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THE WORLD'S WORK.
HE November number of the World's Work contains the address delivered by Mr. Andrew Carnegie at the University of St. Andrew, Edinburgh, which we have quoted from among the "Leading Articles of the Month."
THE REAL RULER OF RUSSIA.
The "Real Rulers of Russia," by Wolf von Schierbrand, attempts to explain the limitations of the Czar's power, and to analyze Russian character. This writer says the Czar is not the sole ruler of his people; that three other autocrats divide the power, and that these are three words in the Russian language: Nitshewo, Winowat, and Natshai. The first of these words means "nothing," never mind." Every disquieting thought is dismissed with a "nitshewo," which perhaps means more nearly "What are you going to do about it?" The second word, winowat, means literally "I am guilty," "I own up to it," but also implies "What is the use of my denying it?" The third fatal word originally stood "for tea,"-like the French pourboire,-then came to be used to mean "for vodka" (corn-brandy); and, finally, it rose to imply the very essence of corruption, probably akin to our "graft." This last autocrat Herr von Schierbrand thinks the mightiest of them all. "Without natshai you would be unable to accomplish anything in Russia, all the orders and the decrees of the nominal Czar at St. Petersburg to the contrary notwithstanding."
THE FISHERIES OF THE GREAT LAKES.
W. S. Harwood has a well-illustrated article, "Saving the Fisheries of Our Inland Seas." He tells how more than 100,000,000 pounds of trout and whitefish are taken from the Great Lakes in a year, and of the Government restocking to repair the ravages of wasteful fishermen. It is a pretty big task to restock Lake Superior, an inland sea 400 miles long, 1,500 miles in circumference, and averaging 1,000 feet deep; but the Government seems to be accomplishing it. The fish are caught in huge nets and chiefly by Americans. They were pursued so constantly that they would soon become extinct but for the governmental aid in stocking. Thus, in Lake Ontario, the catch of whitefish-the most delicious of the lake fish,-fell from 1,156,200 pounds in 1868 to 126,650 pounds in 1895; and the catch of trout, for the same period, from 612,000 pounds to 109,300 pounds. The basis of the governmental work is collecting the eggs and hatching them artificially. The artificial hatch is very much more prolific than the natural hatch.
THE COMING DELUGE OF GOLD.
Charles M. Harvey calls attention to "Another Revolutionary Increase of Gold," from the mines of South Africa. He says that, by 1904, a complete resumption of mining in the Transvaal-together with a like increase in the rest of the productive countries,-will send the world's output up to $400,000,000 a year, as compared with a little over a quarter of that amount in 1890. Mr. Harvey says America will be the largest gainer by the gold deluge, as America is the best field for the investment of money that the world affords, having the most varied, extensive, and profitable of the world's industrial activities.
Mr. M. G. Cunniff, in a series of first-hand studies of labor problems, writes on "The Human Side of the
Labor Unions," and finds suspicion the prevailing mood of employer and union. He quotes labor leaders to the effect that misunderstandings cause half the labor troubles: "A union hates a typewritten letter, but it likes a man." Julian Ralph writes on "The Moral Soundness of American Life;" Henry Harrison Lewis gives a glimpse of the personality, and of the working habits, of Col. John Jacob Astor, under the title "The Quiet Control of a Vast Estate;" Frank M. Chapman describes the work of the American Museum of Natural History, and how it acts both as an investigator and teacher of natural science; Ivy Lee describes the New Stock Exchange Building in New York, and some remarkable features of its construction, and Mr. James H. Bridge gives the views of important leaders of industrial combinations, under the title "Trusts as Their Makers View them."
HE November Country Life has an eminently time
ing the growing of the turkeys in the State of Rhode Island, and the cranberry at home in the marshes of Cape Cod and New Jersey.
Answering the question, "Does Farm Forestry Pay?'' Mr. Allen Chamberlain has a very interesting account of some actual successes of New England farmers, where the father sowed and the son reaped. In one case a Mr. Cutter, of Pelham, N. H., began caring for a forty-acre tract of self-seeded pine timber, thinning out the trees and, furthermore, pruning about an acre each year after the growth was ten years old. This furnished much amusement for the neighbors; but Mr. Cutter's son has recently logged 700,000 feet of lumber from this tract, leaving no less than 300,000 feet standing; this gives an average of 25,000 feet to the acre, and much of the Michigan old pine lands only cut about 5,000 feet to the acre. Another New Hampshire man, the Hon. John D. Lyman, of Exeter, has a hobby of white-pine culture cultivated most successfully. He plants 30,000 white pine trees to the acre,-thick enough to give the young trees long, straight bodies, free from limbs for quite a distance from the ground; these are thinned out until the final stand will have from 50 to 160 trees to the acre. Mr. Lyman reckons the land, before planting, at $10 an acre; and the interest at 4 per cent., compound, shows that a lot will stand its owner in 54 years about $80 per acre. On this basis he makes a good profit from his white-pine planting.
Bryant Fleming describes the famous Hunnewell Estate at Wellesley, founded by the late H. H. Hunnewell, with its Italian gardens and magnificent plantations of conifers, on the shore of Lake Waban, opposite Wellesley College. There is a very pleasant account of an old-time-home garden at Cazenovia Lake; an article on quail and quail shooting, and a chapter on staircases, in the series on "The Making of a Country Home."
THE MISSOURI STATE BUILDING.
the Louisiana Purchase was the most important event in our whole history. It has a region greater by 3,000 square miles than the entire area of the Federal Union in 1803. The thirteen States and two Territories since carved out of the purchase contain the homes of over 17;000,000 prosperous people,-nearly one-fourth the population of the United States. This territory extended the boundaries of the United States to the Pacific Coast, thereby giving to the new Republic a continental domain from ocean to ocean, and making it impossible for any other nation to obtain a dangerous foothold upon the continent. It also secured for us the great Mississippi River and its tributaries.
THE THIRD GREAT AMERICAN EXPOSITION.
It will be the third great American exposition, for, up to the present time, we have had no truly American exhibitions except the Philadelphia Centennial, held in 1876, and the
Chicago World's Fair, held in 1893. There have been so many local exhibitions held in the last few years that many people are coming to look with disfavor upon enterprises of this kind. But the exhibition at St. Louis will rise above all local features, and will assume a dignity and character that must commend itself to the people of this country and of the whole world. It is certain that there will be assembled at St. Louis a greater and more varied exhibit from all parts of the world than has ever heretofore been brought together.
THE SITE OF THE EXPOSITION.
The site of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition will make possible a grander spectacle in architectural and scenic effects than even the Chicago Exposition of 1903. The grounds will embrace about 1,200 acres. The principal buildings, including the Government building and the foreign buildings, are located on the west half of Forest Reserve Park, a beautifully diversified piece of woodland. Ten of the most distinguished architects in the country have been working on the general design. The large architectural plan is severely classic, with modern adaptation.
DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF THE EXPOSITION.
The St. Louis Exposition is going to pay special attention to aërial navigation. Every fair has had its captive balloon tethered by a long
rope, and hauled down ingloriously by a windlass; but here, for the first time, fleets of soaring yachts will beat the air with untrammeled wings. There will be an airship tournament, with a prize of $100,000 for the winner, and other prizes, aggregating $100,000 more, for less successful competitors. An enormous number of candidates and varieties of flying machines have responded to the invitation. The two great schools of aeronauts,-the advocates of the aëroplane, and of the dirigible balloon,-will be represented by their most distinguished leaders, Sir Hiram Maxim and M. Santos-Dumont."
are the perfected conceptions of the three Robert Hoes.
This marvelous piece of mechanism uses up 120 miles of white paper every hour it runs. It prints, cuts, pastes, folds, counts, and delivers 180,000 eight-page newspapers an hour-3,000 a minute, 50 a second. Even this machine, baffling to the imagination, does not, in Mr. Hoe's belief, reach the limit of progress in this mechanical field. He thinks a new chapter in the history of printing is beginning, in the application of the rapid rotary system to bookwork and other fine printing. There will be rapid progress, too, in color printing; although his presses already give as many as eleven separate impressions or colors on a single copy of a paper, and can be made to produce magazine forms,-delivered, folded, cut, and automatically wire-stitched,-with all the pages printed in color or half-tones.
The first Robert Hoe came to New York from England in 1803, when he was eighteen years old. In a little shop in Maiden Lane he began building hand presses, and, in the course of a score of years, became an important press builder. Then the iron age reached the printing press, and, from that time on, its evolution was rapid.* The first Robert Hoe, and his two sons, made one invention after the other in improving their presses, and some of their machines made in the first half of the last century are actually in use in small job offices to-day.
The present Robert Hoe was born in 1839, and identified himself, as soon as he was old enough to work, with the great industry of his family. For forty years he has devoted himself to the improvement of printing. presses, and his name is as familiar in every town where English is spoken as in New York City.
When Mr. Hoe gets an idea that something should 'be done by machinery which has hitherto been done by hand, he has one of his sixty draughtsmen outline on paper the first part of his conception, and this is turned over to a specialist in the factory to develop. The next part is then taken up in the same way, and so on. If any difficulties arise, a general conclave of experts is held until the problem is solved. Then the idea is patented, and becomes a part
of the Hoe printing press. The Hoe printing press works in New York cover some fifteen acres of floor space, and there is another establishment in London of nearly half this size.
ENGLAND'S GREATEST SURGEON.
EVERY one is interested in the career and
life of the man who saved King Edward's life so recently. In the Woman at Home for October, Sarah A. Tooley praises the great surgeon, and indeed it would be hard to write of him without launching into praise. Sir Frederick Treves is one of the youngest great surgeons, and he is one of the best beloved by his colleagues, his students, and his patients. All who have been under the care of Sir Frederick, or who have met him in every-day life, will endorse all the writer has said in her article.
"He lives a simple life of hard work, rising at 5 o'clock in the morning and usually retiring. about 10. His recreations are principally of the aquatic kind. He is an expert swimmer, can manage almost any kind of water craft, and holds a pilot's certificate. He is an enthusiast for boat sailing and sea-fishing, and is never happier and more at home than on a yacht. The King had in him an ideal medical attendant, who could enter fully into his Majesty's anxiety to escape from Buckingham Palace to the sea breezes of the Solent. Yachting is Sir Frederick's own remedy for jaded nerves. Philanthropics connected with the deep-sea fishermen find a very warm advocate in Sir Frederick, as also the children's country-holiday scheme, and he has advanced both causes by public speeches on various occasions. For close upon thirty years has Sir Frederick been familiar with the life of East London, and few know better than he the somber shadows of pain and distress which darken its people. Hospital wards are full of the tragedies of human life, and no one has a more compassionate heart for the suffering poor than the great surgeon who has ministered to them.
"He was born at Dorchester, in 1853, and is consequently in the very prime of his manhood. He received his education at the Merchant Tailors' School, and having decided to become a doctor, pursued his studies at the London Hospital. He was a young man of life and energy, fond of sports of all kinds, and particularly of boating and sailing. Although brilliantly clever, there is a rumor that young Treves was fonder of pleasure than work in his early student days. Suddenly, however, he began to take things more seriously, and gave undoubted evidence of future greatness. At twenty-eight he was ap
popular surgeon of the day, and belongs to the generation of practitioners who are carrying to such wonderful perfection the advanced surgery of the internal abdominal organs which has been rendered possible by Lord Lister's antiseptic treatment. He, like the veteran surgeon, has worked with persistent enthusiasm to gain extended knowledge in his art, and stands unrivalled in the class of surgery which the King's case required. The one ambition of every budding young surgeon is to see Treves operate, and the corridors of the London Hospital are thronged with eager faces at every such opportunity.... He has had enough hero-worship and success to spoil him, but knows too much of the possibilities of increased knowledge to be unduly affected by adulation on account of present achievements."
LIEUTENANT PEARY'S ARCTIC WORK.
LIEUTENANT PEARY'S recent return
from his last Arctic campaign has occasioned a renewal of interest in his achieve. ments in the far North. His official report— dated Sydney, September 7,-is an exceedingly modest statement, covering his work during the past year. It appears in the National Geographic Magazine for October, followed by a brief summary of Lieutenant Peary's explorations during the past twelve years, which runs as follows:
"The results of his long labors in the far North are most important. He has proved Greenland an island, and mapped its northern coast line; he has defined and mapped the islands to the north of Greenland, known as the Greenland Archipelago; he has shown that an ice-covered Arctic ocean probably extends from the Greenland Archipelago to the North Pole; he has accurately defined the lands opposite the northwestern coast of GreenlandGrant Land, Grinnell Land, and Ellesmereland ; he has reached the most northerly known-land in the world; he has gained the most northerly point yet reached on the Western Hemisphere, 85° 17'; he has studied the Eskimo as only one can who has lived with them for years; he has added much to our knowledge of Arctic fauna and flora, of the musk ox, the Arctic hare, and the deer; the notes he has made during the past years will benefit meteorology and geologyall these are some of Lieutenant Peary's achievements during the twelve years he has so valiantly battled in the far North. But, above all, Mr. Peary has given the world a notable example of a brave and modest man who, in spite of broken limbs and most terrible physical suffering and financial discouragements, has unflinchingly
forced to a successful end that which he had decided to accomplish.
"To Mrs. Peary, the able seconder of her husband's plans, and to Mr. H. L. Bridgman, the efficient secretary of the Peary Arctic Club. and the loyal members of that club, much credit is due."
THE DANGERS OF THE ALPS.
T is stated on good authority that the Alpine death-roll is not so serious as is commonly imagined. Mr. Harold Spender, writing on this subject in the Pall Mall Magazine, says that the
causes of accident are far more often rashness, such as trusting to luck that a possible avalanche will not overwhelm you, snowstorms, and even lightning.
"The stock generalizations about guideless climbing are quite beside the mark, and this practice is now confined, in Switzerland, to a small number of men who are for the most part better than any guides. The best guides themselves are no more infallible than any other skilled mountaineer, while the worst are very much more dangerous than none at all."
The three most serious catastrophes this year were all due to the weather, a snowstorm, an
avalanche, and lightning. The parties had plenty interesting detailed accounts of Alpine accidents, of guides. Mr. Spender gives a number of very from which the only conclusion is that a little more care, a little more prudence, would have avoided all, or nearly all. A Swiss doctor at Berne has made a full list of all Alpine accidents, from 1890-1901:
In all, the deaths numbered 305, of whom 218 were tourists, 73 guides, and 14 porters. Taking these fig ures of nationalities, we get the following result:
Considering that about 100,000 people go to the Alps every year, and that some 10,000 of these either climb mountains or cross passes, the number of killed is very small. The Austrian Alps have about half the accidents, they being the most crowded, and with the poorest class of tourists.
The intrepidity of the young Austrian climbers places the performances of cautious Englishmen in the shade. A Tyrolese guide told Mr. Spender once that they had only one faultthey thought they had two necks, "But they like ripe apples."