help engaged in handling the raw material from the forest, this industry alone will give permanent employment to a thousand men. The company takes a cord of wood out of the forest, and works with it until they spend five dollars; when everything has been saved but the smoke, they sell it for six dollars. This last dollar represents the company's profit; the rest goes to labor.

The Helen mine at Michipicoten is a great mountain of iron. They don't mine it; they simply blast and break it off, and slide it into


A number of experts the ore docks. guessed as to the amount of ore in sight; but, of course, it is only guesswork.

It would appear that the only thing lacking is coal, but these men say they can make better steel with charcoal; still, they can bring back the coal in their empty ore boats cheaper than anybody else can bring or furnish it to them. They have now a fleet of seventeen steamers, some of them ocean-going, on the lakes, with an aggregate tonnage of 45,000 per trip, and are still building.

The steel plant alone,-including blast furnaces, when completed, will cost $10,000,000, will employ 1,000 men, and consume 2,000 tons of ore daily with a product of 1,000 tons of steel. The two pulp mills will employ 300 men, and make 160 tons of pulp a day.

There are many other enterprises carried along by the company; there is an electric streetrailway system,-to operate on both sides,connecting the two Saults by means of a ferry system; they have, organized and in operation,

an express company.

Not far from the main works a model town has been laid out. Many solid blocks of neat, comfortable cottages have been built and are occupied by the employees of the shops. Some have been turned into temporary schoolhouses. On the principal street a block of stately, twostory frame houses are just being completed ; these will be occupied by the office clerks and skilled workmen, who will want to keep up a more pretentious establishment than usual. Hedges have been planted, streets graded, and miles of walks have been put down by the company that seems to overlook nothing.

The management of this vast property is thoroughly systematized. There is a responsible head to each branch or department, and these make up the president's general staff. There is a regular cabinet meeting every two weeks. After a substantial dinner, at which tea and coffee flow like water,-they adjourn for business; and it's all business until the business is disposed of. Here the various heads of departments make suggestions which are taken up and discussed. If a project has been under way, some one is expected to report upon the prac ticability of the scheme. If he pronounces the thing a success, that ends it; but if he reports otherwise, he must explain why to the entire satisfaction of the gentleman at the head of the table. It is a remarkable fact that, so far, whatever they have sought has been found; whatever they have conceived has become a reality. The great secret of this success is that nothing has been done by chance. Everything has been

carefully thought out and worked out on practical and scientific principles. It is the inevitable result of research, of intelligent conception, tireless energy and the enthusiastic coöperation of 300 clever men who have been assembled at the Sault to assist in carrying forward to success one of the grandest industrial schemes that has ever been undertaken on this continent.

The interests and industries here are so varied, so well planned, each working to help the other (the bark of the spruce pole bleaches the pulp), -that, if one should fail utterly, the rest would go on. A dozen Banks of Montreal might be forced to close their doors and abandon a dozen towns in Canada, but it would not be felt at the head office; business would continue at the old stand. And if steel and nickel and iron, and all the hard things that are made here, should fail of a market, they would still have this 150,000 square miles of wilderness to harvest and work up.

More than this: Away to the north, past the highlands that rim the lake region, this Hudson Bay road will tap a great swale that will some day yield wheat, as the Red River valley does; only it will all be "No. 1 hard."

One stream they cross on a bridge 135 feet high; but, just below the bridge, the river takes a sheer drop of 170 feet; so that it will be 305 feet from the rail to the river.

Beyond these rocks and rills, the haunt of the deer, the moose and the caribou, the line will drop gradually to the lower warmer lands, and then on through-they are not quite sure what to Hudson Bay.

On the Michigan side, the same company that has accomplished so much on the edge of the Canadian wilderness has scooped out a power canal beside which the drain that connects the Mediterranean and the Red seas would look like

an irrigating ditch. It is 30 feet deep, 200 feet wide, and two miles long. Near the mouth it flares, fan-shaped, pouring its waters in under the mammoth power house that is just a little over a quarter of a mile long.

From a wide fore-bay,-flowing at the rate of 108,000,000 cubic feet an hour, this vast flood will sweep through the greatest power house on earth, and turn the turbines; of these there are 320, each having the power of 125 horses. This job has already cost in the neighborhood of $4,000,000, and they have not yet begun building the mill, which, like all their other plants, will be the biggest and best in the world. It may be said, despite the fact that millions have been spent on the Michigan side, that work is only begun.

On the Canadian side, however, they are getting down to steady work. Street cars are stopping at the corner of the grounds, picking up the tired employees and carrying them home in the twilight. There is an electric automobile at the door of the general office building, and a yacht in the harbor. A magnificent house is being built on the highlands overlooking the Sault; and here, with his parents, his brother who has worked with him, and his sisters,-the young man who has been the ruling genius in all this great industrial development will make his home. From his wide veranda he can watch by day the dark clouds floating from the mills; and by night the glare of the blast furnaces will remind him of the Fourth-of-July of his boyhood home in Bangor, Maine. And at evening,-when the wind holds steady from the south, he can hear the roar of furnaces, the singing of the circular saw, the hum of wheels, and the glad cry of the iron horse coming out of the forest; and this is the grand new song of the Sault.

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