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most just now, and capitalistic combinations similar to those in the United States are in that country, as in England, quite the order of the day.

It is interesting to turn from the strenuous attempts of Premier Balfour and the British party in power to hand over the common schools of their country to ecclesiastical control, to the equally strenuous attempts of Premier Combes and the French party in power to rescue elementary education in France from the undue control of religious associations. The French premier stands firm as a rock, and up to date he has the backing of a strong majority in the Chamber of Deputies. In the past three or four months some 2,500 schools taught by members of the religious orders have been closed. This school question had to divide attention in France last month with industrial difficulties, particularly with an extensive strike, which seems to have been due in some part to those disturbances of the whole world's fuel market that resulted from the great American coal famine and the demand in the United States

Affairs in France.

for foreign coal. The French strike was by no means complete, and it did not promise to be of long duration as these pages were closed for the press. The death of Emile Zola was another topic that absorbed French attention for a few days. There is nothing striking or new in the foreign relations of France, but the past month has brought renewed evidences of the pacific intentions of the present French ministry, and of

its determination to abandon completely the idea that France is to attack Germany upon the first favorable occasion

in Turkey.

There is always smoke rising from The Situation the smouldering fires of political discontent in Macedonia and other parts of the Turkish Empire, but in the past few weeks the smoke has been denser than usual, and the apprehension that the flames might burst forth has been serious and widespread. The news from the Macedonian hills has not been very definite, but it is known that there was last month something like an organized uprising on foot, and that the movement of Turkish troops to suppress it was heavy. The diplomatic world was agog last month, furthermore, over reports that Russia was taking advantage of Turkey's difficulties to secure a renewal of those old-time arrangements which insured the freedom of the Dardanelles to Russia's ships and made the Black Sea a Russian lake. Next month is likely to have brought forth some more definite news from these troubled regions. Austria-Hungary is watching this situation very intently. The Hungarians, by the way, have been celebrating the centenary of the birth of Kossuth.

A Convention

One of the engagements that Presion Labor dent Roosevelt was unable to keep, and Capital. by reason of the accident already described, was at Minneapolis, where he was scheduled to make an address at a national con


vention of employers and employees held from September 23 to 25. This turned out to be a very instructive threedays' conference on the relations of labor and capital to one another and to the public, and it was participated in by a number of prominent employers, several labor leaders well qualified to speak, and statistical and economic authorities like Mr. Carroll D. Wright, Prof. John B. Clark, of Columbia University, and numerous others. It was a timely congress; and, to judge from the newspaper reports, its discussions must have been unusually valuable. At this time of aroused interest in all phases of the labor question, it would be a good thing if a full report containing the princi


pal papers and speeches could be printed in popu lar form and widely distributed. The discussions contained many references to the pending coal strike in Pennsylvania, and the experience of various states and countries was drawn upon. Colonel Wright's opening paper was a noteworthy address by a man who seems to have had many titles to prominence in these past few weeks, and of whom we are glad to publish an appreciative character-sketch elsewhere in this number of THE REVIEW. Colonel Wright's preliminary investigation of the anthracite situation appeared last month as an important brochure in the publications of the Bureau of Labor at Washington. In the conferences which led finally to arbitration, Colonel Wright's counsels were regarded as invaluable by the President. He was made recorder of the arbitrating tribunal, and will doubtless have a large part in directing its work and shaping its conclusions; he was also, last month, installed as president of the new collegiate department of Clark University at Worcester. A paper of profound worth at this Minneapolis conference was presented by Prof. John B. Clark, who discussed the question, "Is Compulsory Arbitration Inevitable?"



The place that our universities and University higher institutions of learning hold Occasions in American life and society was freshly illustrated last month by the great attention paid to the inauguration of new presidents in several important institutions. The notable gatherings of educational leaders and public men that marked, early in the year, the inauguration of President Remsen at the Johns Hopkins, and President Butler at Columbia, were recalled by the assemblage at Princeton on October 25 to witness the formal induction of President Woodrow Wilson into his new office. Of President Wilson's career hitherto as historian, man of letters, publicist, orator, and educationist, Mr. Robert Bridges wrote in this magazine several months ago. Princeton's great part in the nation's past is only an earnest of its future influence and usefulness. It is pleasant to note that President Patton,-who remains at Princeton, holding a university professorship in his favorite field of study, has also accepted the presidency of the famous Princeton Theological Seminary. President Edmund J. James, of Northwestern University, which has a beautiful location on the shores of Lake Michigan, at Evanston, just north of Chicago,-had been installed on October 21, after two or three gala days, whose brilliant programmes were participated in by a number of distinguished educators. These university occasions have, of late, become veritable love

Photo by Pirie MacDonald, New York.


feasts in their showing forth of the spirit of mutual good-will and coöperation that now marks our American university and college life. The old superciliousness of Eastern institutions toward "fresh-water colleges," so called, has totally disappeared, at least, in so far as the real leaders are concerned. Never before have our colleges and universities so faithfully represented the best ideals of American life; and never before have they been so zealous and so intelligent in their efforts to adapt themselves. to the best service of the whole people. Dr. James is a thorough master of educational science and of the art of administration; and he has in his new work the hearty sympathy and support of President Harper, and the authorities of the neighboring University of Chicago. The Northwestern is now more than fifty years old, and it has collegiate and professional students to the number of about 2,500,-about one-quarter of these being students in the collegiate department at Evanston. Its professional schools occupy a large building in the heart of Chicago, and they have important rank among institutions of their respective kinds. The Northwestern has been under the especial auspices of

the Methodists, just as the University of Chicago has had the special support and protection of the Baptists. In neither case do these denominational distinctions limit, in any appreciable way, either professors or students in the university life and work. On October 16 Kansas celebrated the installation of the new presi dent of its university with due ceremony, and the occasion was one of great popular interest in the West. President Hadley, of Yale, delivered an important address. The new president is Dr. Frank Strong, who has for some time been president of the University of Oregon, and who is regarded as one of the best trained and most successful of the younger college administrators. Like all members of the group of Western State universities, this institution at Lawrence, Kan., is making excellent progress.

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versity, which in its short career has made such noteworthy original contributions to philosophy and science; but a separate president was desired as head of the new affiliated undergraduate school. Of this collegiate department Col. Carroll D. Wright was installed as president last



month. Although so long at Washington as Commissioner of Labor, Colonel Wright is a Massachusetts man, and his new duties will be congenial. Senator Hoar is chairman of the board of trustees of Clark University, and he and Senator Lodge, both of whom are especially felicitous on academic occasions, participated in the exercises. The Clark College, which opens with a large freshman class, has adopted the three-year course, with the group system which has proved so satisfactory in the undergraduate department of the Johns Hopkins University. President Butler, in his first annual report to the trustees of Columbia University last month, presented weighty reasons for providing a two years' college course. This question is one of such vital interest to all colleges and to the country at large that we have asked President Butler a series of questions which he has been good enough to answer explicitly and frankly, and his discussion will be found printed elsewhere in this number of the REVIEW. It would seem likely to arouse a thorough discussion, and to stimulate some needful reforms.

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Parliament for County Mayo, Ireland, convicted of intimidation and inciting to boycotting, is sentenced by the Crimes Act Court to three months' imprisonment at hard labor, and to an additional three months in default of bail for good behavior.

October 16.-The British Parliament reassembles ; John O'Donnell is suspended from membership in the House of Commons for an insult to the prime minister.

October 17.-The French ministry is sustained in the Chamber of Deputies, on the question of the enforcement of the Associations law, by a vote of 529 to 233.

October 18.-After a week of fierce fighting, the Venezuelan revolutionist, General Mendoza, is reported to have retreated, leaving 3,000 killed and wounded.

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September 26.-It is announced that ambassador Charlemagne Tower, now at St. Petersburg, has been chosen to succeed Dr. Andrew D. White as American Ambassador to Germany; Ambassador McCormick, now at Vienna, is appointed ambassador to Russia; Minister Stover, now at Madrid, is appointed ambassador to Austria-Hungary; Arthur S. Hardy, now minister to Switzerland, is transferred to Spain; and Charles Page Bryan, minister to Brazil, becomes minister to Switzerland, while David E. Thomson, of Nebraska, succeeds him at Rio de Janeiro.

Copyright, 1902, by E. Chickering, Boston.

COL. WILLIAM A. GASTON, OF MASSACHUSETTS. (Democratic candidate for governor.)

September 27.-The ambassadors at Constantinople nominate Mugaffer Pasha as governor of Lebanon. September 28-A battle between Turkish troops and Bulgarians near Salonica, in European Turkey, is reported.

September 29.-Russia restores the Peking-Shan-haikwan Railway to the Chinese Government.

October 1.-The "Pious Fund" argument before The Hague Tribunal is closed....Greece protests to Turkey against the murders of Greek notables by Bulgarians in Macedonia.

October 4.-The Central American Court of Compulsory Arbitration is instituted at San Jose, Costa Rica; Guatemala declines to participate.

October 7.-It is announced that a convention between France and Siam, on the disputed boundary question, has been signed.

October 8.-In accordance with the agreement between Russia and China, the Manchurian territory lying south of the Liau River is restored to China.

October 10.-The Colombian Government makes a formal protest against Admiral Casey's refusal to permit the transit of soldiers across the Isthmus of Panama. October 13.-Sir Michael Herbert, the new British ambassador to the United States, presents his credentials at Washington.

October 14.-The Hague Tribunal decides in favor of the United States as against Mexico in the "Pious Fund" case....Henry L. Wilson, United States minister to Chile, is appointed minister to Greece to succeed Charles S. Francis, resigned; John B. Jackson is made minister to Chile.

October 15.-Massacres of Christians in Macedonia by Turkish troops are reported.

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