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the South to a solid alliance with the Democratic party of the North. Such a situation has been bad for both races, and bad for both parties. The Northern Republican party has looked on at the recent disfranchisement of Southern negroes without any proffer of practical help. From a certain narrow point of view, the situation looks gloomy indeed for the colored race. From the broader and better-informed standpoint, on the other hand, the situation has now begun to change from a dreadful and impossible one to something that has a fairly hopeful promise. The Southern States are not doing less than before for the education of the negro, and there is much to indicate that more is going to be done for the negro's real development, as a self-supporting and intelligent citizen, than ever before. As a race, his possession of the ballot during the past thirty years has not proved itself a valuable asset. To many negroes worthy to exercise the full privileges of citizenship, the present tendencies are both painful and shocking; but let us hope that the shock will forever rid them of the delusion that the Republican party, as such, either North or South, is one whit more friendly to the negro race than is the Democratic party.
Everybody knows that there are hisPresident's toric reasons why the negroes should Standpoint. have called themselves Republicans. We are not discussing history, but present facts and conditions. As for the Republican party in the further South, it has accomplished very little for a long time past except to figure discreditably in Republican national conventions, and to hold out greedy hands for federal office. It will never amount to anything valuable until it has its fair share of the ablest, the most intelligent, and the most upright men in the various States and communities. The transitional condition of parties in the South naturally presents difficulties to President Roosevelt when it comes to making necessary federal appointments. He proposes to appoint only good men and fit men to public office, and he desires, in so far as possible, whether appointing men in Northern or Southern States, to do that which is acceptable to the communities where such men have to perform their functions. We carry on government in this country under the party system, and all practical Democrats understand that, as a Republican, Mr. Roosevelt cannot ignore the members of his own party in any section of the land. Nor can he properly be quick to give the prestige of his support to a movement within the party which would exclude faithful Republicans merely on account
of their color. He may accept situations after they have been established that he could not suitably or honorably promote at the outset. Doubtless he will continue to appoint some white Republicans, some black Republicans, and some Democrats to office in the Southern States, and it will require much calmness and courage in many instances to take his own course. A correspondent from Tennessee sends a strong plea for the white Southern men of good business or professional standing who are not officeseeking politicians, and who find themselves at heart Republicans on national questions. He greatly fears that President Roosevelt does not appreciate the situation, and he counts it very unfortunate that the President should be regarded as opposed to the exclusive white Republican movement in Alabama and elsewhere. His argument seems unanswerable from the point of view of those men in the South who would like to build up a Republican party of permanent strength and character. But he does not quite understand the position of the President, who must deal with facts, not projects.
try much knowledge of his views. Upon the tariff question, for example, it has been known that the President would like to see some revision of schedules without a general overhauling, and that he believes in the plan of a permanent expert tariff commission. This commission is in no way to assume the duties or usurp the authority of Congress; it is rather to study conditions, collate information, and give Congress the benefit of great technical knowledge and experience. It would naturally include some men with the sort of qualifications possessed by members of the permanent board of general appraisers at the New York custom house. It is hardly necessary to revert again to the President's position on the trusts. He will undoubtedly advise legislation upon lines not unlike those laid down by Attorney-General Knox in his recent speech at Pittsburg. Mr. Knox's speech on the legal aspects of the regulation and control of trusts, and Secretary Root's speech in New York at the end of October, on the broad social and economic conditions of the country, in view of present methods of wealth production and distribution, are fortunate indications of the trained ability that President Roosevelt finds at hand in his official advisers. The President's message will again have presented the need of a reciprocity arrangement with Cuba, and will, doubtless, have advised Congress to make reciprocity arrangements in various other directions.
Activities of The administration meanwhile has Department, been negotiating a reciprocity treaty (1) Cuba. with Cuba, and the result will probably have the approval of Congress. It is to be noted that an advance in the price of raw sugar in the world's markets, due to various causes,among them the prospective abolition of the European bounty system, and the partial failure of the European beet crop,-has already much improved the economic position of Cuba. It has also made the American beet-sugar men more independent of tariff conditions; and thus, while Cuba, on the one hand, does not so urgently need the proposed concessions, the opposition to them in this country bids fair to be relaxed.
foundland. Under this treaty various products of the fisheries of Newfoundland will be admitted into the United States free of duty. In return, the fishing vessels of the United States in the waters of Newfoundland obtain the longcoveted privilege of purchasing bait fishes without restriction. Furthermore, many articles of American manufacture are to be admitted to Newfoundland free of duty, and various other specified supplies at merely nominal rates. It is an excellent treaty for all concerned.
(3) A Canal
A more absorbing task for the State Treaty with Department has been that of negoti ating with the distracted republic of Colombia for the control of a stretch of land through which it is proposed to construct the Panama canal. Attorney General Knox had made a report to the President, now embodied in an interesting volume, dealing with the question of the title of the French Panama company and its right to sell its concessions and properties to the United States. Mr. Knox finds the title valid, and the French Government authorizes and supports the transfer. It seems that, instead of an outright grant of full and final sovereignty over the canal strip, the government of Colombia prefers to give a long-time lease, subject to renewals in perpetuity. It is understood that this strip is to be six miles wide. For all practical purposes the land will belong to the United States. Since our government, in any case, is responsible for order in the isthmus, there is much reason to think that Colombia would be better off to sell to us outright that whole region. It is the general opinion that there no longer remain any serious obstacles to the adoption of the Panama route, and that nothing would seem to stand in the way of the very early beginning of the actual construction work. The transfer of the Danish Islands to our government has received another check through the failure of the Upper House of the Danish Parliament to ratify the treaty. It is reported that the inhabitants of the Danish Islands are much disappointed. There is nothing further that our State Department can do in the matter, and it is regarded as probable that in due time the opposition in Denmark will be overcome.
and they effected organization on that date, Judge Gray being made president of the commission. Colonel Wright, who was originally appointed as recorder of the commission, was, by the consent of all parties, added to the board as its seventh member. The commission decided, after an opening conference with the parties in the controversy, to visit the mining districts and look into facts and conditions on the ground. The early days of November were spent in a tour of the anthracite region and in visits to many mines. On November 14, public hearings were opened at Scranton, Pa., with President Mitchell, of the United Mine Workers, as the first witness, and a vast and dazzling array of lawyers present to represent the coalcarrying roads and cross-examine Mr. Mitchell. The utmost latitude was allowed, and Mr. Mitchell was kept on the stand for about five days,
undergoing an ordeal at the hands of astute lawyers to which he proved himself easily equal, but which, to the country at large, seemed of doubtful value for the practical purposes of the commission. At the rate of progress made in those opening days, it was evident that months, or even years, might be consumed in the hearings if a different method were not adopted. Great confidence, however, was felt in the wisdom and impartiality of the commission. Meanwhile there continued widespread apprehension, due to the continued shortage in the supply of coal. A month after the end of the strike, a considerable proportion of those who had always relied upon the use of anthracite coal found it impossible to get any at all, while those more fortunate could obtain only very limited quantities. Prevailing prices remained high, and there was no prospect of an abundance of coal at any
(The second figure from the left in the group is Mr. E. A. Moseley, secretary of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and the commission's assistant recorder. The other four are Mr. Parker, Bishop Spalding, Judge Gray, and Col. Carroll D. Wright, members of the President's Strike Commission.)
time during the approaching winter. Fortunately, the first three weeks of November were exceedingly mild in the vicinity of New York.
The month of November was one of Growth of Railway unprecedented industrial activity in Traffic. this country; and, although it was election month, the real interest of the people centered in economic rather than political matters, and the history-making factors were chiefly in the realm of the business world. The railroads were never so busy in all their experience. The statistics of freight business for the years 1900 and 1901 were much the largest on record, but those of 1902 show a further gain beyond the predictions of the most sanguine. In many parts of the country the demand for freight cars has been so great that the car famine can only be likened to the fuel famine that has existed in the East on account of the coal strike. At other points last month, as at Pittsburg, there was such a congestion of freight on loaded cars that the railroads had neither locomotives enough nor sufficient trackage to relieve the blockade; and Mr. Cassatt, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, adopted the most energetic measures possible in the emergency. A similar situation existed last month in Chicago and elsewhere.
while also admitting frankly that the cost of liv ing for the workingman has increased; and so they have quite generally increased the pay of their employees by an average of 10 per cent. This, on the part of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company alone, is said to have meant an increased annual payment to labor of $6,000,000; and an amount almost or quite as great is involved in the increase of wages granted by the New York Central and other so-called Vanderbilt lines. The other progressive policy adopted by the principal railroads of the country, in view of their enhanced prosperity, is the undertaking of vast betterment projects on thoroughly sound engineering plans. Thus, the Pennsylvania Railroad system is to spend $200,000,000. A quarter of this will be absorbed in the great tunnel under the Hudson, and related terminal facilities at New York City. All these improvements mean abundant wages for hundreds of thousands of workers in contributing industries of various kinds. It means prosperity is on a sound basis.
Great Business Events.
The season's output of iron ore has broken all records, and the advance orders of the United States Steel Corporation show that there is to be no slackening in the near future of the activity that has for two years marked the greatest of American industries. It is expected that the season's shipments of ore from the Lake Superior region will have amounted to more than 26,000,000 tons,an increase over last year of more than 25 per cent.; and several million more tons will undoubtedly be moved in 1903 than in the year now ending. Two events of great importance
THE NEW HOME OF THE NEW YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. (Dedicated last month.)
in the transportation and shipping world are duly noted in contributed articles published elsewhere in this number of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS. One of these great events is the completion of the Atlantic steamship combination; the other is the opening of the new power canal on the Michigan side of the St. Mary's River, commonly called the Sault Ste. Ma rie. It was an auspicious time, this season of splendid prosperity, for the dedication last month of the stately new home of the New York Chamber of Commerce. Distinguished guests came from England, France, and other countries, and President Roosevelt spoke with a felicity that charmed everybody.
A Lack of Currency.
The reaction in Wall Street last month seemed to have no detrimental effect upon business conditions throughout the country. It was due in some degree to the shortage.
of currency; which, in turn, has been produced in part by the unprecedented growth of the country's business. The Treasury Department had, earlier in the season,-by the purchase of bonds, the advance payment of interest on the public debt, and the deposit in banks of large sums of revenue receipts, done everything that it could within the limits of the law to put into active circulation the money which would otherwise be lying idle in the Treasury. But these exceptional measures on the part of the Treasury cannot always be relied upon for relief. It is high time that Congress should amend the banking and currency laws in such a way as to provide an elastic scheme of note issues for times of need. The subject was prominently considered last month before the bankers' convention, which met at New Orleans, under the presidency of Hon. Myron T. Herrick, of Cleveland. It is also one which it was expected last month that President Roosevelt would mention in his message. Congress will never have a more favorable time than the present winter in which to pass some simple measure providing for an expansion of the currency to meet the demands of business. The farmers of the country were ready last month for a joyous Thanksgiving, in view of the abundant crops and good prices, and the battles of the bulls and bears in Wall Street did not disturb them in the least,-see the cartoon below.
It was natural that the annual meetLabor and ing of the Federation of Labor, at New Orleans last month, should have been exceptionally interesting, in view of the recent importance and prominence of labor