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naval power. If the European nations continue to build along their present lines, I estimate that we should overtake Great Britain about 1920, when-at the rate indicated,―our naval appropriation for new ships would be $120,000,000. The probabilities are strong, however, that the powers will accelerate even their present rates of increase, and we could scarcely expect to reach the top before 1930, when the annual appropriation would be $170,000,000 for new ships."


Acting Adj.-Gen. W. H. Carter, U.S.A., advocates “A General Staff for the Army;" Mr. Walter Littlefield describes the effect of the Associations Law in France; Mr. R. B. Van Cortlandt writes on "Social Conditions and Business Success;" the Hon. Hannis Taylor on "An Ideal School of Politics and Jurisprudence ;" and Sir Gilbert Parker on "Mr. Balfour and his Opportunities." The Hon. O. P. Austin contributes the first of a series of articles on "The Public Debt of the United States." There is a posthumous paper by the late Professor Schenck, of Vienna, on "The Mechanical Development of Sex."



HE second quarterly issue of the Forum has excellent reviews of "American Politics," by Henry Litchfield West; 66 'Foreign Affairs," by A. Maurice Low; "Finance," by A. D. Noyes; "Applied Science," by Henry Harrison Suplee; "Literature," by Frank J. Mather, Jr.; 'Music," by Henry T. Finck; "Sculpture," by Russell Sturgis ; and "Educational Outlook," by Ossian H. Lang. All of these articles are in the nature of résumés of recent developments in the various fields surveyed.

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In the department of "Educational Research," the editor, Dr. J. M. Rice, contributes an account of "A Test in Arithmetic."

GROWTH OF REVOLUTIONARY SPIRIT IN RUSSIA. Dr. Isaac A. Hourwich, writing on "The Political Situation in Russia," emphasizes the recent spread of revolutionary propaganda:

"For twenty years the government has managed to keep down the demand for constitutional reform, until now it is again met with the same agitation, renewed with greater vigor. It has been stated in a recent pamphlet by Mr. Bourtzeff-the Russian refugee, who has served a sentence of imprisonment in England for advocating in his publication the methods of the terrorists-that but a few years ago his appeals met with general disapproval among Russian revolutionary organizations. Since last year, however, the terrorists have been as active as during the days of the 'Executive Committee,' and there is only one little faction among the Russian social democrats that opposes them. Revolutionary conspiracy to-day has scores of thousands of active sympathizers to feed upon, where the Executive Committee of 1879-81 had only hundreds."

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Ward Stimson; and on "Individual Freedom," by Eugene Del Mar.

Of a more concrete nature is the topic treated by Mr. James Allmann-"Russia as a Social Factor," This writer shows that, while in other lands a socialistic system can only be attained by the antagonism of classes and the overthrow of governments, in Russia it would simply mean the overthrowing of a despot. All else would easily follow.


The importance of the movement to restrict child labor in the South is clearly brought out in an article by Mrs. Leonora Beck Ellis, who describes the situation as follows:

"The marvelous industrial transformation of the last decade has wrought as great a change in the moral questions bound up with such development. The mills in the South are suddenly reckoned by the hundreds; soon by the thousands; and the people of that section are confronted with the appalling fact that in many of these mills from 20 to 30 per cent. of the operatives are under sixteen years of age, hundreds of them being children of twelve, eleven, ten, and, in some cases, even younger.

"Public feeling has been greatly stirred on this score during the last two or three years, and bills for regulating child labor are now pending before the General Assembly of every cotton-growing State that has also entered cotton manufacturing. Tennessee, a sister of these (and, although reckoned chiefly a grain-producing and pastoral State, yet rich in minerals and boasting many large woolen mills), merits particular mention as having already passed an enactment fixing the age of employment of children in factories, mines, and similar places of labor at fourteen years, while Louisiana has for almost a decade restricted the age of girls to fourteen, and of boys to twelve."

Similar measures failed of passage in Georgia, Alabama, and the Carolinas, but are now strongly supported in these and other States.

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F. W. Edridge-Green and E. G. P. Bousfield write on "The Abuse and Control of Hypnotism." They demand that the practice of hypnotism should be restricted, like that of vivisection, to qualified persons, in whose hands it may be used for the good of humanity, and not for mischievous objects. At all events, persons who desire to practice hypnotism should be required to take out a license. The writers discuss the assertions made by the present advertisers of hypnotic cures, and state certain guiding facts. Hypnotism, they declare, is bound in time to prove more or less deleterious. It is possible to hypnotize a person gradually without his realizing the fact. It is not true to say that any one who is hypnotized has done more himself to induce the condition than the operator has done.


Mr. Edgar J. Wardle, in an article under the above

title, sees the chief danger for the French in Central Africa in Senussi-ism. "It is very much to be feared," he says, "that the French will have before them the task of finishing the work begun by Lord Kitchener at Khartoum, that is, to destroy the last force of organized Moslem fanaticism in Africa." The Senussi have always been in contact with the dervishes on the Nile, from whom they have received many reinforcements, and at the same time they have easily obtained supplies of arms and ammunition through Ben Ghazi, though the Turks are supposed to prohibit this traffic.


Mr. E. M. Konstam writes a paper on "Indian Caste and English Law." Mr. E. R. Newbegin has a somewhat abstract paper on "The Theory of Government by Democracy," in which he says that the true point of view from which to regard democratic government is that it represents the reciprocal play of expert judgment and common sense. There is a charming article by Dr. Woods Hutchinson describing a visit made by him to an island off the Oregon coast.

Col. Carroll D. Wright's article on American labor organizations is quoted at some length elsewhere.

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AND AFTER. HE chief distinctions of the Nineteenth Century for October are the series of articles on the education bill and Mr. Sidney Low's Conservative programme, which are intended chiefly for British consumption.



Miss Edith Sellers, who speaks with the authority of an expert on state provision for the aged, sums up the result of her investigation by saying that were she a wornout worker she would like to change her nationality and become a Dane, an Austrian, or a Russian ; for, of all the nations of Europe, these three best understand how to deal with the old and destitute. Their homes are the brightest and cheeriest of resorts. In Denmark, by a law of 1891, any man or woman over sixty years of age who can show a decent record is housed, fed, and clothed at the expense of the nation as an honored veteran of industry. The old folks are content and thankful. The cost per head in Danish homes averages 25 cents a day. "In the most comfortless of all the London workhouses it is 47 cents." The cost is about the same in Russia. It costs England more to make her old people miserable than the Danes spend in making their old people happy. The picture is a beautiful contrast to Miss Sellers' last month's sketch of a London workhouse.



Judge Hodges, of Melbourne, pleads for an imperial court of final appeal. At present the House of Lords is the seat for final appeal for the United Kingdom, and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council for British dominions over-sea. The writer would make one of these, or, preferably, a new court,-the finally decisive tribunal. He makes the shrewd remark that not only would this supreme court add to the weight and splendor of London, but it would enlist in the maintenance of the unity of empire the legal profession, whose members would everywhere aspire after a seat in the supreme court as the summit of their ambition.


Fortified by the recent recommendations of judges and commissioners, Sir Robert Anderson reiterates his plea for exceptional treatment of the small group of habitual malefactors. He would authorize the indictment of a prisoner, after repeated conviction, as a professional criminal. If proved a professional criminal, he would, on a subsequent conviction for crime and after serving out that sentence, be further detained in custody during His Majesty's pleasure. The certainty of such a fate would, in the opinion of the writer, induce the professional criminals to turn their talents into some new and less dangerous calling.


It is a most instructive parallel which O. Eltzbacher draws between the French War Office on the breaking out of the Franco-German War and the British War Office in the South African War. There was the same rotten class-system, though, mercifully, not the same crushing overthrow.



N the Fortnightly Review for October, Mr. W. H. Mallock concludes his series of nineteen essays on "Science and Religion, at the Dawn of the Twentieth Century." The gist of it all is that there are contradictions in every department of life; therefore, we ought not to recoil from the idea of belief in the religious doctrine of things, although we cannot reconcile it with the scientific doctrine of things.


Mr. Richard Davey, in an article entitled "A Few More French Facts," writes a very powerful article, full of quotations and facts, protesting against the conduct of the present French ministry in enforcing the law against the schools kept by the unauthorized religious orders. He maintains that the experiment which is now being made by the French people is to ascertain whether it is possible for a nation to be governed without the assistance of the greatest of moral forces. Before another year is out, Mr. Davey thinks, events will happen which may reduce the leaders of the third republic to remember the fate of the first. Mr. Davey quotes a saying from M. Thiers that the attempt to establish an anti-religious government was the real cause of the collapse of the French republics, both in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.


"An Old Whig of the School of Grattan" writes sixteen pages full of invective against the administration of the Unionist government in Ireland since the year 1895. Never had an English government such an admirable opportunity of administering Ireland in her true interests, and passing legislation adapted to her: but never has any government so bitterly disappointed the expectations with which its advent was hailed. His chief complaint against the government is that it allowed the United Irish League to grow up and flourish. He concludes his long diatribe by suggesting that a thorough inquiry should be held into the land question through the agency of a commission, which should be charged with reporting what changes should be made in the law.

THE ATTITUDE OF GERMANY TO ENGLAND. In an article entitled "German Light on German

Policy," "Calchas" quotes exhaustively from the collected papers which Dr. Schliemann contributed to the Kreuz Zeitung in the last few years. From these papers, and from other evidence to which he refers, he comes to some very familiar conclusions. He thinks that Germany trades upon the traditional antagonism between Russia and England; that, if she gets to the Persian Gulf, she will disclaim any intention of hindering Russia from obtaining the same privilege; and that she is much more likely to join the dual alliance in breaking down England's sea-power than to join that nation in case of war with Russia and France.


Mr. J. L. Bashford writes a very interesting and wellinformed paper concerning the German colonies and naval power. The German population has increased, since 1895, at the rate of from 700,000 to 845,000 every year; but emigration has steadily fallen off. In the year 1892 more than 110,000 Germans emigrated, whereas the number of German emigrants in 1901 was little more than 20,000. There are nine German colonies covering an area of a million square miles, or onetwelfth of the area of the British Empire beyond the seas. But the total number of Germans in all the German colonies was, in 1902, only 4,058. Besides these 4,000 Germans, there were about 2,000 other whites. The total cost of administeriug this million square miles, with its 4,000 German inhabitants, will amount this year to $6,250,000. The total revenue collected from the colonies themselves does not amount to $2,000,000. The German Empire, therefore, spends more than $4,000,000 every year in subsidizing colonies which afford a home for only 4,000 Germans. Every German colonist, therefore, costs the mother-country $1,000 a year. It would certainly be better to maintain them at home. But, it may be said, there is a profit in the colonial trade. But German colonies export to Germany goods to the value of only $330,000 a year, and, if exports to other countries are included, the total colonial export is only $3,500,000. It comes to this, therefore,-that in order to secure exports from the colonies of $3,500,000 a year, $4,000,000 a year is extracted from the German taxpayers.



HE Westminster Review for October is one of the best of the monthly reviews. Topics of special interest to English readers are "Fighting the Plague in India," and "An Order of Brethren of Cleanliness."

Besides these articles there is one very interesting paper, aglow with enthusiasm, in which an English lady, who has adopted India as her home, and the Hindu religion as her faith, vindicates the people of India-especially the women,-from what she declares to be the calumnious misrepresentations of the missionaries.

Mrs. Swiney, writing on "Church and Women," vigorously impeaches the Church for having taken little part in the great work of righting the wrongs of women. She declares that the Church is daily alienating and driving out of her fold her foremost and most devoted supporters, who have hitherto lovingly and ungrudg ingly spent themselves on her behalf. As the Church palliated and condoned the immoralities of the Restoration and the Georgian period, so she has been blind and deaf and dumb before the increasing insincerity and moral decadence of modern times. Mrs. Swiney maintains that it requires no gift of prophecy to aver that

the Church stands or falls by her future attitude toward the great industrial, ethical, and spiritual developments of the new century, in which women will take paramount part as workers and initiators..



WE have noticed elsewhere Dr. Kramarz's important article on "Europe and the Bohemian Question." The anti-German campaign of the National is represented not only by Dr. Kramarz's paper, but also by a contribution from Sir Rowland Blennerhassett on "The Origin of the Franco-Prussian War." The gist of Sir Rowland Blennerhassett's paper is, that owing to the intrigue between France and Austria for united action against Prussia, Bismarck could not be blamed for forcing on war before the enemies of his country had completed preparations. But Prussia had been determined to fight France for the supremacy of Europe as she had fought Austria for the supremacy of Germany.

"Bismarck brought on the war at the right moment for his country. Prussianized Germany is now preparing for the struggle with Great Britain which Cavour foresaw. Should it come about, it will be a war for supremacy on the ocean. She is adding to her fleet a class of ship specially suited for an attack on England. The same methods, exactly, are employed by her against the British Empire which she formerly used against France. The German mind is being trained to receive with enthusiasm the announcement of a war with England when the time comes. Videant consules. Though the sands are running low in the hourglass I believe that, with courage and foresight on the part of our statesmen, that conflict may still be avoided."


Mr. Alfred Harmsworth contributes an interesting paper on "The Serious Problem of the Motor Car." Mr. Harmsworth says that some means of identification of each car should be provided, but that no identification system can be adopted without proper safeguards against the mendacity and prejudice imported into nearly every motor car case. The regulations in the law of 1869 relating to tires practically prevent the use of safety tires which are popular in Paris and do away with side-slip. English roads require reconstruction; dangerous corners must be widened, and hedges at corners must be cut down; some roads, as in France, should be reserved either for horse-drawn carriages or for automobiles exclusively. Mr. Harmsworth anticipates that soon there will radiate from London a great system of motor ways, for the support of which it will be necessary to reintroduce the toll system. These roads should be constructed of some material free from dust. On the question of the competency of drivers-which Mr. Harmsworth regards as the gravest question of all,-he says that the public will soon demand not only identification, but heavy penalties and damages in case of accidents, the licenses of drivers to be withdrawn in cases of misconduct.

The most interesting of the other contributions is the chapter of Sir Horace Rumbold's "Recollections," which deals with his life in Russia in 1870-71. Mr. J. R. Fisher reviews Mr. O'Donnell's book, "The Ruin of Education in Ireland." There is an article on St. Helena, written in the island by a Boer prisoner as a prize essay in the school which was carried on for the benefit of the prisoners.




GASTON BONET-MAURY contributes to the first September number of the Revue des Deux Mondes a study of R. L. Stevenson as traveler and romance writer. Of course, he naturally pays special attention to "An Inland Voyage" and "Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes ;" and, indeed, he traces the bond between Stevenson the traveler and Stevenson the romance writer to this passion for exploring, this taste for adventure. The influence of Sir Walter Scott he traces in several of the novels, and he also attributes to Edgar Allan Poe, Dickens, and Meredith, a good deal of influence on Stevenson as a writer. At the same time he does bring out very clearly how much Stevenson owed to certain French writers, both great and small; these were the poets Charles d'Orléans and Villon, the critical spirit of Montaigne, and the works of Balzac, Baudelaire, and Victor Hugo. Stevenson hated Zola ; indeed, he would not have exchanged a chapter of Dumas père for all Zola's bag of tricks-fiction suffering from smallpox, he called it! After the death of Dumas, he regarded Alphonse Daudet as incontestably the first of French romance writers, and he also appreciated the genius of Bourget and Loti. M. Bonet-Maury divides Stevenson's romances into three groups-those which portray the manners of certain social classes; those which analyze certain curious psychological states; and thirdly, the romances of love, properly so-called.


In the second September number M. Pierre Loti continues his remarkable travel articles on India. It is an extraordinarily rich and splendid style which M. Loti brings to the description of the mingled wonders and horrors of India's ancient faiths. In this article, too, he describes his visit to Pondicherry, which naturally awakens in his loyal French heart very mingled feelings. When Loti was ten years old an aged great-aunt once spoke to him of a friend she had had long ago in Pondicherry, and read to the little boy a passage from one of her letters,-dated even then half a century back, -in which there was much talk of palm trees and pagodas. So it was with a deep sense of melancholy that he arrived at this little, old, dying town, the grave of so many splendid hopes. It must all the same be an intensely interesting place. There are several French families there who preserve the traditions of the old manners of the eighteenth century, the period to which their furniture and their clocks belong.


Among other articles may be mentioned the continuation of M. Sorel's series on the "Peace of Amiens;" M. Prinz on the collectivist tendency; and M. Charles Benoist on production, wages, and agreements in coal mines.


HE Revue de Paris for September opens with a fascinating natural history article, under the general title of "Pirate Insects," by M. Berthelot.



Mr. Rabot attacks the difficult question of what he

calls the Antarctic problem. Up to the present time the North Pole and the South Pole have defied every effort made by man to penetrate their icy fortresses. This is even truer of the South Pole than of the North Pole, for more than one explorer can congratulate himself on having very nearly reached the North Pole; but the portion of the map where the South Pole may be supposed to be still shows a large blank space. Curiously enough, the problem excites the most interest in England and in Germany, and in the summer of 1901 the Discovery and the Gauss left Europe bound for the South Pole, while a few weeks later a third expedition, commanded by Dr. Otto Nordenskjold, also set forth on the same enterprise. The French writer points out that this ardent research of what has hitherto baffled the explorers of the Christian era may well be called the twentieth-century crusade, for there is scarcely a civilized nation, save France, which has not made a more or less determined effort to solve the tantalizing problem.


Has Russia a typical music of her own? Yes, says M. A. Bruneau, who was sent by the French Minister of Fine Arts to find out whether this was indeed the case. We are not told with what object this inquiry was set afoot, but the results are not without interest to the lovers of the " heavenly maid." In the seventeenth century the Russian composer, Nikon, reformed the Greek liturgy, and caused the organ to give way, in orthodox churches, to the human voice. During the eighteenth century he was succeeded by several remarkable composers, but they, one and all, devoted their talents to Church music. Then, early in the last century, Titow wrote several operas, some of which are still popular; but not till thirty years later did a Russian composer arise whose fame penetrated beyond his native country. Michael Glinka did for Russian music what Shakespeare did for English literature; he gathered up all the best work of the composers of the past, confirming the popularity of several airs which have been sung by the Russian peasantry during immemorial ages, for it should not be ignored that Russia has long had a folk music of her own, much as other countries have a folk lore of their own. At the present time, according to the French critic, the leading Russian composer is Rimsky Corsakow, who has composed several operas, and who himself conducted the first performance of his greatest, "Antar," during the French Exhibition of 1889. M. Bruneau notes with approval that Russian composers do not seek their libretti among their friends, or among those writers who regard the words of an opera as of little consequence; instead, they seek for inspiration among the works of the great writers; thus, Gogol has inspired more than one opera, and Pouchkine is a mine of wealth to the Russian composer.


Other articles consist of two long installments of Madame de Rémusat's letters from her provincial home, written from 1815 to 1817, and which scarce possess enough interest to have been worthy of publication; of an historical paper setting forth the oft-told tale of Louis XIV.'s infatuation for Madame de Montespan; and an anonymous attack on the red-tapeism which

makes France's distant colonies compare so unfavorably with those which go to compose Greater Britain.


N the Nouvelle Revue, M. Raquini attempts to ex

new of being

tried in Italy, which seems to be entirely modelled on that of modern France. He gives some curious details concerning salaries. Many university professors receive a total income of something like $750 a year, rising, when old age is reached, to $1,200. This scale applies only to the teachers at the great universities. A master at an ordinary public school or Lycée considers himself very fortunate when, after twenty-five years' work, he can earn as much as $600 a year. In spite of the fact that education is in Italy absolutely obligatory, few of the Italian poor, especially in southern Italy, can yet read or write. Each parish is allowed to "run" its own school as it fancies. In Umbria one unfortunate schoolmaster with a total salary of $100 a year was supposed to manage three parish schools. In another populous little town the teaching of 130 children is confided to one harassed individual.


M. Arthur Raffalovich contributes to the first September number of the Nouvelle Revue a paper on the very timely subject of syndicates and trusts. It is a brief, well-written account of the present position of this movement for the concentration of industry, which has attained such enormous proportions in the last few years. M. Raffalovich observes that the present development coincides with the great prosperity of the United States which followed the Spanish-American War, and the outburst of speculation which then seized upon the great American financiers, though it left the simple public relatively cold. As regards what may be called the ethics of the trust movement, M. Raffalovich has no special remedies to suggest in order to mitigate its ill effects in a social sense. In practice it is not, as a rule, the shareholders who do benefit, but the financial go-betweens, who succeed in effecting the sales of individual businesses to the trust or the syndicate; indeed, it would seem to be a fatal law of the trust movement that every such organization should be over-capitalized. It is interesting to note that the writer hails with satisfaction the success of the Brussels convention on sugar bounties, and he appears to have a wholesale dislike to trade bounties bestowed by the state in any form, for he is well aware how greatly these artificial restrictions assist the operation of trusts and syndicates.



R. S. BERNHEIM, as the head of "L'Euvre de la Tuberculose Humaine," writes for La Revue a lengthy article on tuberculosis and how to insure against it. Every year at least 150,000 consumptives die in France; recent statistics prove that 200,000 is nearer the mark. For each tuberculous person dead there are three living; of these 600,000, it is estimated that 300,000 are needy. In Paris the evil is worse than in the provinces. And, whereas tuberculosis is increasing in France, it is decreasing in England and Germany. Out of 1,000,000 there were, in 1899, in Russia over 4,000 deaths; in France, 3,000; in Germany, 2,000; and in England and Scotland, 2,000. These are from

pulmonary consumption alone. Dr. Bernheim then gives many details of the German system of combating consumption. Germany now possesses 82 popular sanatoria, which can hold 20,000 poor consumptives. The sick and old age insurance funds have favored in every way the building of sanatoria. Dr. Bernheim argues that what has been so successful in Germany might be made to succeed in France. The machinery of provident societies is already to hand. Provision would be needed for 30,000 consumptives, that is, 50 sanatoria, of 150 beds each. Every sanatorium would cost $100,000. The initial outlay of $5,000,000 is only the sum which Dr. Bernheim tells the mutual assistance societies they are at present spending so fruitlessly, without real benefit to the sick, whose ever-increasing numbers alarm them.


M. Goldorp, writing on Monte Carlo and how it has come to be what it is, tells a curious story of how in thirty years vice has transformed a village of 600 souls into a principality of 20,000, the richest and most attractive in the world.

The $5,000,000 revenue of the Casino pays all the expenses of the principality, affords the prince a handsome income, and pays the costly personnel and the enormous interest to the shareholders.


M. Changeur gives an interesting account of Madame de Saint-Balmon, a truly remarkable and admirable woman, though some of her exploits, he admits, may be partly legendary. At any rate, to her Louis XIII. offered the command of a regiment of infantry.

M. Pottier gives a depressing account of the protelariat in the theatrical and concert world.



HE Deutsche Revue opens with an article by Lieut.Gen. Z. D. Metzler upon the armed peace of Europe and the disarmament question. He goes over much of the ground, now so familiar to us, as to the huge cost of moving and feeding the colossal armies of modern Europe. If, for instance, the whole 4,330,000 men of the German army were mobilized, the cost of maintenance would work out at about $6,250,000 a day. Add to this the dislocation of trade and commerce which would be an inevitable result, and we have the chief cause of continued peace in Europe. An appeal to arms would now involve such fearful consequences that statesmen are more and more loath to let slip the dogs of war. General Metzler points out that we have had continued wars during the last few years, but wars of a sort which will always occur, and which, in his opinion, no arbitration court can help to avoid. There are wars in which one side is very much superior to the other, and, seizing an opportune moment, decides to attack in order to increase its territory. Such was the case in the South African and in the SpanishAmerican wars, although in the latter case many would deny the fact that America felt herself very much stronger than Spain. The event proved she was, but beforehand it was surely in doubt.

M. von Brandt gives a short appreciation of Cecil Rhodes. He points out that Rhodes made money not for the sake of doing so, but because it enabled him to strive toward his goal-the extension of British rule in

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